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Home Food Preservation Made Easy. 2 Prepared by:  Renay Knapp, Henderson County  Tracy Davis, Rutherford County  Cathy Hohenstein, Buncombe County.

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Presentation on theme: "Home Food Preservation Made Easy. 2 Prepared by:  Renay Knapp, Henderson County  Tracy Davis, Rutherford County  Cathy Hohenstein, Buncombe County."— Presentation transcript:

1 Home Food Preservation Made Easy

2 2 Prepared by:  Renay Knapp, Henderson County  Tracy Davis, Rutherford County  Cathy Hohenstein, Buncombe County  Julie Padgett, McDowell County  Sue Estridge, Madison County  Sandi Sox, Polk County

3 3 Acknowledgements  Angela Fraser, NC State University  Cheryl Beck, Jackson County  Pam Staton, Clay County  Jessica Robison, Swain County  April Conley, formerly in Cherokee County  Latresa Philips, formerly in Graham County  Lynda Spivey, formerly in Buncombe County  Megan Schaffer, formerly in Henderson County

4 4 Canning Basics

5 Basics of Canning 5  Food is placed in a jar and heated to a temperature that destroys targeted microorganisms.  Heat also inactivates enzymes that cause spoilage.  Air is driven from the jar during heating. As the jar cools a vacuum seal is formed.

6 Basics of Canning 6 High Acid Foods (pH <4.6)  All fruits, except for:  figs  tomatoes, and  melons  Fermented pickles, such as sauerkraut  Acidified foods, such as pickles

7 Basics of Canning 7 Low-acid Food (pH >4.6)  All vegetables, except rhubarb  Meats  Poultry  Seafood  Soups  Mixed canned foods (low-acid + high-acid) 

8 Basics of Canning 8 Two Methods of Canning Boiling Water Canning -- used for high-acid foods Pressure Canning -- used for low-acid foods (and some high-acid foods)

9 Basics of Canning 9 Why Two Ways to Can?  Yeast, molds, and most bacteria are destroyed at boiling temperatures ºF at sea level.  C. botulinum forms spores that require higher temperatures for destruction in a reasonable period of time -- usually 240ºF or above at sea level.

10 Basics of Canning 10 What Makes Canned Food Unsafe?  Clostridium botulinum  Causes botulism poisoning  Found naturally in soil and water.  Produce heat-resistant spores that only destroyed by pressure processing.  10-35% of people who get botulism die.

11 Basics of Canning 11 Botulism and Growth To grow, the spores need:  oxygen-free environment  low-acid food  temperature between 40ºF to 120ºF  relatively high moisture

12 Basics of Canning 12 Botulism and Growth Conditions for C. botulinum to grow can be found in:  Home canned foods  Smoked fish and sausage  Foil-wrapped baked potatoes  Packaged mushrooms  Pot pies

13 Basics of Canning 13 Preventing Botulism  Spores do not grow in high-acid foods.  Spores killed when low- acid foods heated long enough at a specific temperature.  Process low-acid foods at 240ºF.  Use pressure canner for all low-acid foods.

14 Basics of Canning 14 Other Ways to Prevent Botulism  Test pressure canner dial gauge for accuracy each year before use.  Correctly operate canner.  Check canned food carefully before use.  If toxin is suspected, detoxify food before discarding. The toxin is destroyed by boiling even though the spores are not.

15 Basics of Canning 15 Unsafe Canning Methods  Open Kettle  Oven Canning  Dishwasher  Addition of Aspirin  Steam Canners  Microwave Oven Canners

16 Boiling Water Bath16 Boiling Water Bath Used for high-acid foods and acidified foods

17 Basics of Canning 17 Boiling Water Bath  Have water simmering or hot in canner, high enough to cover jars (about six inches).  Hot packed jars = simmering water  Raw packed jars = warm to hot water  Wipe rim of jars and adjust lids.  Lower jars slowly into canner.

