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© Crown copyright 2006 A phonics quiz 1.What is a phoneme ? 2. How many phonemes are in the word ‘ strap ’? 3. a) What is a digraph ? b) Give an example.

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Presentation on theme: "© Crown copyright 2006 A phonics quiz 1.What is a phoneme ? 2. How many phonemes are in the word ‘ strap ’? 3. a) What is a digraph ? b) Give an example."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Crown copyright 2006 A phonics quiz 1.What is a phoneme ? 2. How many phonemes are in the word ‘ strap ’? 3. a) What is a digraph ? b) Give an example 4. a) What is a CVC ? b) Give an example 5. Why has ‘ think ’ got a ‘k’ at the end (and not ‘ck’ or ‘c’)? 6. a) What is a ‘ trigraph ’? b) Give an example 7. How many phonemes are in the word ‘ twenty ’? 8. Write down at least four different ways of representing / ae / 9.What is the best guess when you write /ae / at the end of a word?

2 © Crown copyright 2006 Objective To support practitioners in developing a good knowledge and understanding of phonic principles

3 © Crown copyright 2006 Phonics at a glance Phonics is Knowledge of the alphabetic code (26 letters, 44 phonemes, 140 different letter combinations) + Understanding of the skills of segmenting and blending

4 © Crown copyright 2006 Letters and phonemes Letters: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z 44 phonemes: /b/ /k/ /d/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /j/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /t/ / v/ /w/ /y/ /z/ /sh/ /ch/ /th/ /th/ /ng/ /zh/ /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /ai/ /ee/ /igh/ /oa/ /oo/ /oo/ /ow/ /oi/ /ar/ /or/ /ur/ /air/ /ear/ /ure/ /er/ Some of 140 letter combinations illustrated in words: C a t, p e g, p i g, l o g, p u t, p ai n, d ay, g a t e, st a tion b ur n, f ir st, t er m, h ear d, w or k, h au l, l aw, c all, tr ie d, l igh t, m y, sl augh ter

5 © Crown copyright 2006 Some definitions Oral blending Hearing a series of spoken sounds and merging them together to make a spoken word – no text is used For example, when a teacher calls out ‘b-u-s’, the children say ‘bus’ This skill is usually taught before blending and reading printed words

6 © Crown copyright 2006 Some definitions Blending Recognising the letter sounds in a written word, for example c-u-p, and merging or synthesising them in the order in which they are written to pronounce the word ‘cup’

7 © Crown copyright 2006 Some definitions Segmenting Identifying the individual sounds in a spoken word (e.g. h-i-m) and writing down or manipulating letters for each sound to form the word ‘him’

8 © Crown copyright 2006 Four key principles Phonemes are represented by letters (grapheme) A phoneme can be represented by one or more letters The same phoneme can be represented/spelled in more than one way The same spelling may represent more than one phoneme

9 © Crown copyright 2006 Four key Principles of phonics Phonemes are represented by letters (grapheme) GPC A child needs to learn the letters that make up each sound, this is known as phoneme- grapheme representation. phonemes can be in the initial, medial or final position of a word. E.g. sat

10 © Crown copyright 2006 Some definitions A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a word

11 © Crown copyright 2006 Some definitions Grapheme Letter(s) representing a phoneme taiigh

12 © Crown copyright 2006 Enunciation Teaching phonics requires a technical skill in enunciation Phonemes should be articulated clearly and precisely

13 © Crown copyright 2006 Enunciation Jolly Phonics Phonemes should be articulated clearly and precisely Most consonants should be pronounced in a continuous manner ssssssss, mmmmm All phonemes need to be said with care so that they do not become distorted e.g muh Some phonemes need to be said in the short form /c/ /t/ /p/ /b/ /d/ /g/ Phonemes should be supported by symbols and actions

14 © Crown copyright 2006 Four key Principles of phonics A phoneme can be represented by one or more letters A single phoneme represented by 2 letters or more e.g. ch ai n vowel digraphs – ai, ee, ie, oa, oo, ar, ir, oi, ou, ay, a-e, u-e etc.. trigraphs – igh, air, ear

15 © Crown copyright 2006 Some definitions Digraph Two letters, which make one sound A consonant digraph contains two consonants shckthll A vowel digraph contains at least one vowel also known as long vowel phoneme ai ee ar oy

16 © Crown copyright 2006 Some definitions Trigraph Three letters, which make one sound igh dge

17 © Crown copyright 2006 Consonant digraphs ll ss ff zz hill pufffizz sh ch th wh shipchat thin ck ng qu x fox singquick

18 © Crown copyright 2006 Adjacent consonants Formally known as blends Letter combinations where each letter makes an individual phoneme spstsksl trftntlt mpunlpdr clswcrsm e.g. step list clap grasp strap

19 © Crown copyright 2006 Adjacent consonants Children with speech and language difficulties find this stage tricky. Persevere – they will get there. Adjacent consonants are no longer taught as blends as this can be a barrier to learning. Not everybody knows this yet. Spread the word to other people Watch out for old resources (and some new ones) Train children to think about mouth movements

20 © Crown copyright 2006 Some definitions Split digraph A digraph in which the two letters are not adjacent (e.g. make) a_ee_ei_e o_eu_e

