Presentation on theme: "PPE: Head Protection 29 CFR , 29 CFR , 29 CFR"— Presentation transcript:
1 PPE: Head Protection 29 CFR 1910.135, 29 CFR 1915.155, 29 CFR 1926.100 Slide Show NotesIn this training session for employees required to wear head protection, we will discuss potential head hazards in our workplace as well as the different types of head protection available.
2 Session Objectives You will be able to: Identify head hazards Choose appropriate head protectionKnow the limitations of head protectionUse and take care of your head protectionSlide Show NotesBy the end of this training session, you will be able to:Identify head hazardsChoose appropriate head protectionKnow the limitations of head protectionUse and take care of your head protection
3 Hazard Assessments Assess the workplace Evaluate every job Determine appropriate PPECertify the completion of the hazard assessment in writingSlide Show NotesThe Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires us to assess the workplace to determine if hazards are present, or likely to be present, that necessitate the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by workers.Every job or task in every department in the workplace must be evaluated for hazards that may require the use of PPE.Once hazards have been identified, we must determine appropriate PPE that will protect you from those hazards.We must certify in writing that the PPE hazard assessment has been performed. The certification must identify the workplace evaluated, the person certifying the evaluation, and the date of the assessment.Bring copies of your company’s completed PPE hazard assessments.
4 Head Hazard Assessment Falling objectsExposed electrical conductorsLow-hanging obstructionsSlide Show NotesLet’s use this training session as an opportunity to review the potential head hazards present in our workplace.The primary causes of head injuries are:Falling objectsExposed electrical conductorsLow-hanging obstructionsWe will take the time to focus on each of the topics and the specific hazards associated with our workplace in the upcoming slides. Can you think of any other potential head hazards, specific to our workplace, that are not listed on the slide?Consider inserting an additional slide that discusses other hazards specific to your workplace.
5 Falling Objects You are at risk when working below others Incidents are difficult to anticipateMost impact injuries occur to workers not wearing head protectionMost workers injured while doing normal jobsSlide Show NotesWhen assessing the workplace, we look for areas where employees are working below other employees or other work activities. A tool, part, bolt, piece of metal, or other object could fall and strike the head of those below.Many of the incidents that result in head injuries are difficult to anticipate and control; that is why it is so important for us to evaluate the workplace for every potential hazard. Examples might include a bolt rattling loose from a tall machine over time and falling onto a worker below or non-routine projects such as a maintenance worker in a personnel lift working on a lighting fixture above production employees who could get hit by falling debris or objects.The majority of impact injuries occur to workers who are not wearing head protection. These injuries could be prevented if head protection is worn.Most head injuries occur to workers performing their normal jobs at their regular worksites. The injuries do not occur because of non-routine job functions. Instead, the injuries occur because the job or tasks are not adequately assessed for potential head hazards or the employee is not wearing the head protection the company and the job require.Discuss areas in your workplace where employees are potentially exposed to falling objects.
6 Exposed Electrical Conductors Electrical shock or burns could occurHead protection insulates and protectsSelect right class of head protectionSlide Show NotesWorkers who may be exposed to electrical conductors include power line workers, electricians on construction sites, and maintenance workers in general industry.You could suffer severe electrical shock or burn if not wearing appropriate head protection when working around exposed electrical conductors.Be especially careful if there is potential for the exposed electrical conductor to contact your head. The head protection is designed to act as an insulator to protect you from receiving a shock or burn.Make sure the right head protection is selected for the work being done and the voltage you are exposed to.Discuss areas in your workplace where employees might make contact with exposed electrical conductors.
7 Bump Hazards Bumps, scrapes, bruises Low-hanging pipes, steel structures, machinery componentsNonroutine cleaning or maintenanceSlide Show NotesBumps, scrapes, and bruises to the head that result when a worker walks into a solid object can be serious injuries that may require stitches or staples to close the wound. These injuries can be prevented if workers wear hard hats or bump caps.We evaluate the workplace for any low-hanging objects in your normal work or walking area that may present a bump hazard. These include pipes, steel structures, or machinery components.We evaluate nonroutine cleaning or maintenance work that require employees to go under equipment like conveyors or other machinery. You may need to wear a bump cap or hard hat when doing these nonroutine tasks.Discuss areas or job tasks in your workplace where employees may be exposed to potential bump hazards.