18 Boiling Water Bath 18 Using a Boiling Water Bath  Place jars on rack in canner.  Add more hot water if necessary, once jars are in canner. (Don’t pour hot water directly onto raw- packed jars).  Count processing time when water returns to a boil.  Remove jars to a padded surface.  Cool away from drafts, 12 to 24 hours.

19 Pressure Canning19 Pressure Canning Used for low-acid foods

20 Presssure Canning 20 Inspect Your Pressure Canner  Some parts might need assembling -- see manufacturer’s directions.  Become familiar with parts and their functions.  Clean to remove oils.  Lightly coat the exposed gasket and lugs on the canner bottom with cooking oil.  Before each use be sure vent pipes are clear and open.

21 Pressure Canning 21 Using a Pressure Canner  Have 2 to 3 inches of water simmering or hot in canner.  Hot packed jars = simmering water  Raw packed jars = warm to hot water  Place jars on rack in canner.  Put lid on canner with weight off or petcock open.

22 Pressure Canning 22  Exhaust canner for 10 minutes.  Close vent or petcock.  Start counting processing times when correct pressure is reached.  Turn off heat at end of processing.  Let pressure drop to 0 psig naturally.

23 Pressure Canning 23  Wait 2 minutes after pressure drops to 0 psig. (For some canners, check that locks in handles are released).  Remove weight or petcock.  Open canner. Watch steam!  Remove jars to padded surface or rack.  Cool jars for 24 hours, undisturbed.  Check that jars have sealed.

24 Pressure Canning 24 Process Food Properly Follow a credible recipe exactly  The following slows heat penetration:  Extra sugar or fat  Oversized food pieces  Added thickeners Process food properly  Heat-up and cool-down times in pressure canners are counted toward sterilizing value of the process. Never rush them.

25 Pressure Canning 25 Importance of Processing Time  Each food and preparation style has its own processing time.  Processing time differs with size of jar.  Too short  Underprocessing  Spoilage or unsafe food  Too long  Overprocessing  Overcooked

26 Pressure Canning 26 What Affects Processing Time  Acidity of the food  Preparation style of the food  Composition of the food - Viscosity - Tightness of pack - Convection vs. conduction transfer of heat - Starches, fats, bones  Initial temperature of food as it is packed into jar  Temperature of processing  Size and shape of jar

27 Pressure Canning 27 Altitude Adjustments  As altitude increases, the temperature decreases at a given pressure.  Dial-gauge processing changes:  feet = 11 pounds pressure  feet = 12 pounds pressure  feet = 13 pounds pressure  feet = 14 pounds pressure

28 Pressure Canning 28  Weighted gauge adjustments  feet = 10 pounds pressure  At altitudes above 1000 feet, process at 15 pounds pressure.  Boiling water canner adjustments  Generally, the processing time will increase.  Use a credible resource to determine processing time.

29 Equipment29 Canning Equipment Proper equipment is essential to a safe product.

30 Footer 30 Canning Jars  Check jars for nicks, cracks, and rough edges.  Wash in soapy water, rinse well, and keep hot.  If food is processed for less than 10 minutes, need to be sterilized.  Do not use single-use jars, such as mayonnaise and tomato sauce jars, to process food at home.

31 Equipment 31 Canning Lids  Use two-piece lids.  Flat lid cannot be reused but the ring band can.  Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for treating them.

32 Preparing and Packing32 Preparing and Packing Food

33 Preparing and Packing 33 Raw Pack  For foods that lose shape when cooked.  Place raw food directly in jars. Boiling hot liquid is then poured over the food.  Pack firmly, don’t crush.  Add jars carefully to warm canner to avoid breakage from heat shock.  Follow a reliable recipe.

34 Preparing and Packing 34 Hot Pack  Preferred method for most foods.  Food is cooked in liquid before packing. Cooking liquid is then poured over food in jar.  Fewer jars needed.  Less floating of food and better color and flavor.  Foods easier to pack.  Kills some microorganisms.

