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Development of stone carving

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Presentation on theme: "Development of stone carving"— Presentation transcript:

1 Development of stone carving
Aglish Pillar Duvillaun Slab Fahan Mura Slab Carndonagh Cross The North Cross Aheeny The South Cross Aheeny Muiredach's Cross The Cross of Moone

2 Aglish Pillar

3 Aglish Pillar Co Kerry Now in National Museum
Has a Greek cross , inscribed in a circle, cut into its surface Ogham writing up the side

4 Duvillaun Slab

5 Duvillaun Slab Co Mayo Carved decoration on back and front
Like Aglish Pillar has Greek cross inscribed in a circle Other side has a primitive Crucifixion Spiral design (Newgrange)

6 Fahan Mura Slab

7 Fahan Mura Slab Co Donegal
The surface area of the slab around the form of cross has been carved away allowing the cross to stand out in high relief The Greek cross now has a stem Powerfully decorated on both sides with interwoven strap work (manuscripts) On one side two figures stand on either side of the cross 2 bumps project from either side of slab (wooden arms may have attached to these)

8 Carndonagh Cross

9 Carndonagh Cross Side A side B Co Donegal Primitive outline of a cross
Strap work decoration A. One side is pure non figurative decoration B. Other side is a mixture of decoration and figures Second Side (B) has a large figure presumably Christ, he is surrounded by 4 small figures packed tightly into spaces beneath the upraised arms and on either side of the head. Side (B) underneath is a small rectangular panel with three more figures this time seen in profile The strap work itself forms a Greek cross above the figurative section Possibly made in same workshop as Fahan Mura Slab (strap work decoration is similar)

10 North Cross at Aheeny East Face West Face

11 North Cross Aheeny. Aheeny Co. Tipperary. 8th century
North Cross Aheeny. Aheeny Co. Tipperary. 8th century. Short cross worth a widely spaced ring and base. Unusual conical shaped cap. Decoration on both north and south crosses echoes metalwork motifs of the time such as interlace, Celtic spirals, and geometric patterns.

12 Cap and West Face

13 North Cross Aheeny The rounded bosses are similar to studs found in metal work from the period. High relief rope moulding on outer edge of crosses similar to decoration on Tara brooch The lower south arc of the ring is missing Scalloped indents where the horizontal arms meet the vertical shaft.

14 North Cross East Face East face- The head of the cross is outlined with rope like border and filled with delicate and precise interlacing This surrounds 5 convex bosses. The ring on the head is ornamented with a sequence of spirals joined by diagonals and enclosing 3 birds heads See pg 63 “The High Crosses of Ireland” by Powell pl 70 & 71

15 East Face Book of durrow on left, book of kells on right

16 South Cross Aheeny Aheeny, Co Tipperary Full ring intact
Small irregular cap Base is plain.

17 South Cross East Face Interlacing at top resembles wickerwork
All 5 bosses are flat with ringed surfaces Lower on shaft is a pattern is a pattern of 5 spirals, similar to that on the North Cross, each with a bird head in the centre.

18 West Face Irregular interlacing around central boss
The bosses are raised and round Lower down are 2 sets of 5 spirals On the ring - the upper sections features an interlacing pattern, while the lower ones are decorated with inter connecting pairs of spirals

19 Muiredach’s Cross Name comes from inscription “Pray for Muiredach who had this cross erected” Monsterboice, Co. Louth Muiredach is said to have been an abbot who died in 923, which helps to date the cross. Both the east and west faces are almost entirely covered with figure compositions, carved in high relief. Cap stone is a separate stone, carved as a small church with finials at either end of the roof.

20 Muiredach’s cross West face

21 West face – Muiredach’s cross
Five subjects depicted, from the bottom: 1- The arrest of Christ 2-Doubting Thomas 3-Christ giving keys to Peter and the book of new Law to Paul 4-The Crucifixion (across the arms of cross) 5-Moses between Aaron and Hur (old testament)

22 East Face-Muiredach's cross
Six panels carved More crowded than other side with some panels showing more than one subject 1-The bottom panel depicts both Adam and Eve and Cain slaying Abel 2-David and Goliath 3-Saul and Jonathon 4-Moses striking the rock 5-The adoration of the Magi 6-The Last Judgement (Large panel across arms) Christ the judge divides the blessed and the damned, below his feet souls are weighed

23 Stone Carving in the early 10th century
The carvings on Muiredach’s cross were revolutionary and can be compared to other crosses such as the tall west cross at Monsterboice, the cross of scriptures at Clonmacnoise the high cross at Durrow and the market cross in Kells. The development of crosses seems to have been prolific during the early decades of the tenth century. The years between 875 – 915 (the 40 year recess from Viking raids) were used to rebuild monasteries, round towers and re group their forces. Stone carving matured considerably at this time. Towards the middle of the 10th century the carving of crosses ceased and was revived again a century later when styles and concepts changed radically.

24 Cross of Moone

25 The Cross of Moone Co. Kildare 9th century. This cross is unusual in that the base is taller than most. The base is shaped like a pyramid so that there is no step between it and the mid section of the cross. There is a relatively small ring with biblical scenes, both Old and New testament are depicted on the base. The space between the ring and arms is cut away. The cross used to stand in a graveyard, to the south of a ruined church, but has been moved by the Office of Public Works to within the ruins of the church for safety. A glass roof now protects it from the elements.

26 The Cross of Moone Lithographs made in 1857 of the cross show it as a shorter cross than we see today. The mid section was found at the end of the 19th century in the churchyard. Lord Walter Fitzgerald had it placed on the base and the head placed on top. It now measures 7.65 meters high and is in 3parts, head, shaft, and base. (see handout) When the cross was moved the repair work was re-done with greater skill and with a slightly paler granite.

27 Cross of Moone East Face
The figure of Christ in glory occupies the centre of the head. It has been deeply eroded over the years and only the outline can be made out now. The shaft or mid section is covered with a number of panels and abstract designs.

28 Cross of Moone West Face
The Crucifixion occupies the narrow top of the base. Underneath this are 12 apostles, set side by side in 3 rows of four. (pl 33)

29 Cross of Moone South side
The south side includes one scene from the old testament, the three children in a fiery furnace Below is a unique nativity scene, the flight of the Holy Family into Egypt At the bottom a large panel is taken up with one of Christ’s most memorable miracles: the feeding of 5,000 with just 5 barley loaves and two small fishes The design is reduced to its essentials; the lack of a human figure suggests that the intended audience may have already been aware of the story.

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