Presentation on theme: "Fall Protection Awareness MSHA – 2008 “Safety Target” “Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection”"— Presentation transcript:
Fall Protection Awareness MSHA – 2008 “Safety Target” “Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection”
PowerPoint Information A collection of information from manufacturers, OSHA, MSHA, and widely accepted industry practices is included in this PowerPoint as supplemental miner training materials. Contents are not MSHA standards or regulation and the power point is provided to assist mine operators by providing information of best practices in the interest of greater miner protections. The information is intended to be advisory in nature, informational in content, and is intended to assist mine operators in identifying hazards and mitigation associated with fall prevention and fall protection. Mining industry trainers may elect to use the information to promote fall protection safety awareness and for developing fall protection programs in the mining industry.
Developing a Successful Fall Protection Program 5 Basic Elements 1.Understanding Regulations and Standards 2.Hazard Identification 3.Pre-Planning & Written Fall Protection Plan 4.Product Selection 5.Training
Developing a Fall Protection Program 1.Understanding Regulations and Standards Understanding these requirements is key to ensuring a safe working environment. (MSHA/OSHA/ANSI) Understand all Federal, State, and Local regulations pertaining to fall protection before selecting and using the equipment.
Developing a Fall Protection Program 2.Hazard Identification A well-conceived fall protection program begins with identification of all fall hazards in the workplace. In mining operations, personal fall protection equipment is required any time there is a danger of falling. This includes working in bins, tanks or other dangerous areas where a second person shall tend a lifeline while miners work in these areas.
Where a fall hazard exists, there are two acceptable options: (1)eliminate the hazard, or (2)provide protection against it. Ideally, it is best to totally eliminate the hazard. If not possible other measures such as the wearing of personal fall protection equipment (PPE) are required. Developing a Fall Protection Program
3.Pre-Planning & Written Fall Protection Plan A written program should be developed specifying how to deal with each identified hazard. The plan should state: what fall protection measures are to be used how they are to be used who is responsible for overall supervision and training.
Developing a Fall Protection Program 4.Product Selection The employer must know the types of fall protection products that are available, and decide which would be most suitable for the workplace. Because all work environments differ, it is impossible for the manufacturer to determine exactly which fall protection products will provide maximum protection for each job. By understanding how fall protection products operate and knowing the differences in product functions, the employer can select products that are best suited for its workers
Developing a Fall Protection Program 5.Training To maintain a safe work environment, it is essential that persons are properly trained to: Recognize potential fall hazards Evaluate the risk posed by each hazard Control the hazard with preventive or protective measures Determine which products to use in specific work environments Demonstrate proper anchoring procedures, etc. Learn inspection and maintenance procedures Properly wear fall protection equipment including size, fit and adjustment
Personal Fall Arrest System A Personal Fall Arrest System is comprised of three (3) key components: anchorage connector; body wear; and connecting device.
“Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection” Understand Your Fall Arrest System A Personal Fall Arrest System is comprised of three (3) key components – anchorage connector; body wear; and connecting device. Remember: A, B, & C A = Anchorage/Anchorage Connector B = Body Wear C = Connecting Device
A = Anchorage/Anchorage Connector Anchorage: Commonly referred to as a tie-off point (Ex: I-beam, rebar, scaffolding, lifeline, etc.) Must be high enough for a worker to avoid contact with a lower level should a fall occur. Anchorages must be capable of supporting 5,000 pounds (22kN) of force per worker. Careful consideration should be given to selecting a proper anchorage for ultimate safety. The anchorage should be easily accessible.
The Importance of Anchorages Carefully planned and selected anchorages are crucial. Should a fall occur, the worker will be suspended from the anchorage, their life depending on its strength. An anchorage, for example, could be an I-beam, while a cross-arm strap, or choker, wrapped around this beam and permitting attachment is the anchorage connector. Anchorage Connectors are designed as the intermediary device for securing a connecting device to an anchorage. The anchorage connector should be positioned to avoid a “swing fall.”