35 Preparing and Packing 35 Headspace  Space in the jar between the inside of the lid and the top of the food or its liquid.  Check canning directions to determine the correct headspace for each food.  Usually:  1/4” for jellies  1/2” for high-acid foods, such as fruits, tomatoes, and pickles  1” to 1-1/4” for low-acid foods

36 Preparing and Packing 36 Problems with Headspace Too little:  Food may bubble out during processing.  Deposit on rim may prevent proper sealing. Too much:  Food at the top is likely to discolor.  Jar may not seal properly, because processing time not long enough to drive all the air from inside the jar.

37 Preparing and Packing 37 Before Sealing Jars  Remove air bubbles.  Re-adjust headspace if necessary.  Wipe jar rims.  Adjust two-piece lids, fingertip-tight.

38 Jams and Jellies38 Jams and Jellies

39 39 Types of Jams and Jelly  Jam  Jelly  Marmalade  Preserves  Conserves  Butter

40 Jams and Jellies 40 Jelly  Made from strained fruit juice.  Should be clear and sparkling.  Gelled enough to hold its shape outside the jar, yet soft enough to spread easily.  Forms sharp angle when cut. Jam  Made by cooking crushed or chopped fruits with sugar until the mixture will round up on a spoon.  Can be made with one or more fruits.  Should be firm but spreadable.  Does not hold the shape of the jar.

41 Jams and Jellies 41 Preserves  Fruits preserved with sugar so that the fruit retains its shape  Is clear, shiny, tender and plump  Syrup is clear and varies from the thickness of honey to that of soft jelly Marmalade  Tender jelly with small pieces of fruit or citrus peels distributed evenly throughout

42 Jams and Jellies 42 Conserves  Jam-like product made by cooking two or more fruits with sugar until it. roundups on a spoon or flakes from it.  A true conserve contains nuts and raisins. Butter  Cook fruit pulp and sugar to thick consistency.  Add spices -- amount and variety vary.  Cook slowly after sugar is added until thick enough to round up on a spoon.  Process pulp in a food mill and strain through a fine- meshed sieve.

43 Jams and Jellies 43 Essential Ingredients  Fruit  Pectin  Acid  Sugar

44 Jams and Jellies 44 Fruit  Provides flavor  Furnishes pectin and acid for gelling  1 pound fruit = 1 cup juice  Use top quality fruit

45 Jams and Jellies 45 Pectin  Natural substance found in varying amounts in fruits that causes jelly to gel.  Slightly under-ripe fruit contains more pectin than fully ripe fruit.  When making soft spreads without added pectin, use ¼ under-ripe and ¾ ripe.

46 Jams and Jellies 46 Fruits High in Pectin  Tart Apples  Concord Grapes  Sour Blackberries  Cranberries  Currants  Gooseberries  Quinces  Sour Plums

47 Jams and Jellies 47 Fruits Low in Pectin  Apricots  Blueberries  Cherries  Peaches  Pineapple  Rhubarb  Strawberries

48 Jams and Jellies 48 Commercial Pectin  Liquid  added to mixture after all other ingredients have been brought to a boil.  Powdered  stirred into the fruit and brought to a boil before the sugar is added.  Purchase fresh pectin each year.

49 Jams and Jellies 49 Why Use Commercial Pectin?  More jelly produced from the fruit  Better color  Less chance of failure  Shorter cooking time

50 Jams and Jellies 50 Acid  Needed for gel formation.  Under-ripe fruits have more acid.  Commercial pectin contains some acid.

51 Jams and Jellies 51 Sugar  Contributes to flavor.  Helps in gel formation.  Serves as preserving agent.

52 Jams and Jellies 52 Sugar Substitutes  Light Corn Syrup  Honey

53 Jams and Jellies 53 Artificial Sweeteners  Cannot be interchanged for sugar in recipes  Use a recipe that specifies an artificial sweetener or lower- sugar pectin product

54 Jams and Jellies 54 Other Ingredients  Spices  Nuts  Flavoring

55 Jams and Jellies 55 Equipment and Utensils  Large Saucepot  Food Scale  Jelly Thermometer  Jelly Bag  Spice bag  Kitchen timer  Skimmer  Slotted spoon  Funnel  Jars or containers

56 Jams and Jellies 56 Gelling Tests – Plate Test  Place small amount on chilled plate.  Set plate in freezer until cooled to room temperature.  If mixture is set, put in jars.

