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Food Safety for Child Nutrition Programs Department of Nutrition University of California, Davis Lesson 5, Slide 1.

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1 Food Safety for Child Nutrition Programs Department of Nutrition University of California, Davis Lesson 5, Slide 1

2 Food Safety for Child Nutrition Programs Lesson 5: HACCP - Ensuring Food Safety at Every Step Lesson 5, Slide 2

3 Lesson Competency Lesson 5, Slide 3 Develop an understanding of ways to monitor and control hazards in the food production process using Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP).

4 Performance Standards Lesson 5, Slide 4 Define HACCP and explain its importance in child nutrition programs. Identify key phases and critical control points in the food preparation process.

5 Performance Standards Lesson 5, Slide 5 Describe methods of controlling food safety hazards during each of the eight phases of the food preparation process: purchasing, receiving, storing, preparing, cooking, serving and holding, cooling, and reheating.

6 Performance Standards Lesson 5, Slide 6 Describe and compare the two most common food thermometer types, and know how to use and calibrate at least one.

7 Vocabulary Lesson 5, Slide 7 Aseptic: Clean, free of microorganisms Cold Storage units temperature monitoring: Monitoring cold storage units by placing thermometers in the warmest area (usually by the door) and the coldest area (usually in the back) and sometimes including a read-out panel outside the unit to check the inside temperature without opening the door.

8 Vocabulary Lesson 5, Slide 8 Control point: A point in the food flow that needs to be controlled so that biological, chemical, and physical contamination does not occur. Corrective action: An action taken if a critical limit is not met.

9 Vocabulary Lesson 5, Slide 9 Critical control point: A point during the food flow where hazards can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to acceptable levels. A critical control point provides a kill step that will destroy bacteria or a control step that prevents or slows down the rate of bacterial growth.

10 Vocabulary Lesson 5, Slide 10 Critical limits: The boundaries set to make sure that a possible hazard is prevented, eliminated, or reduced to an acceptable level (for example, minimum internal cooking temperatures). Food Process Flow: the path that food follows from receiving through serving Hazard: A foreseeable but unavoidable danger.

11 Vocabulary Lesson 5, Slide 11 Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HAACP): A food safety system that focuses on identifying hazards within the flow of food in a food service operation and developing procedures to reduce the risk of foodborne illness and outbreaks. Monitoring: Establishing a procedure to determine if the critical limit is being met.

12 Vocabulary Lesson 5, Slide 12 Pasteurization: A process, used most often with milk, that destroys all disease causing microorganisms and reduces the total number of bacteria, thus increasing shelf life. Septic: Contaminated or infected. Time-temperature indicator (TTI): A strip of liquid crystals that changes color when packaged goods reach an unsafe temperature.

13 Vocabulary Lesson 5, Slide 13 UHT milk: Milk pasteurized using ultra-high temperatures and packaged aseptically. UHT products can be stored for several weeks if kept under refrigeration. No refrigeration is required for short storage periods. Individual creamers are processed in this manner. Verification: The process by which you determine if established critical limits and corrective actions are preventing, eliminating, or reducing hazards to an acceptable level.

14 What is HACCP? Lesson 5, Slide 14 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points

15 What is HACCP? Lesson 5, Slide 15 A system to help prevent foodborne illness through… – Proper food handling – Monitoring – Recordkeeping Purpose: To identify and control potential problems before they happen so that safe food is served.

16 Seven HACCP Principles Lesson 5, Slide Identify hazards 2. Identify critical control points 3. Establish critical limits 4. Establish monitoring procedures 5. Establish corrective actions 6. Establish verification procedures 7. Establish recordkeeping procedures

17 Identify Hazards Lesson 5, Slide 17 Identify hazards in the food service process Biological Chemical Physical

18 Identify Critical Control Points Lesson 5, Slide 18 A critical control point is a point during the food flow where hazards can be prevented, or reduced to acceptable levels before a food is served. It provides a kill step that will destroy bacteria or a control step that prevents or slows down the rate of bacterial growth.

