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© Boardworks Ltd of 10
© Boardworks Ltd of 10 How are the particles arranged in a solid, a liquid and a gas? What is conduction? solid liquid gas Particles that are very close together can transfer heat energy as they vibrate. This type of heat transfer is called conduction. What type of solids are the best conductors? Conduction is the method of heat transfer in solids but not liquids and gases. Why?
© Boardworks Ltd of 10 How do nonmetals conduct heat?
© Boardworks Ltd of 10 Metals are good conductors of heat. The outer electrons of metal atoms are not attached to any particular atom. They are free to move between the atoms. When a metal is heated, the free electrons gain kinetic energy. How do metals conduct heat? heat This means that the free electrons move faster and transfer the energy through the metal. This makes heat transfer in metals very efficient. Insulators do not have free electrons and so they do not conduct heat as well as metals.
© Boardworks Ltd of 10 What happens a fluid is heated? Liquids and gases can both flow and behave in similar ways, so they are called fluids. heat less dense fluid The heated fluid particles gain energy, so they move about more and spread out. The same number of particles now take up more space, so the fluid has become less dense. What happens to the particles in a fluid when it is heated?
© Boardworks Ltd of 10 What is convection? Warmer regions of a fluid are less dense than cooler regions of the same fluid. called a convection current. The warmer regions will rise because they are less dense. The cooler regions will sink since they are more dense. This is how heat transfer takes place in fluids. It is called convection. The steady flow between the warm and cool sections of a fluid, such as air or water, is
© Boardworks Ltd of 10 How does convection in a liquid occur?
© Boardworks Ltd of 10 How does convection in a gas occur?
© Boardworks Ltd of 10 Why is the freezer compartment at the top of a fridge? The freezer compartment is at the top of a fridge because cool air sinks. This warmer air rises and so a convection current is set up inside the fridge, which helps to keep the fridge cool. Why is convection important in fridges? The freezer cools the air at the top and this cold air cools the food on the way down. It is warmer at the bottom of the fridge.
© Boardworks Ltd of 10 Conduction and convection – summary
© Boardworks Ltd of 32. © Boardworks Ltd of 32.
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