# Information contained here is taken from Junction Hill.

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Information contained here is taken from Junction Hill

A Problem Statement A Hypothesis List of Independent Variables A Measurable Dependent Variable Control Variables List of Materials Procedure Data Table Graph Conclusion

Determine whether your idea is a demonstration or an experiment In order to perform an experiment, we must understand variables Independent Variables Dependent Variables If idea is a demonstration, then try to mold it into an experiment Control Variables

Independent Variable Items in the experiment which are being tested or changed Dependent Variable How the effects of the independent variables will be measured in the experiment Control Variables Items in the experiment which are not being tested and must remain constant

The Independent variable is the item you are testing within the experiment. Examples might be: Height of a ramp Amount of salt 4 cm 6 cm 8 cm 1 teaspoon or 10 grams 2 teaspoons or 20 grams 3 teaspoons or 30 grams

The dependent variable is the item you are using to measure the effect of the independent variable Examples might be: 60.2 cm Distance The Car Travelled Time it takes the salt water to freeze Salt Water Ice Cube froze in 27 min 22 sec or 1642 sec

A problem statement is stated as a question The question should begin with one of the following words: (Which or How) The form of the question should be: Which or How will the Independent Variable affect the Dependent Variable

How will the height of the ramp affect the distance the car will travel? Which amount of salt dissolved in water will freeze in the shortest period of time?

I think the car on the 8 cm high ramp will travel the farthest distance from the end of the ramp I think the ice cube with the least amount of salt (1 tsp) will freeze in the shortest period of time

The independent variable for the first experiment would be: Height of the Ramp 4cm 6cm 8cm The independent variable for the second experiment would be: Amount of salt 1 tsp (10 grams) 2 tsp (20 grams) 3 tsp (30 grams)

4 cm RunDistance (cm) 1145.3 2146.7 3144.2 4147.1 5145.5 avg145.8 6 cm8 cm RunDistance (cm) 1157.4 2159.1 3158.8 4157.9 5158.4 avg158.3 RunDistance (cm) 1169.7 2171.2 3170.8 4171.8 5170.3 avg170.8 Whether we are measuring the distance a car will travel down ramps of different heights, or if we are measuring the time it takes water with different amounts of salt to freeze, the measurements are considered our dependent variable Amount of Salt (tsp or grams) Time for ice cube to freeze (seconds) 1 teaspoon or 10 grams1642 sec 2 teaspoons or 20 grams1822 sec 3 teaspoons or 30 grams1983 sec

Control variables are parts of the experiment that must be the same every time you are measuring the effects of the independent variable Controls in Experiment 1 Place car at same location on the rampUse the same car for each experimentThe surface of the ramps must be the same Controls in Experiment 2 When dissolving salt, use the same amount of water Ice cubes must be the same size Freeze at the same temperature

A list of materials is necessary in case someone wants to perform the experiment Matchbox Car Ruler with cm measurement 12” x 18” Piece of Cardboard 2- 3cm blocks and 2-4 cm blocks Materials for Experiment 1 At least 6 teaspoons or 60 grams of salt A Refrigerator 3 small glass jars (hold at least 12 oz or 100 ml) An Ice Tray Materials for Experiment 2

This is a step by step description of how the experiment was performed Experiment 1Experiment 2 Place cardboard on a table Lift and place one 4cm block under and on one side of the cardboard Place car at the top of the cardboard ramp Release car with NO added force Once car comes to a rest, measure the distance from the bottom of the ramp to the front of the car Record the distance and repeat four more times. Calculate and record the average of the five runs Repeat steps 2-5 for the 6cm and 8cm block Place 6 oz or 5oml of water in a jar Pour 1 teaspoon or 10 grams of salt in the water and stir until salt has completely dissolved Pour salt water solution into an ice tray. Be sure to measure the exact amount and record Place ice tray into the freezer portion of a refrigerator, close freezer door and begin recording time as your start time. Once the ice cube is completely frozen, record the time as your stop time. Calculate the time for the ice cube to freeze by subtracting the start time from the stop time. Repeat steps 1-5 for the 2 teaspoon and the 3 teaspoon samples

The data table represents the measured values of the dependent variable collected during the experiment Height of Ramp (cm) Avg Distance Car Travelled (cm) 4145.8 6158.3 8170.8 Experiment 1Experiment 2 Amount of Salt (tsp or grams) Time for ice cube to freeze (seconds) 1 or 101642 2 or 201822 3 or 301983

A graph is a visual representation which provides a way to easily understand the data Distance Car Travelled (cm) 30 60 90 120 150 180 Height of Ramp (cm) 4cm6cm8cm 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 Amount of salt (grams or tsp) 1 or 10 2 or 20 3 or 30 Time to Freeze Ice Cube (seconds) 2100

The conclusion addresses whether or not the hypothesis was correct. Once this question is answered, the conclusion could include a reasoning as to why the hypothesis was correct or incorrect Experiment 1 Original hypothesis I think the car on the 8cm high ramp will travel the farthest distance from the end of the ramp Conclusion My hypothesis was correct, the car on the 8cm ramp travelled the farthest distance. I think the reason this car went the farthest is because it had more potential energy. The higher the ramp, the more potential energy available to convert into motion Original hypothesis I think the ice cube with the least amount of salt (1 tsp) will freeze in the shortest period of time Conclusion My hypothesis was correct, the ice cube with the least amount of salt froze in the shortest period of time. I think the reason this ice cube froze this quickest is because salt contains heat energy which slows the rate of temperature change in the water Experiment 2

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