8 Head Hazards and Injuries—Any Questions? Any questions about workplace hazards to your head?Slide Show NotesDo you have any questions about workplace hazards to your head?
9 Hard Hat Design Resist penetration Absorb shock High-density, light- weight polyethyleneStamped with ANSI Z89 specificationsSlide Show NotesHead injuries are usually caused by falling or flying objects or by bumping against a fixed object. Head protection must be able to resist penetration, which is achieved by making the helmet’s shell from a material hard enough to resist the blow.Hard hats must also be able to absorb the shock of impact by a flying object. A shock-absorbing lining made of a headband and crown straps keeps the shell away from the wearer’s skull.Most hard hats today are made of high-density polyethylene so they are lightweight and still meet design and testing requirements.Helmets or hard hats used in the workplace must be designed according to the standards of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Helmets that meet ANSI specifications will have the manufacturer’s name, ANSI designation “Z89,” and the type and class stamped inside the shell.
10 Hard Hat Types Type I–Top impact and penetration protection Type II–Top and side impact and penetration protectionANSI Z89.1Slide Show NotesType I hard hats and helmets are intended to reduce the force of impact resulting from a blow to the top of the head. Both cap and hat design styles can be Type I.Type II head protection is a hat or cap that provides side impact protection as well as the top or vertical impact protection provided by the Type I hat.The previous designations of Type I (hats) and Type II (caps) were replaced when the ANSI Z89.1 standard was revised in 1997.Have examples of the different types of hard hats used by your company.Show employees how to determine what type of hard hat they have.
11 Hard Hat Classes Class C – No electrical protection Class G – Low voltage (tested at 2,200 volts)Class E – High voltage (tested at 20,000 volts)Slide Show NotesClass C hard hats are not intended to provide protection against contact with electrical conductors.Class G head protectors are intended to reduce the danger of contact exposure to low-voltage conductors. Test samples are proof tested at 2,200 volts, phase to ground.Class E helmets and hard hats are intended to reduce the danger of contact exposure to high-voltage conductors. Test samples are proof tested at 20,000 volts (phase to ground)The previous A, B, and C classes of electrical insulation were replaced when the ANSI Z89.1 standard was revised in 1997.Have examples of the different classes of hard hats used by your company.Show employees how to determine what class of hard hat they have.
12 Hard Hat Testing Temperature extremes Impact resistance Penetration resistanceElectrical insulationSlide Show NotesThe hard hats we provide you with have all been tested for:Temperature extremes to ensure you are protected in all kinds of weatherImpact resistance to protect your head from excessive forcePenetration to ensure that a projectile cannot penetrate the shell of the capElectrical insulation to prevent electric shock
13 Standard Head Protection Wide profile and brimIncreased ventilationSun protectionSuspension systemRatchet systemsBrow padsSlide Show NotesStandard or classic head protection typically comes in two varieties— cap or helmet version.Both styles have a wide profile and a brim. The cap has more of a baseball cap-style brim that extends in the front. The helmet has a brim that encircles the entire hard hat.The wide profiles allow for increased ventilation because of the space between your head and the helmet.The wide profiles and brims also help protect you from sun.The typical suspension system has six points with straps that are about 1-inch wide. Some suspension systems have eight or more suspension points.Most hard hats and helmets come equipped with some type of size adjusting ratcheting system so you can quickly adjust the helmet to the correct size.Most hard hats and helmets also come equipped with different types of brow pads to protect your forehead and improve comfort.Point out all of these features on the hard hats that you brought as examples to the class.
14 Highly Protective Helmet Impact and penetration resistance from all directionsChin strapAir vents molded into helmetCrown pad and brow padAccessoriesSlide Show NotesIn addition to providing impact and penetration resistance to the top of the head, highly protective helmets will also provide impact and penetration resistance from the sides, front, and rear. This is a Type II helmet.Highly protective helmets are also typically equipped with a chin strap that helps keep the helmet on your head during a fall. The chin straps typically have a quick-release buckle that keeps the helmet from slipping during use.Air vent channels are often designed and then molded into the helmet to the keep you cool.A crown pad and brow pad also help make the helmet comfortable to wear.Accessories are often available to be attached to the hard hat, including faceshields, hearing protection, lamp brackets, etc.