57 Jams and Jellies 57 Gelling Tests -- Thermometer  Determine gelling point for your elevation.  Establish the boiling point of water then add 8 o F for the gelling point.  Hold thermometer vertical; read at eye level.  Remove from heat when gelling point reached.

58 Jams and Jellies 58 Gelling Test - Sheeting  Dip cool metal spoon in boiling jelly.  Lift out spoonful of mixture, away from steam  Tip spoon over a dish so juice will drop off  Gelling point reached when sheets off spoon

59 Jams and Jellies 59 Special Tips  Use reliable recipes and follow directions carefully.  Measure ingredients carefully.  Never reduce amount of sugar or double the recipe.  Do not squeeze the jelly bag.  Use large sauce pans for cooking.  Cook as quickly as possible.  Cook longer in high humidity.  Process after packing.

60 60 Pickles Includes fresh-pack and fermented fruits and vegetables

61 Pickles 61 Types of Pickles  Brined or Fermented Pickles  Fresh Pack or Quick Process Pickles  Fruit Pickles  Relishes

62 Pickles 62 Ingredients  High quality produce  Salt  Vinegar  Sugar  Spices  Water  Firming Agents

63 Pickles 63 Equipment Brining container  Stoneware  Large glass jars  Food-grade plastic Saucepan  Stainless Steel  Aluminum  Glass  Unchipped  Enamelware

64 Pickles 64 Other Equipment  Measuring spoons  Measuring cups  Sharp knives  Large trays  Tongs  Vegetable peeler  Ladle

65 Pickles 65 Other Equipment  Slotted Spoon  Footed Colander or Wire Basket  Large Mouth Funnel  Food Chopper or Grinder  Cutting Board  Large Spoons  Household Scales

66 Freezing66 Freezing

67 67 How Freezing Affects Food Chemical changes  Enzymes in vegetables  Enzymes in fruit  Rancidity Texture Changes  Expansion of food  Ice crystals

68 Freezing 68 Advantages of Freezing  Most foods can be frozen.  Natural color, flavor, and nutritive value retained.  Texture usually better than other methods of food preservation.  Foods can be frozen in less time than they can be dried or canned.  Simple procedures.  Adds convenience to food preparation.  Proportions can be adapted to needs unlike other home preservation methods.  Kitchen remains cool and comfortable.

69 Freezing 69 Disadvantages of Freezing  Texture of some foods is undesirable because of freezing process.  Initial investment and cost of maintaining freezer is high.  Storage space limited by capacity of freezer.

70 Freezing 70 Shelf-life of Vegetables Temperature 0ºF 5ºF 10ºF 15ºF 20ºF 25ºF 30ºF Length of Storage 1 year 5 months 2 months 1 month 2 weeks 1 week 3 days

71 Freezing 71 Freezing Tips Freeze foods quickly  Set freezer temperature at -10ºF at least 24 hours before freezing foods.  Spread packages out until frozen, then stack.  Store at 0ºF or colder for best quality.

72 Freezing 72 Freezing Tips  Freeze foods at <0ºF (24 before freezing foods set freezer at -10ºF).  Freeze foods immediately.  Do not overload freezer with unfrozen food. Freeze amount that will freeze in 24 hours to 3 pounds of food per cubic foot.  Pack already frozen foods together so they do not thaw.

73 Freezing 73 Freezing Tips  Place unfrozen foods in contact with surfaces and in coldest parts of freezer.  Arrange food so air can circulate.  When food is frozen, organize freezer by types of food.  Arrange frozen foods so that the foods frozen longer can be used first.  Keep a current frozen foods inventory.  Check freezer temperature periodically.

74 Freezing 74 Selecting a Freezer Consider:  Size  Shape  Efficiency  Defrosting features  Available floor area  Amount of freezer space needed

75 Freezing 75 Determining Size You Need  General Rule  Allow 6 cubic feet of freezer space per person (3 cubic feet per person might be adequate if other methods of food preservation are used).  Standard Freezer  Capacity pounds of frozen food per cubic foot or usable space.