Examples of Permanent Anchorage Connectors “Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection”
Examples of Temporary Anchorage Connectors “Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection”
Temporary Horizontal Lifeline Systems “Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection”
Leading Edge Anchorage Connector “Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection”
Beam Anchorages “Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection”
B = Body Wear Body Wear: The personal protective equipment worn by the worker (Ex: full-body harness) Only form of body wear acceptable for fall arrest is the full-body harness. Should be selected based on work to be performed and the work environment. Side and front D-rings are for positioning only. Incorrect Harness Fit Chest strap positioned incorrectly. Should be located at mid- chest to keep shoulder straps snug. Leg straps are too loose. Premium Harness “Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection”
Incorrect Harness Fit Chest strap positioned too high and too loose. Leg straps are positioned improperly. “Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection”
Correct Harness Fit Chest and Leg Straps Offer a Snug Fit “Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection”
C = Connecting Devices “Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection” While focus is given to anchorage connectors and body wear (full-body harnesses) components, the connecting device (a shock-absorbing lanyard or self-retracting lifeline) between these two components actually bears the greatest fall forces during a fall.
C = Connecting Devices Shock-Absorbing Lanyard or Self-Retracting Lifeline? Think About It! - Always know your fall distance and select proper equipment to meet the fall clearance. Remember... UNDER 18 1/2 ft. (5.6m) - always use a Self-Retracting Lifeline. OVER 18 1/2 ft. (5.6m) - a Shock-Absorbing Lanyard or Self-Retracting Lifeline can be used.
Calculating Fall Clearance Select the Proper Fall Protection Equipment Shock-Absorbing Lanyard or Self-Retracting Lifeline? Always know your fall distance and select proper equipment to meet the fall clearance. Illustration: 6 ft. (1.8m) Shock-Absorbing Lanyard with D-Bolt Anchorage Connector “Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection”
Lanyards – the Critical Link in Fall Protection The lanyard is a connecting device, a flexible line to secure a full-body harness or body belt, where permitted, to a point of anchorage. There are two basic categories of lanyards: non-shock- absorbing and shock-absorbing. The more common and safer type is the shock-absorbing lanyard. Shock-absorbing lanyards extend deceleration distance during a fall, significantly reducing fall arresting forces by 65 to 80 percent, below the threshold of injury (as specified by OSHA & ANSI). One type of lanyard includes a special shock- absorbing inner core material surrounded by a heavy-duty tubular outer jacket that doubles as a back-up web lanyard. In accordance with OSHA regulations, lanyards are required to have self-closing, self-locking snap hooks to reduce the possibility of unintentional disengagement, or “rollout”. “Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection”
Shock-Absorbing Lanyards - Before and After Deployment “Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection”
HAZARD ALERT! NEVER!!! – Tie-Back (choke off) with a standard/conventional lanyard. Conventional lanyards can not be tied-back for 3 reasons: 1.Lanyard strength is weakened by at least 30%. (i.e. similar concept of reduced strength in rigging due to sling load angle used to lift materials or equipment) 2.Conventional Lanyards can be damaged, frayed, or cut when dragged over beams or other structure. 3.Conventional Snap Hook Gates could open or break since they are designed for 350 # of force. 4.Solution: Use specially designed lanyards with heavy-duty webbing for more abrasion resistance and 5,000 # snap hook gates. OR Use conventional anchorage connection devices such as a cross- arm strap.
Self-Retracting Lifelines (SRL) Also a Connecting Device Self-retracting lifelines (SRLs) (fall limiter, personal fall limiter, yo-yo, seatbelt, etc.) are viable alternative connecting devices to shock-absorbing lanyards.
Self-Retracting Lifelines (SRL) Also a Connecting Device While traditional six-foot (1.8m) shock absorbing lanyards allow for up to 6 ft. (1.8m) of free-fall distance prior to activating, and another 3-1/2 ft. (1.1m) of deceleration distance prior to arresting a fall, self-retracting lifelines require less than 2 ft. (609mm) to arrest free falls. With shorter activation distance and shorter overall arresting distance, self-retracting lifelines reduce the risk of hitting the ground or any obstructions at a lower level. In addition, they allow for easier rescue in the event of a fall. Available with working capacities ranging from 9 ft. (2.7m) to 175 ft. (54m), self-retracting lifelines should always be used when fall clearance is less than 18-1/2 ft. (5.6m).