15 High Temperature Hats Advanced thermoplastic materials Utilities, welding, foundries, steel millsMeet NFPA StandardExposed to 350ºF for 5 minutesResistant to radiant heat and flameSlide Show NotesHigh temperature hard hats and helmets are often made from technologically advanced thermoplastic materials. They are designed to meet the demands of high heat environments.High temperature hard hats and helmets are ideal for workers in industries such as utilities, welding, foundries, and steel mills.These hard hats and helmets are often made of the same materials as the helmets used by workers trained to fight wild forest fires. The helmets are certified to meet the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Wildland firefighting standard.The NFPA standard requires that helmets can be exposed to a temperature of 350º F for 5 minutes.Other tests include tests for standard shock and penetration resistance as well resistance to radiant heat and even flame.Note that most plastic materials soften gradually over a wide range of temperatures. Therefore, there is no specific temperature at which they change from solid to liquid. There is no straightforward answer on the melting temperature of a given hard hat.
16 Bump Caps Protect against bumps, scrapes, cuts Used when helmet or hard hat unnecessaryMade of lightweight hard plasticMay accommodate faceshields or visorsDo not meet ANSI Z89 standardsSlide Show NotesA bump cap provides bump and scrape protection for a variety of industries in which workers may be exposed to low-hanging objects.A helmet or hard hat may not be necessary because employees are not exposed to falling objects or exposed electrical conductors.A bump cap is made of lightweight hard plastic and may have the look and feel of a baseball cap. A molded plastic inner skull cap also provides protection.Some bump caps can also accommodate a faceshield bracket and visor.Bump caps do not meet ANSI Z89.1 requirements. They are recommended for areas where protection is needed from head bumps and lacerations only.Bring examples of bump caps that are used in your workplace.
17 Hard Hat Selection—Any Questions? Any questions about choosing appropriate head protection?Slide Show NotesDo you have any questions about choosing appropriate head protection or the limitations of your head protection?
18 Wearing Hard Hats Backward Type I hard hats have been testedCrown must be symmetricalSuspension must be reversedType II helmets should not be worn backwardSlide Show NotesMany manufacturers have tested Type I hard hats according to ANSI Z standards.The design of the crown impacts the performance of the hard hat when worn backward. Type I hard hats that have a symmetrical crown are most likely to meet the standards.In order for the hard hat to perform and pass the ANSI test requirements, the suspension system must be reversed. The headband with the brow pad must still be against the forehead and the extended nape strap at the base of the skull. The suspension is worn in the forward, normal position and only the shell is worn backward.Most Type II helmets cannot be worn backward because of the asymmetrical pattern used in the design to provide protection from impacts to the sides as well as the front and rear of the helmet.
19 Stickers or MarkingsAdhesive stickers will not chemically damage helmetsStickers may cover cracks or other signs of damageKeep stickers at least 3/4 inch away from edge of helmetEngraving is restricted to underside of brimDo not engrave the crown area or near suspension socketsSlide Show NotesMany of you like to personalize your helmets or hard hats with stickers or engrave your name into the helmet material.Adhesive stickers usually do not chemically react with helmet material, so there is little potential to affect performance under normal conditions.However, stickers should be kept to a minimum to ensure that the hard hat may be adequately inspected for any signs of damage or aging, such as cracks.Keep stickers at least 3/4 inch away from the edge of the helmet. This is where signs of damage typically occur first. If any surface cracks—however small—appear on the shell surface, the helmet should be removed from service and replaced immediately.Engraving identification data on the underside of the brim of the hard hat will not adversely affect the helmet’s performance; however, engraving must be restricted to the brim.Engraving, cutting with a knife, or drilling holes near the crown area or the suspension key sockets may result in failure of the helmet to provide protection during an impact. This could result in severe injury or even death.