76 Freezing 76 Types of Freezers Upright  6 to 22 cubic feet  Convenient  Uses small floor space  Easy to load and unload Chest  6 to32 cubic feet  Takes more floor space  More economical to buy and to operate than upright  Less air loss when opened

77 Freezing 77 Refrigerator/Freezer Combination  2 to 6 cubic feet  Be sure can set temperature at 0ºF or colder  Freezer can be above, below, or beside refrigerator area  Other features  Self defrosting or manual defrost  Receptacle clips - prevent accidental disconnecting  Door locks & drains for defrosting

78 Freezing 78 Location and Placement  Place in convenient, cool, dry, well- ventilated area.  Do not place by stove, range, water heater or in the sun.  Do not push flush against wall. Leave space for air circulation and cleaning.  Be sure freezer is level.

79 Freezing 79 General Freezing Instructions Selection  Freezing does not improve quality.  Choose the highest quality available.  Freeze promptly.  Remember some foods do not freeze well. Preparation  Work under sanitary conditions.  Follow recommended procedures.

80 Freezing 80 Freezer Packaging  Moisture-vapor resistant  Durable and leak-proof  Not become brittle and crack at low temperatures.  Protects foods from absorption of off-flavors or odors  Easy to seal and mark

81 Freezing 81 Types of Packaging  Rigid Containers  Plastic freezer containers  Freezer boxes with liners  Coffee canisters  Wide mouth canning/freezing jars  Good for liquids, soft, juicy, or liquid-packed foods  May be reusable  Hold their shape and can be stored upright

82 Freezing 82 Non-Rigid Containers  Bags  Wrappings - cellophane, heavy-duty aluminum foil, polyethylene, laminated paper Good for firm, non- juicy foods

83 Freezing 83 Packing Foods  Cool food before freezing -- ice bath  Pack in serving size quantities -- usually up to 1 quart  Pack foods tightly.  Allow for some headspace -- vegetables like broccoli and asparagus, bony pieces of meat, tray packed foods, and breads, do not need any headspace.

84 Freezing 84  Press all air from bagged foods, seal bags by twisting and then folding over loose edge (gooseneck). Secure with string, twist-tie or rubber band.  Use tight lid on rigid containers and keep sealing edge clean. Use freezer tape on loose fitting covers.

85 Freezing 85 Labeling  Name of product  Added ingredients  Form of food: halves, whole, or ground  Packing date  Number of servings or amount

86 Freezing 86 Packing Fruits Syrup Pack  Better texture  Not needed for safety  Cover fruit with syrup -- place crumpled water-resistant paper in top of container Sugar Pack  Soft sliced fruits (strawberries, peaches) make on syrup when mixed with the right proportion of sugar.  Layer fruit and sugar.  Allow to stand for 15 minutes.

87 Freezing 87 Dry Pack  Good for small whole fruits such as berries that do not need sugar.  Simply pack into containers and freeze.  Can freeze on a tray first, so pour easily. Pectin Syrup  Good for strawberries and peaches.  Mix one package powdered pectin with one cup water.  Bring to boil, boil 1 minute.  Remove from heat, cool, and add 1-3/4 cups more water.

88 Freezing 88 Water or Unsweetened Juice Packs  Texture will be mushier.  Color poorer.  Freezes harder, takes longer to thaw. Packs for Purees or Juices  Pack as is, with or without sugar.  Add ascorbic acid if light-colored.

89 Freezing 89 Packing with Artificial Sweeteners  Can be used in the pectin syrup, juice, or water packs.  Or could be added just before serving  Do not help with color retention or texture, like sugar does.  Use amounts on product labels.