Self-Retracting Lifelines (SRL) FALL LIMITERS Lightweight, web retractables that require less fall clearance, offer greater mobility and prevent tripping hazards SELF-RETRACTING LIFELINES (SRLs) Durable and dependable heavy-duty retractables available with webbing or cable “Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection”
Fall Arrest System Swing Fall Hazard (Shock-Absorbing Lanyards or Self-Retracting Lifelines) If involved in a fall while using a shock-absorbing lanyard or self-retracting lifeline, and with an anchorage point that is not positioned directly overhead, a swing fall or pendulum effect will occur. Striking an object while swinging can lead to serious injury. Since self-retracting lifelines allow for greater horizontal and vertical mobility than standard six foot shock-absorbing lanyards, extra care should be taken to reduce swing falls. Whether using shock-absorbing lanyards or self- retracting lifelines, it is very important to position your anchorage point directly overhead whenever possible to minimize swing falls.
Remember... UNDER 18 1/2 ft. (5.6m) always use a Self-Retracting Lifeline (SRL). OVER 18 1/2 ft. (5.6m) a Shock-Absorbing Lanyard or Self-Retracting Lifeline can be used. “Photos/Illustrations/Information courtesy of Miller® Fall Protection”
When stopping a fall, a personal fall arrest system must: Limit maximum fall arresting force on an employee to 1,800 pounds (8kN) when used with a full-body harness; Limit free fall distance to less than 6 feet (1.8m), and be rigged in such a way as to prevent contact with a lower level; Bring the employee to a complete stop while limiting maximum deceleration distance to 3-1/2 feet (1.1m); and Have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential energy of a worker free falling from a distance of 6 feet (1.8m) (or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less).
Fall Protection Equipment Selection Considerations To select the appropriate lanyard for a specific application, consider the following factors: The type of work being performed and the specific conditions of the work environment, including the presence of moisture, dirt, oil, grease, acids and electrical hazards, as well as the ambient temperature. For example, steel cable lanyards are particularly strong, heat resistant and durable; however, they are not suitable for use around high-voltage sources because they readily conduct electricity.
Fall Protection Equipment Selection Considerations Potential fall distance. This distance is greater than most people think, consider: the length of the lanyard, the length that the shock absorber will elongate during deceleration, the height of the worker, plus a safety factor.
Fall Protection Equipment Selection Considerations The compatibility of system components. A personal fall arrest system should be designed and tested as a complete system. Components produced by different manufacturers may not be interchangeable.
Fall Protection Equipment Selection Considerations Selection criteria also should include a scrutiny of product quality. For example, OSHA regulations call for limiting fall forces on an individual wearing a full-body harness to 1,800 pounds (8kN). Likewise, ANSI Z359 standards for equipment manufacturers suggest that non-shock-absorbing lanyards limit fall forces to 1,800 pounds (8kN), an infeasible option with commercially available lanyard materials, and 900 pounds (4kN) for shock-absorbing lanyards. Most reputable lanyard manufacturers design to the 900-pound (4kN) standard, and state this on the label of the lanyard. While OSHA regulations are the law and are enforced by a federal agency, ANSI standards are self- enforced by individual manufacturers – there is no enforcement body, and no inspectors. Thus, the buyer cannot take stated performance per ANSI guidelines for granted.
General Fall Protection Considerations Warnings – Always read all instructions and warnings contained on the product and packaging before using any fall protection equipment. Inspection – All fall protection equipment must be inspected prior to each use. Rescue Planning – Minimizing the time between a fall occurrence and medical attention of the worker is vitally important. A thorough rescue program should be established prior to using fall protection equipment.
Additional General Fall Protection Considerations System Components – Only components that are fully compatible with one another should be used. Fall arrest systems are designed and tested as complete systems and should be used in this way. Product/System Details/Questions – Always contact a reputable manufacturer. What to Do After a Fall – After a fall occurs, all components of the fall arrest system should be removed from service.
Additional Fall Protection Equipment Information Can Be Obtained From the Following Web Sites: