2 Prepared by: Renay Knapp, Henderson County Tracy Davis, Rutherford County Cathy Hohenstein, Buncombe County Julie Padgett, McDowell County Sue Estridge, Madison County Sandi Sox, Polk County
3 Acknowledgements Angela Fraser, NC State University Cheryl Beck, Jackson County Pam Staton, Clay County Jessica Robison, Swain County April Conley, formerly in Cherokee County Latresa Philips, formerly in Graham County Lynda Spivey, formerly in Buncombe County Megan Schaffer, formerly in Henderson County
Basics of Canning 5 Food is placed in a jar and heated to a temperature that destroys targeted microorganisms. Heat also inactivates enzymes that cause spoilage. Air is driven from the jar during heating. As the jar cools a vacuum seal is formed.
Basics of Canning 6 High Acid Foods (pH <4.6) All fruits, except for: figs tomatoes, and melons Fermented pickles, such as sauerkraut Acidified foods, such as pickles
Basics of Canning 8 Two Methods of Canning Boiling Water Canning -- used for high-acid foods Pressure Canning -- used for low-acid foods (and some high-acid foods)
Basics of Canning 9 Why Two Ways to Can? Yeast, molds, and most bacteria are destroyed at boiling temperatures -- 212ºF at sea level. C. botulinum forms spores that require higher temperatures for destruction in a reasonable period of time -- usually 240ºF or above at sea level.
Basics of Canning 10 What Makes Canned Food Unsafe? Clostridium botulinum Causes botulism poisoning Found naturally in soil and water. Produce heat-resistant spores that only destroyed by pressure processing. 10-35% of people who get botulism die.
Basics of Canning 11 Botulism and Growth To grow, the spores need: oxygen-free environment low-acid food temperature between 40ºF to 120ºF relatively high moisture
Basics of Canning 12 Botulism and Growth Conditions for C. botulinum to grow can be found in: Home canned foods Smoked fish and sausage Foil-wrapped baked potatoes Packaged mushrooms Pot pies
Basics of Canning 13 Preventing Botulism Spores do not grow in high-acid foods. Spores killed when low- acid foods heated long enough at a specific temperature. Process low-acid foods at 240ºF. Use pressure canner for all low-acid foods.
Basics of Canning 14 Other Ways to Prevent Botulism Test pressure canner dial gauge for accuracy each year before use. Correctly operate canner. Check canned food carefully before use. If toxin is suspected, detoxify food before discarding. The toxin is destroyed by boiling even though the spores are not.
Basics of Canning 15 Unsafe Canning Methods Open Kettle Oven Canning Dishwasher Addition of Aspirin Steam Canners Microwave Oven Canners
Boiling Water Bath16 Boiling Water Bath Used for high-acid foods and acidified foods
Basics of Canning 17 Boiling Water Bath Have water simmering or hot in canner, high enough to cover jars (about six inches). Hot packed jars = simmering water Raw packed jars = warm to hot water Wipe rim of jars and adjust lids. Lower jars slowly into canner.
Boiling Water Bath 18 Using a Boiling Water Bath Place jars on rack in canner. Add more hot water if necessary, once jars are in canner. (Don’t pour hot water directly onto raw- packed jars). Count processing time when water returns to a boil. Remove jars to a padded surface. Cool away from drafts, 12 to 24 hours.
Pressure Canning19 Pressure Canning Used for low-acid foods
Presssure Canning 20 Inspect Your Pressure Canner Some parts might need assembling -- see manufacturer’s directions. Become familiar with parts and their functions. Clean to remove oils. Lightly coat the exposed gasket and lugs on the canner bottom with cooking oil. Before each use be sure vent pipes are clear and open.
Pressure Canning 21 Using a Pressure Canner Have 2 to 3 inches of water simmering or hot in canner. Hot packed jars = simmering water Raw packed jars = warm to hot water Place jars on rack in canner. Put lid on canner with weight off or petcock open.
Pressure Canning 22 Exhaust canner for 10 minutes. Close vent or petcock. Start counting processing times when correct pressure is reached. Turn off heat at end of processing. Let pressure drop to 0 psig naturally.
Pressure Canning 23 Wait 2 minutes after pressure drops to 0 psig. (For some canners, check that locks in handles are released). Remove weight or petcock. Open canner. Watch steam! Remove jars to padded surface or rack. Cool jars for 24 hours, undisturbed. Check that jars have sealed.
Pressure Canning 24 Process Food Properly Follow a credible recipe exactly The following slows heat penetration: Extra sugar or fat Oversized food pieces Added thickeners Process food properly Heat-up and cool-down times in pressure canners are counted toward sterilizing value of the process. Never rush them.
Pressure Canning 25 Importance of Processing Time Each food and preparation style has its own processing time. Processing time differs with size of jar. Too short Underprocessing Spoilage or unsafe food Too long Overprocessing Overcooked
Pressure Canning 26 What Affects Processing Time Acidity of the food Preparation style of the food Composition of the food - Viscosity - Tightness of pack - Convection vs. conduction transfer of heat - Starches, fats, bones Initial temperature of food as it is packed into jar Temperature of processing Size and shape of jar
Pressure Canning 27 Altitude Adjustments As altitude increases, the temperature decreases at a given pressure. Dial-gauge processing changes: 0-2000 feet = 11 pounds pressure 2001-4000 feet = 12 pounds pressure 4001-6000 feet = 13 pounds pressure 6001-8000 feet = 14 pounds pressure
Pressure Canning 28 Weighted gauge adjustments 0-1000 feet = 10 pounds pressure At altitudes above 1000 feet, process at 15 pounds pressure. Boiling water canner adjustments Generally, the processing time will increase. Use a credible resource to determine processing time.
Equipment29 Canning Equipment Proper equipment is essential to a safe product.
Footer 30 Canning Jars Check jars for nicks, cracks, and rough edges. Wash in soapy water, rinse well, and keep hot. If food is processed for less than 10 minutes, need to be sterilized. Do not use single-use jars, such as mayonnaise and tomato sauce jars, to process food at home.
Equipment 31 Canning Lids Use two-piece lids. Flat lid cannot be reused but the ring band can. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for treating them.
Preparing and Packing32 Preparing and Packing Food
Preparing and Packing 33 Raw Pack For foods that lose shape when cooked. Place raw food directly in jars. Boiling hot liquid is then poured over the food. Pack firmly, don’t crush. Add jars carefully to warm canner to avoid breakage from heat shock. Follow a reliable recipe.
Preparing and Packing 34 Hot Pack Preferred method for most foods. Food is cooked in liquid before packing. Cooking liquid is then poured over food in jar. Fewer jars needed. Less floating of food and better color and flavor. Foods easier to pack. Kills some microorganisms.
Preparing and Packing 35 Headspace Space in the jar between the inside of the lid and the top of the food or its liquid. Check canning directions to determine the correct headspace for each food. Usually: 1/4” for jellies 1/2” for high-acid foods, such as fruits, tomatoes, and pickles 1” to 1-1/4” for low-acid foods
Preparing and Packing 36 Problems with Headspace Too little: Food may bubble out during processing. Deposit on rim may prevent proper sealing. Too much: Food at the top is likely to discolor. Jar may not seal properly, because processing time not long enough to drive all the air from inside the jar.
Preparing and Packing 37 Before Sealing Jars Remove air bubbles. Re-adjust headspace if necessary. Wipe jar rims. Adjust two-piece lids, fingertip-tight.
39 Types of Jams and Jelly Jam Jelly Marmalade Preserves Conserves Butter
Jams and Jellies 40 Jelly Made from strained fruit juice. Should be clear and sparkling. Gelled enough to hold its shape outside the jar, yet soft enough to spread easily. Forms sharp angle when cut. Jam Made by cooking crushed or chopped fruits with sugar until the mixture will round up on a spoon. Can be made with one or more fruits. Should be firm but spreadable. Does not hold the shape of the jar.
Jams and Jellies 41 Preserves Fruits preserved with sugar so that the fruit retains its shape Is clear, shiny, tender and plump Syrup is clear and varies from the thickness of honey to that of soft jelly Marmalade Tender jelly with small pieces of fruit or citrus peels distributed evenly throughout
Jams and Jellies 42 Conserves Jam-like product made by cooking two or more fruits with sugar until it. roundups on a spoon or flakes from it. A true conserve contains nuts and raisins. Butter Cook fruit pulp and sugar to thick consistency. Add spices -- amount and variety vary. Cook slowly after sugar is added until thick enough to round up on a spoon. Process pulp in a food mill and strain through a fine- meshed sieve.
Jams and Jellies 43 Essential Ingredients Fruit Pectin Acid Sugar
Jams and Jellies 44 Fruit Provides flavor Furnishes pectin and acid for gelling 1 pound fruit = 1 cup juice Use top quality fruit
Jams and Jellies 45 Pectin Natural substance found in varying amounts in fruits that causes jelly to gel. Slightly under-ripe fruit contains more pectin than fully ripe fruit. When making soft spreads without added pectin, use ¼ under-ripe and ¾ ripe.
Jams and Jellies 46 Fruits High in Pectin Tart Apples Concord Grapes Sour Blackberries Cranberries Currants Gooseberries Quinces Sour Plums
Jams and Jellies 48 Commercial Pectin Liquid added to mixture after all other ingredients have been brought to a boil. Powdered stirred into the fruit and brought to a boil before the sugar is added. Purchase fresh pectin each year.
Jams and Jellies 49 Why Use Commercial Pectin? More jelly produced from the fruit Better color Less chance of failure Shorter cooking time
Jams and Jellies 50 Acid Needed for gel formation. Under-ripe fruits have more acid. Commercial pectin contains some acid.
Jams and Jellies 51 Sugar Contributes to flavor. Helps in gel formation. Serves as preserving agent.
Jams and Jellies 53 Artificial Sweeteners Cannot be interchanged for sugar in recipes Use a recipe that specifies an artificial sweetener or lower- sugar pectin product
Jams and Jellies 54 Other Ingredients Spices Nuts Flavoring
Jams and Jellies 55 Equipment and Utensils Large Saucepot Food Scale Jelly Thermometer Jelly Bag Spice bag Kitchen timer Skimmer Slotted spoon Funnel Jars or containers
Jams and Jellies 56 Gelling Tests – Plate Test Place small amount on chilled plate. Set plate in freezer until cooled to room temperature. If mixture is set, put in jars.
Jams and Jellies 57 Gelling Tests -- Thermometer Determine gelling point for your elevation. Establish the boiling point of water then add 8 o F for the gelling point. Hold thermometer vertical; read at eye level. Remove from heat when gelling point reached.
Jams and Jellies 58 Gelling Test - Sheeting Dip cool metal spoon in boiling jelly. Lift out spoonful of mixture, away from steam Tip spoon over a dish so juice will drop off Gelling point reached when sheets off spoon
Jams and Jellies 59 Special Tips Use reliable recipes and follow directions carefully. Measure ingredients carefully. Never reduce amount of sugar or double the recipe. Do not squeeze the jelly bag. Use large sauce pans for cooking. Cook as quickly as possible. Cook longer in high humidity. Process after packing.
60 Pickles Includes fresh-pack and fermented fruits and vegetables
Pickles 61 Types of Pickles Brined or Fermented Pickles Fresh Pack or Quick Process Pickles Fruit Pickles Relishes
Pickles 62 Ingredients High quality produce Salt Vinegar Sugar Spices Water Firming Agents
67 How Freezing Affects Food Chemical changes Enzymes in vegetables Enzymes in fruit Rancidity Texture Changes Expansion of food Ice crystals
Freezing 68 Advantages of Freezing Most foods can be frozen. Natural color, flavor, and nutritive value retained. Texture usually better than other methods of food preservation. Foods can be frozen in less time than they can be dried or canned. Simple procedures. Adds convenience to food preparation. Proportions can be adapted to needs unlike other home preservation methods. Kitchen remains cool and comfortable.
Freezing 69 Disadvantages of Freezing Texture of some foods is undesirable because of freezing process. Initial investment and cost of maintaining freezer is high. Storage space limited by capacity of freezer.
Freezing 70 Shelf-life of Vegetables Temperature 0ºF 5ºF 10ºF 15ºF 20ºF 25ºF 30ºF Length of Storage 1 year 5 months 2 months 1 month 2 weeks 1 week 3 days
Freezing 71 Freezing Tips Freeze foods quickly Set freezer temperature at -10ºF at least 24 hours before freezing foods. Spread packages out until frozen, then stack. Store at 0ºF or colder for best quality.
Freezing 72 Freezing Tips Freeze foods at <0ºF (24 before freezing foods set freezer at -10ºF). Freeze foods immediately. Do not overload freezer with unfrozen food. Freeze amount that will freeze in 24 hours - - 2 to 3 pounds of food per cubic foot. Pack already frozen foods together so they do not thaw.
Freezing 73 Freezing Tips Place unfrozen foods in contact with surfaces and in coldest parts of freezer. Arrange food so air can circulate. When food is frozen, organize freezer by types of food. Arrange frozen foods so that the foods frozen longer can be used first. Keep a current frozen foods inventory. Check freezer temperature periodically.
Freezing 74 Selecting a Freezer Consider: Size Shape Efficiency Defrosting features Available floor area Amount of freezer space needed
Freezing 75 Determining Size You Need General Rule Allow 6 cubic feet of freezer space per person (3 cubic feet per person might be adequate if other methods of food preservation are used). Standard Freezer Capacity -- 35 pounds of frozen food per cubic foot or usable space.
Freezing 76 Types of Freezers Upright 6 to 22 cubic feet Convenient Uses small floor space Easy to load and unload Chest 6 to32 cubic feet Takes more floor space More economical to buy and to operate than upright Less air loss when opened
Freezing 77 Refrigerator/Freezer Combination 2 to 6 cubic feet Be sure can set temperature at 0ºF or colder Freezer can be above, below, or beside refrigerator area Other features Self defrosting or manual defrost Receptacle clips - prevent accidental disconnecting Door locks & drains for defrosting
Freezing 78 Location and Placement Place in convenient, cool, dry, well- ventilated area. Do not place by stove, range, water heater or in the sun. Do not push flush against wall. Leave space for air circulation and cleaning. Be sure freezer is level.
Freezing 79 General Freezing Instructions Selection Freezing does not improve quality. Choose the highest quality available. Freeze promptly. Remember some foods do not freeze well. Preparation Work under sanitary conditions. Follow recommended procedures.
Freezing 80 Freezer Packaging Moisture-vapor resistant Durable and leak-proof Not become brittle and crack at low temperatures. Protects foods from absorption of off-flavors or odors Easy to seal and mark
Freezing 81 Types of Packaging Rigid Containers Plastic freezer containers Freezer boxes with liners Coffee canisters Wide mouth canning/freezing jars Good for liquids, soft, juicy, or liquid-packed foods May be reusable Hold their shape and can be stored upright
Freezing 82 Non-Rigid Containers Bags Wrappings - cellophane, heavy-duty aluminum foil, polyethylene, laminated paper Good for firm, non- juicy foods
Freezing 83 Packing Foods Cool food before freezing -- ice bath Pack in serving size quantities -- usually up to 1 quart Pack foods tightly. Allow for some headspace -- vegetables like broccoli and asparagus, bony pieces of meat, tray packed foods, and breads, do not need any headspace.
Freezing 84 Press all air from bagged foods, seal bags by twisting and then folding over loose edge (gooseneck). Secure with string, twist-tie or rubber band. Use tight lid on rigid containers and keep sealing edge clean. Use freezer tape on loose fitting covers.
Freezing 85 Labeling Name of product Added ingredients Form of food: halves, whole, or ground Packing date Number of servings or amount
Freezing 86 Packing Fruits Syrup Pack Better texture Not needed for safety Cover fruit with syrup -- place crumpled water-resistant paper in top of container Sugar Pack Soft sliced fruits (strawberries, peaches) make on syrup when mixed with the right proportion of sugar. Layer fruit and sugar. Allow to stand for 15 minutes.
Freezing 87 Dry Pack Good for small whole fruits such as berries that do not need sugar. Simply pack into containers and freeze. Can freeze on a tray first, so pour easily. Pectin Syrup Good for strawberries and peaches. Mix one package powdered pectin with one cup water. Bring to boil, boil 1 minute. Remove from heat, cool, and add 1-3/4 cups more water.