20 Visibility Increase visibility to equipment operators and vehicles High-visibility colorsFluorescent stripingReflective stripingSlide Show NotesHard hats are required to protect your head; however, they can also be used to increase visibility to traffic (road workers) or to other workers operating construction equipment, cranes, or other vehicles.The most common high-visibility color is orange; however, there is a need to have workers stand out from safety barrels and signs that are also typically orange. Other popular high-visibility colors include green and yellow. Be careful to monitor high-visibility hard hat color during prolonged daylight exposure. Replace the helmet as soon as fading is evident to ensure continued visibility and safety.Fluorescent striping, with stickers, can be added to normal colored hard hats to increase visibility and to make them more personalized. A stripe of orange or yellow can be wrapped around the hat.Reflective silver striping can be added completely around the brim and on top to improve visibility even more.
21 Objects Inside a Hard Hat Maintain clearance between shell and headMetal part may reduce electrical insulation propertiesDo not place objects above or below crown strapsFabric winter liners or sunshades are acceptableSlide Show NotesThe effectiveness of a hard hat may be reduced by wearing or placing objects, such as a baseball cap, underneath. Currently there are no requirements or tests to examine how objects worn inside a hard hat may affect performance. You should never carry or place anything inside a hard hat.Clearance must be maintained between the hard hat shell and the wearer’s head for the protection system to work properly. A baseball cap or other object may limit this clearance.A cap or other object may contain metal parts, such as a metal button, which may reduce the electrical protection provided by the hard hat.Objects should never be placed above or below the crown straps because this will affect the performance of the hard hat.Note that some products, such as fabric winter liners or cotton sunshades, are designed to work in conjunction with hard hats and are acceptable.
22 Useful Life of a Hard Hat Replace every 2 years if exposed to chemicals, sunlight, temperature extremesDate codes are molded into brimsReplace if struck by a forcible blowSlide Show NotesReplace hard hats after 2 years when they are worn in work environments that include sunlight, chemicals, or temperature extremes.Most manufacturers mold date codes into the underside of the brim of a hard hat to indicate when it was made. Learn how to interpret the code, which may be in some form of code or symbol.If the hard hat has been struck by a forcible blow of any magnitude, both the hard hat shell and the suspension system should be replaced immediately even if no damage is visible.Discuss your company’s head protection replacement program.Explain how to interpret the date codes of the brand of hard hat and helmets used by your company. The manufacturer can tell you how to interpret the code.
23 Maintenance and Care Clean with mild detergent and hot water Inspect shell for damage or excess wearInspect suspension straps for cuts, frays, chemical damageNever drill holesDo not use paints or cleaning solventsSlide Show NotesClean the hard hat shell and suspension system with mild detergent and hot water.Inspect the shell for any signs of damage or excess wear, including cuts, scrapes, cracks, and holes.Inspect suspension straps for cuts, frays, damage from chemicals, or any other signs of wear.Never drill holes in the shell of a hard hat. This nullifies the Class E or G electrical insulation rating and may lessen the impact resistance of the helmet.Do not use adhesives, paints, or cleaning solvents on your hard hat. They may damage the shell and lessen the effectiveness of the protection.Show employees how to inspect the shell and the straps for any signs of damage.If your company has a written program that describes the maintenance, care, replacement, field tests, and other requirements specific to your workplace, consider inserting an additional slide that describes your company’s specific requirements.
24 Field Test Hard Hats Compress shell sides inward 1 inch Release pressureShell should return to original shapeCompare elasticity to new shellReplace if not elastic or if it cracksSlide Show NotesHere is a test you can perform to determine possible degradation of the polyethylene shell of your hard hat.Compress the shell inward from the sides about 1 inch using both hands.Quickly release the pressure without dropping the shell.The shell should quickly return to its original shape, exhibiting elasticity.Compare the elasticity of your hard hat’s shell to that of a new shell.If your hard hat does not exhibit similar elasticity to the new shell, or if it cracks due to brittleness, the hard hat should be replaced immediately.Have everyone practice the field test with their hard hats.
25 Head Protection—Any Questions? Any questions about the use and care of hard hats?Slide Show NotesDo you have any questions about the use and care of hard hats?
26 Key Points to RememberFollow recommendations in head hazard assessmentWear the correct type and class of helmet for the hazards foundInspect and clean hard hats dailyLimit stickers and other markingsReplace hard hats according to work conditionsSlide Show NotesFollow the recommendations in our head hazard assessmentWear the correct type and class of helmet for the hazards foundInspect and clean hard hats dailyLimit stickers and other markingsReplace hard hats according to work conditions