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Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved Electromechanical Relays.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved Electromechanical Relays."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved Electromechanical Relays

2 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved Objectives Upon completion of this tutorial the student will be able to: Construct an experimental relay Observe basic relay functions

3 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved What is the purpose of a relay? A relay is an electromechanical device that uses small electrical currents and voltages to control larger electrical currents and voltages. Relays have unlimited possibilities ranging from industrial applications to consumer electronics such as microwave ovens and television sets.

4 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved In a microwave oven, the push of a few tiny buttons on the keypad gives commands to a microcontroller which can produce only very small output voltages. Those small voltages turn on a relay which is capable of controlling the large voltages and currents required to produce the heating affect that takes place. In a television, the tiny impulses from the hand-held remote unit controls a relay in the power supply.

5 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved What is the purpose of a relay? A relay is basically a switch that is controlled by an electromagnet. A relay is used when a large current needs to be turned on or off by a small current. Relays are used in many industrial applications as well as devices such as televisions, stereo systems etc. Manufactured Relay Homemade Relay Examples of Electromechanical Relays

6 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved What is the purpose of a relay? A relay is basically a switch that is controlled by an electromagnet. A relay is used when a large current needs to be turned on or off by a small current. Relays are used in many industrial applications as well as devices such as televisions, stereo systems etc. Electromagnet Switching contacts Switching contacts Electromagnet All electromechanical relays have three basic parts: 1.Electromagnet – consists of an iron core wrapped with turns of insulated wire. 2.Armature – this is the moving part of the relay. 3.Switching contacts – at least one must be stationary and one fastened to the armature. This is known as a single-pole single-throw arrangement. Armature Note: In the manufactured relay the switching contacts are insulated from the armature. Our experimental relay uses the metal armature and a 8d common nail as the switching contacts

7 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved How to build a simple electromechanical relay Materials required: 15’ #22 or #24 ga. Solid insulated hook-up wire. 2 ea. 8d common nail 1 ea. #8 flat washer 1 small block of wood (approximately 2” x 3” x ½”) Sheet metal or plumber’s strap 1 ea. ½ “ long self-tapping screw. Tools hammer or drill screwdriver metal shears wire stripper / cutter

8 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved Begin by sliding the #8 washer on to the nail. Drill a hole for the nail or use a hammer to drive the nail approximately ¾” – ½” from the edge of the block. How to build a simple electromechanical relay

9 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved Part 1 - Winding the Electromagnet Slide the washer to the head of the nail. This washer will allow us to wrap 4 layers of wire. Allow at least 6” of wire under your left thumb. Begin by wrapping the wire in a clockwise direction.

10 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved Continue winding the wire to the washer. Be sure to keep the turns close. If you have never wound coils for electromagnets, try to be patient. Do not be in a hurry. Part 1 - Winding the Electromagnet

11 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved When the windings reach the washer, continue winding clockwise on top of the previous layer. Wind toward the wood. Part 1 - Winding the Electromagnet

12 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved After you wind the second layer down to the wood block, wind two more layers in the same manner as the first two for a total of 4 layers. Be sure to wind close and tight. Part 1 - Winding the Electromagnet

13 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved Completed electromagnet Leave approximately 6” of wire on both ends. Twist wires together so that the windings won’t unravel.

14 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved Part - 2- Armature and Switching Contact Drive another 8d common nail approximately 1 ½” from the center of the electromagnet nail.

15 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved Fabricating the Armature Cut a length of the plumber’s strap or other thin sheet metal to a length of 6”. If you are using sheet metal, be sure that it is a ferromagnetic material. (iron based) Aluminum and copper will not work.

16 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved Fabricating the Armature Bend the strap 90° with pliers as shown so that it will be approximately ¼” above both nail heads. Use a small self tapping screw to attach the strap to the wood base. Drill a pilot hole if necessary Continued on next slide 3”

17 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved Adjusting the armature The armature can be adjusted by trial and error bending.

18 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved Build the Relay Circuit Homosote or Plywood base. Switch 1.5 volt AA cell Lamp Strip and connect to armature screw Negative battery Connection (black) Strip end of wire. Wrap around nail. Strip and splice to + battery connection. (Red) Schematic Material List lamp socket volt lamp battery 6-9 or 12 volt 24 or 22 gauge hookup wire. AA cell Plumber’s strap, switch battery connector self-tapping screws Solder or tape wires to cell.

19 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved Schematic Drawing of the Relay Circuit Battery This box is the schematic symbol for the relay Switching contact (nail) Armature contact Electromagnet AA cell 1.5 v Switch The controlled device in this schematic is a 6 – 9 volt light bulb. You can use a DC motor or other device. The battery can also be changed to accommodate the particular device to be controlled. Experimentation is the key! - + Back to the finished project

20 Copyright Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy all rights reserved Movie


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