90 Freezing 90 Preventing Fruit Darkening  Use one of the following:  1 teaspoon (3000 mg) ascorbic acid to one gallon of water  Commercial ascorbic acid mixture  Steaming the fruit  The following do not work as well:  Citric acid solution  Lemon juice  Sugar syrup  Salt/vinegar solution

91 Freezing 91 Ascorbic Acid  Most economical.  Use powdered or tablet form.  1/2 teaspoon powdered ascorbic acid = 1500 mg  Crush tablets well.  Use amount specified for each fruit.  In syrup or liquid packs, add powder to liquid.  In sugar or dry packs, dissolve 2 to 3 tablespoons in cold water and sprinkle over fruit.  For crushed fruit, purees or juices, mix with fruit about 1/8 teaspoon per quart.

92 Freezing 92 Ascorbic Acid Mixtures  Follow package directions Steaming  Best for fruits that will be cooked before use  Follow directions in freezing publications

93 Freezing 93 Freezing Vegetables  Select young, tender, high-quality vegetables.  Sort for size and ripeness.  Wash and drain before removing skins or shells.  Wash small lots at a time, lifting out of water. Do not soak.  Work in small quantities, preparing per instructions.

94 Freezing 94 Blanching Vegetables  Blanch to prevent flavor and color changes.  Blanch using water or steam.  Water blanching  Use 1 gallon water per pound of vegetables.  Place vegetables in blanching basket.  Lower into vigorously boiling water.  Cover and begin timing.

95 Freezing 95 Steam Blanching  Use kettle with tight lid and basket.  Put 1 to 2 inches of boiling water in the bottom of pan.  Vegetables should be in a single layer in basket.  Start timing when covered.  Takes 1-1/2 times longer than water blanching.

96 Freezing 96 Microwave Blanching (not recommended)  Enzymes might not be inactivated.  Does not save time or energy.  Use specific directions and blanch small quantities at a time.  After blanching, cool immediately in cold water.  Change water frequently.

97 Freezing 97 Packing Vegetables Dry Pack  Pack after blanched, cooled, and drained.  Pack quickly, excluding air. Tray Pack  After draining, spread in a single layer on a shallow pan.  Freeze firm.  After first hour, check often.  Pack quickly, excluding air.

98 Freezing 98 Freezing Meats and Poultry  Keep meat or poultry and everything they touch as clean as possible.  Keep cold until frozen.  Never stuff poultry before freezing.  Store-bought meats must be over-wrapped.  Freeze meats and poultry using the drugstore or butcher wrap (drugstore wrap preferred except for irregular meat cuts).

99 Freezing 99 Freezing Fish  Pre-treat as directed to control rancidity, flavor changes or loss of liquid.  Package using one of the following:  Lemon-gelatin glaze  Ice glaze  Water

100 Freezing 100 Lemon-gelatin glaze  Mix 1/4 cup lemon juice and 1-3/4 cups water.  Dissolve 1 packet unflavored gelatin into 1/2 cup of this mixture.  Heat remaining mixture to boiling and add dissolved gelatin.  Cool, dip fish, wrap and freeze.

101 Freezing 101 Freezing Prepared Foods  Many can be frozen.  Follow directions in a credible freezer publication.

102 Freezing 102 Thawing Fruit  Best if served with ice crystals present.  Thaw:  In refrigerator -- 6 to 8 hours per pound of fruit in syrup  At room temperature -- 1 to 2 hours per pound  At room temperature in cool water -- 1/2 to 1 hour per pound  In microwave oven - follow manufacturer’s instructions.

103 Freezing 103  Dry sugar packs thaw faster than syrup packs.  Unsweetened packs thaw the slowest.  When used in recipes, allow for added sugar and more juice.

104 Freezing 104 Thawing  Thaw:  In refrigerator  In microwave oven (follow manufacturer’s directions)  In cold water (keep water cold)  Vegetables  Cook without thawing except partially thaw corn-on- the-cob and leafy greens.  Meats, Fish, Poultry  Can be cooked when thawed or frozen (might take 1- 1/2 times longer if cooked frozen).