Freezing 88 Water or Unsweetened Juice Packs Texture will be mushier. Color poorer. Freezes harder, takes longer to thaw. Packs for Purees or Juices Pack as is, with or without sugar. Add ascorbic acid if light-colored.
Freezing 89 Packing with Artificial Sweeteners Can be used in the pectin syrup, juice, or water packs. Or could be added just before serving Do not help with color retention or texture, like sugar does. Use amounts on product labels.
Freezing 90 Preventing Fruit Darkening Use one of the following: 1 teaspoon (3000 mg) ascorbic acid to one gallon of water Commercial ascorbic acid mixture Steaming the fruit The following do not work as well: Citric acid solution Lemon juice Sugar syrup Salt/vinegar solution
Freezing 91 Ascorbic Acid Most economical. Use powdered or tablet form. 1/2 teaspoon powdered ascorbic acid = 1500 mg Crush tablets well. Use amount specified for each fruit. In syrup or liquid packs, add powder to liquid. In sugar or dry packs, dissolve 2 to 3 tablespoons in cold water and sprinkle over fruit. For crushed fruit, purees or juices, mix with fruit about 1/8 teaspoon per quart.
Freezing 92 Ascorbic Acid Mixtures Follow package directions Steaming Best for fruits that will be cooked before use Follow directions in freezing publications
Freezing 93 Freezing Vegetables Select young, tender, high-quality vegetables. Sort for size and ripeness. Wash and drain before removing skins or shells. Wash small lots at a time, lifting out of water. Do not soak. Work in small quantities, preparing per instructions.
Freezing 94 Blanching Vegetables Blanch to prevent flavor and color changes. Blanch using water or steam. Water blanching Use 1 gallon water per pound of vegetables. Place vegetables in blanching basket. Lower into vigorously boiling water. Cover and begin timing.
Freezing 95 Steam Blanching Use kettle with tight lid and basket. Put 1 to 2 inches of boiling water in the bottom of pan. Vegetables should be in a single layer in basket. Start timing when covered. Takes 1-1/2 times longer than water blanching.
Freezing 96 Microwave Blanching (not recommended) Enzymes might not be inactivated. Does not save time or energy. Use specific directions and blanch small quantities at a time. After blanching, cool immediately in cold water. Change water frequently.
Freezing 97 Packing Vegetables Dry Pack Pack after blanched, cooled, and drained. Pack quickly, excluding air. Tray Pack After draining, spread in a single layer on a shallow pan. Freeze firm. After first hour, check often. Pack quickly, excluding air.
Freezing 98 Freezing Meats and Poultry Keep meat or poultry and everything they touch as clean as possible. Keep cold until frozen. Never stuff poultry before freezing. Store-bought meats must be over-wrapped. Freeze meats and poultry using the drugstore or butcher wrap (drugstore wrap preferred except for irregular meat cuts).
Freezing 99 Freezing Fish Pre-treat as directed to control rancidity, flavor changes or loss of liquid. Package using one of the following: Lemon-gelatin glaze Ice glaze Water
Freezing 100 Lemon-gelatin glaze Mix 1/4 cup lemon juice and 1-3/4 cups water. Dissolve 1 packet unflavored gelatin into 1/2 cup of this mixture. Heat remaining mixture to boiling and add dissolved gelatin. Cool, dip fish, wrap and freeze.
Freezing 101 Freezing Prepared Foods Many can be frozen. Follow directions in a credible freezer publication.
Freezing 102 Thawing Fruit Best if served with ice crystals present. Thaw: In refrigerator -- 6 to 8 hours per pound of fruit in syrup At room temperature -- 1 to 2 hours per pound At room temperature in cool water -- 1/2 to 1 hour per pound In microwave oven - follow manufacturer’s instructions.
Freezing 103 Dry sugar packs thaw faster than syrup packs. Unsweetened packs thaw the slowest. When used in recipes, allow for added sugar and more juice.