21 © Crown copyright 2006 p i gc h i c k class s h i p c a rtry b o yc o wstick f i l l w h i p zoo s o n gf o rcaught d a ymist playing w h i z zhavesaid come h u f ffrogspawn Sound button activity

22 © Crown copyright 2006 Examples of CCVC, CVCC, CCCVC and CCVCC b l a c ks t r o ng c c v c c c c v c f e l tb l a n k c v c cc c v c c

23 © Crown copyright 2006 Words sometimes wrongly identified as CVC bowfew sawher

24 © Crown copyright 2006 A segmenting activity slip chirp

25 © Crown copyright 2006 A segmenting activity Segment the following words shelf dress think string sprint flick

26 © Crown copyright 2006 Segmenting WORDPHONEMES shelfshelf dressdress thinkthink stringstring sprintsprint flickflick

27 © Crown copyright 2006 Four key principles Phonemes are represented by letters (grapheme) A phoneme can be represented by one or more letters The same phoneme can be represented/spelled in more than one way The same spelling may represent more than one phoneme

28 © Crown copyright 2006 Four key Principles of phonics The same phoneme can be represented/spelled in more than one way This is very common particularly among the vowels, e.g. rain, may, lake burn, first, term, heard, work

29 © Crown copyright 2006 The same phoneme can be represented in more than one way vowel digraphs (long vowel phonemes) aaeaiayeyeigh ee-eeaeey ii-eieighy oo-eoaoeow uu-eueooew oououl owouough oioy ara oraworeaough airareear eerear

30 © Crown copyright 2006 On the surface this appears to present problems in spelling accuracy but there are many rules that can be applied according to position and associated consonants Certain representations of a phoneme are more likely in initial, medial and final position in monosyllabic words

31 © Crown copyright 2006 aeeeieoeue Activity - Sort the words into groups according to long vowel phoneme

32 © Crown copyright 2006 1.The best bets for representing /ae/ at the beginning and in the middle of a word are a-e and ai 2.The best bet for representing /ae/ at the end of a word is ay

33 © Crown copyright 2006 Four key principles Phonemes are represented by letters (grapheme) A phoneme can be represented by one or more letters The same phoneme can be represented/spelled in more than one way The same spelling may represent more than one phoneme

34 © Crown copyright 2006 Four key Principles of phonics The same spelling may represent more than one phoneme E.g. mean, deaf This is where children need to learn to use the skill of making sense of the text.

35 © Crown copyright 2006 The basic principle meatbread hebed bearhear cowlow

36 © Crown copyright 2006 Spelling There are patterns or regularities that help to determine choices or narrow possibilities – for example for each vowel phoneme some digraphs and trigraphs are more frequently used before certain consonants than others Children need to explore these patterns through word investigations Teachers need to understand these patterns in order to structure their teaching and design or select appropriate activities

37 © Crown copyright 2006 High frequency words The majority of high frequency words are phonically regular Some exceptions – for example the and was – should be directly taught It must always be remembered that phonics is the step up to word recognition. Automatic reading of all words – decodable and tricky – is the ultimate goal

38 © Crown copyright 2006 The Rose Report – March 2006 recommended that whatever phonic programme is in use by a school, it should have a systematic progression with clear expectations by teachers and practitioners of the expected pace of teaching and learning

39 © Crown copyright 2006 Some definitions Synthetic phonics ‘Synthetic phonics refers to an approach to the teaching of reading in which the phonemes [sounds] associated with particular graphemes [letters] are pronounced in isolation and blended together (synthesised). For example, children are taught to take a single-syllable word such as cat apart into its three letters, pronounce a phoneme for each letter in turn /k, æ, t/, and blend the phonemes together to form a word. Synthetic phonics for writing reverses the sequence: children are taught to say the word they wish to write, segment it into its phonemes and say them in turn, for example /d, ɔ, g/, and write a grapheme for each phoneme in turn to produce the written word, dog.’ Definition adopted by the Rose Report

40 © Crown copyright 2006 Four key principles Phonemes are represented by letters (grapheme) A child needs to learn the letters that make up each sound, this is known as phoneme- grapheme representation. phonemes can be in the initial, medial or final position of a word. E.g. sat A phoneme can be represented by one or more letters A single phoneme represented by 2 letters or more e.g. ch ai n vowel digraphs – ai, ee, ie, oa, oo, ar, ir, oi, ou, ay, a-e, u-e etc.. trigraphs – igh, air, ear The same phoneme can be represented/spelled in more than one way This very common particularly among the vowels, e.g. r ai n, m ay, l a k e On the surface this appears to present problems in spelling accuracy but there are many rules that can be applied according to position and associated consonants The same spelling may represent more than one phoneme E.g. m ea n, d ea f This is where children need to learn to use the skill of making sense of the text.

41 © Crown copyright 2006 Simple view of reading Word recognition The ability to recognise and understand the words on the page phoneme awareness and phonics teaching repetition and teaching of ‘tricky’ words language comprehension The ability to understand language talking with children reading to children teaching comprehension strategies

42 © Crown copyright 2006 + + - - Word recognition Good language comprehension, poor word recognition Good word recognition, good language comprehension Poor word recognition, poor language comprehension Good word recognition, poor language comprehension Language comprehension


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