105 Freezing 105 Freezer Emergencies  If power will be off, set freezer controls to 10ºF to -20ºF immediately.  Do not open door.  Foods stay frozen longer if freezer is full, well-insulated, and in cool area.  Full freezer -- keeps 2 to 4 days  Half full freezer hours

106 Freezing 106  If power interruption longer than 1 to 2 days, use dry ice:  50 lbs -- keeps full 20 cubic foot freezer below freezing for 3 to 4 days  50 lbs -- keeps half-full freezer for 2 to 3 days  Keep dry ice on boards or heavy cardboard on top of food.  Do not touch dry ice.  Do not open freezer.  Ventilate room.

107 Freezing 107 Refreezing Thawed Foods  Refreeze potentially hazardous food if:  freezer temperature is 40ºF or colder or  if ice crystals are still present.  Texture will not be as good.  Product might be mushy

108 Drying108 Drying Foods

109 Drying 109 History of Drying  One of the oldest methods of food preservation.  Practiced by nomadic peoples of the Middle East and Asia  Dried foods are light, take little space, and don’t need refrigeration.  Dried foods are ideal for traveling-camping, backpacking.

110 Drying 110 How Drying Preserves Food  Drying removes moisture from food so bacteria, yeasts, and molds cannot grow and spoil the food.  Drying also slows the action of enzymes, but does not kill them.

111 Drying 111 Advantages of Drying  Simple, safe, and easy  No special equipment

112 Drying 112 Methods of Drying  Sun or Solar Drying  Vine Drying  Room Drying  Oven Drying  Dehydrators

113 Drying 113 Sun Drying  Temperature – 85 o F or higher  Low humidity  Several days of sunny weather  2 drying racks or screens on blocks  Cover for the foods at night

114 Drying 114 Solar Drying  Uses a specially designed dehydrator to increase temperature and air current to speed up sun drying.  Solar dryers use a reflectant, such as aluminum foil or glass, to increase the sun’s temperature. Air vents at each end increase the flow of air.  Get directions for making a solar dryer from your county Extension Agent.

115 Drying 115 Vine Drying  Pasteurization  Sun-dried fruits and vine-dried beans need treatment to kill insects/eggs.  Freezer Method-seal food in freezer bags. Place in freezer at 0 o F or low for at least 48 hours.  Oven Method-place food in single layer on tray. Heat in 160 o F oven for 30 minutes.

116 Drying 116 Oven Drying  Little or no investment in equipment  Not dependent on weather  Ovens can dry most foods

117 Drying 117 Disadvantages of Oven Drying  Cost of energy used  Food is usually darker, more brittle, and less flavorful  Time required to dry foods

118 Drying 118 Electric Dehydrator Features  Double wall construction; metal or high grade plastic  Enclosed heating elements  Enclosed thermostat with dial control, from o F  Timer  Fan or blower  4 to 10 open mesh trays- sturdy, easy-wash, plastic  UL seal of approval

119 Drying 119 Equipment for Drying  Sharp paring knife  Colander/Steamer  Cutting board  Vegetable peeler  Food processor/vegetable slicer  Blender  Measuring utensils

120 Drying 120 Preparation  Select high quality produce  Wash and core  Leave whole, half, or slice in equal pieces  Select an appropriate pretreatment  Whichever drying method you use, be sure to place in a single layer on the drying trays.  Pieces should not touch or overlap.  Follow directions for your drying method until dry.

121 Drying 121 Pretreatments Fruit  Sulfuring  Ascorbic Acid  Fruit Juice Dip  Honey Dip  Syrup Blanching  Steam Blanching Vegetables  Blanching

122 Drying 122 Testing for Dryness Vegetables  Brittle  Flake when crushed Fruit  No visible moisture  Pliable, but not sticky or tacky  Folded in half–doesn’t stick to itself  Berries should rattle

123 Drying 123 Packaging and Storing  Cool minutes  Pack loosely in plastic or glass jars  Seal containers tightly  Store in cool, dark place  Dried fruit needs conditioning (allow fruit to stand for 7-10 days, shake daily) Check moisture condensation!

124 Drying 124 Using Dried Foods  Dried fruits are delicious as a snack (try making some dried fruit leather) or in many prepared dishes.  Dried vegetables are also good in recipes when re-hydrated.  Dried fruits and vegetables are a good way to store emergency food.


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