Freezing 104 Thawing Thaw: In refrigerator In microwave oven (follow manufacturer’s directions) In cold water (keep water cold) Vegetables Cook without thawing except partially thaw corn-on- the-cob and leafy greens. Meats, Fish, Poultry Can be cooked when thawed or frozen (might take 1- 1/2 times longer if cooked frozen).
Freezing 105 Freezer Emergencies If power will be off, set freezer controls to 10ºF to -20ºF immediately. Do not open door. Foods stay frozen longer if freezer is full, well-insulated, and in cool area. Full freezer -- keeps 2 to 4 days Half full freezer -- 24 hours
Freezing 106 If power interruption longer than 1 to 2 days, use dry ice: 50 lbs -- keeps full 20 cubic foot freezer below freezing for 3 to 4 days 50 lbs -- keeps half-full freezer for 2 to 3 days Keep dry ice on boards or heavy cardboard on top of food. Do not touch dry ice. Do not open freezer. Ventilate room.
Freezing 107 Refreezing Thawed Foods Refreeze potentially hazardous food if: freezer temperature is 40ºF or colder or if ice crystals are still present. Texture will not be as good. Product might be mushy
Drying 109 History of Drying One of the oldest methods of food preservation. Practiced by nomadic peoples of the Middle East and Asia Dried foods are light, take little space, and don’t need refrigeration. Dried foods are ideal for traveling-camping, backpacking.
Drying 110 How Drying Preserves Food Drying removes moisture from food so bacteria, yeasts, and molds cannot grow and spoil the food. Drying also slows the action of enzymes, but does not kill them.
Drying 111 Advantages of Drying Simple, safe, and easy No special equipment
Drying 112 Methods of Drying Sun or Solar Drying Vine Drying Room Drying Oven Drying Dehydrators
Drying 113 Sun Drying Temperature – 85 o F or higher Low humidity Several days of sunny weather 2 drying racks or screens on blocks Cover for the foods at night
Drying 114 Solar Drying Uses a specially designed dehydrator to increase temperature and air current to speed up sun drying. Solar dryers use a reflectant, such as aluminum foil or glass, to increase the sun’s temperature. Air vents at each end increase the flow of air. Get directions for making a solar dryer from your county Extension Agent.
Drying 115 Vine Drying Pasteurization Sun-dried fruits and vine-dried beans need treatment to kill insects/eggs. Freezer Method-seal food in freezer bags. Place in freezer at 0 o F or low for at least 48 hours. Oven Method-place food in single layer on tray. Heat in 160 o F oven for 30 minutes.
Drying 116 Oven Drying Little or no investment in equipment Not dependent on weather Ovens can dry most foods
Drying 117 Disadvantages of Oven Drying Cost of energy used Food is usually darker, more brittle, and less flavorful Time required to dry foods
Drying 118 Electric Dehydrator Features Double wall construction; metal or high grade plastic Enclosed heating elements Enclosed thermostat with dial control, from 85- 160 o F Timer Fan or blower 4 to 10 open mesh trays- sturdy, easy-wash, plastic UL seal of approval
Drying 120 Preparation Select high quality produce Wash and core Leave whole, half, or slice in equal pieces Select an appropriate pretreatment Whichever drying method you use, be sure to place in a single layer on the drying trays. Pieces should not touch or overlap. Follow directions for your drying method until dry.
Drying 121 Pretreatments Fruit Sulfuring Ascorbic Acid Fruit Juice Dip Honey Dip Syrup Blanching Steam Blanching Vegetables Blanching
Drying 122 Testing for Dryness Vegetables Brittle Flake when crushed Fruit No visible moisture Pliable, but not sticky or tacky Folded in half–doesn’t stick to itself Berries should rattle
Drying 123 Packaging and Storing Cool 30-60 minutes Pack loosely in plastic or glass jars Seal containers tightly Store in cool, dark place Dried fruit needs conditioning (allow fruit to stand for 7-10 days, shake daily) Check moisture condensation!
Drying 124 Using Dried Foods Dried fruits are delicious as a snack (try making some dried fruit leather) or in many prepared dishes. Dried vegetables are also good in recipes when re-hydrated. Dried fruits and vegetables are a good way to store emergency food.