19 Identify Critical Control Points Lesson 5, Slide 19 Most common critical control points –Cooking –Cooling –Reheating –Hot/cold holding

20 Identify Critical Control Points Lesson 5, Slide 20 Other critical control points –Receiving, thawing, mixing ingredients, etc. –Product formulation –Purchasing foods from approved source

21 Establish Critical Limits Lesson 5, Slide 21 Critical limits are the boundaries set to make sure that the possible hazard is prevented, eliminated, or reduced to an acceptable level. Example: Ground beef will be cooked to an internal temperature of 155 °F or higher for at least 15 seconds.

22 Establish Monitoring Procedures Lesson 5, Slide 22 Establish who will monitor a critical control point to make sure that a critical limit is met Establish when and how this person will monitor the critical control point

23 Establish Corrective Actions Lesson 5, Slide 23 Establish what actions a monitor should take if a critical control limit is not met

24 Establish Verification Procedures Lesson 5, Slide 24 Make sure the HACCP plan is working Make sure the critical limits and corrective actions are preventing, eliminating, or reducing hazards to an acceptable level

25 Establish Recordkeeping Procedures Lesson 5, Slide 25 Decide what records need to be kept to… –document the HACCP plan –determine if it is working

26 Food Service Process Lesson 5, Slide 26 Step 1: Purchasing Step 2: Receiving Step 3: Storing Step 4: Preparing

27 Food Service Process Lesson 5, Slide 27 Step 5: Cooking Step 6: Serving and Holding Step 7: Cooling Step 8: Reheating

28 Purchasing Safely Lesson 5, Slide 28 It is your job to choose vendors wisely!

29 Purchasing Lesson 5, Slide 29 Suppliers should… Meet health standards Use HACCP in their operations Train employees in sanitation Use clean delivery trucks with adequate refrigeration and freezer units

30 Purchasing Lesson 5, Slide 30 Suppliers should… Deliver foods at correct temperatures Deliver raw products separately from processed foods and produce

31 Purchasing Lesson 5, Slide 31 Suppliers should… Use protective, leak-proof, durable packaging Upon request, provide policies and procedures on handling recalls and returns

32 Purchasing Lesson 5, Slide 32 You should: Let vendors know expectations. Put food safety standards in purchase specifications. Check vendor’s health inspection report. Ask vendors for a printed copy of their standardized procedure for food sanitation. Work with vendors to establish a schedule.

33 Purchasing Lesson 5, Slide 33 You should: Tell vendors you will be inspecting their trucks at every delivery and then do so. If possible, visit vendors’ warehouses to make sure they are clean and organized. Reject all products that do not meet your requirements.

34 Activity: Safe In, Safe Out Lesson 5, Slide 34 A case study: The delivery truck has just arrived with a variety of foods- some are frozen foods, some are produce, and some are dry foods. It is almost serving time, so Mary is in a rush to receive and store the foods. At the same time, the dairy’s delivery person arrives with the milk.

35 Activity: Safe In, Safe Out Lesson 5, Slide 35 As Mary quickly signs for the shipment, she notices that dirt from the milk cases has gotten into the milk cartons. She thinks about rejecting the milk, but realizes this would leave her without milk to serve to the students as part of the reimbursable meal.

36 Activity: Safe In, Safe Out Lesson 5, Slide 36 So Mary accepts the milk and gives a stern warning to the delivery person. She stores the rest of the foods in the appropriate storage areas and washes each milk carton in cold water to remove the soil before storage.

37 Activity: Safe In, Safe Out Lesson 5, Slide 37 What did Mary do right? –Notices dirt on milk cartons –Stores other food appropriately What did Mary do wrong? –Accepted the dirty milk cartons –Did not keep a day’s supply of milk in storage –Did not schedule deliveries for a more convenient time

38 Receiving Guidelines Lesson 5, Slide 38 Have a calibrated food thermometer in the receiving area to check delivery temperatures. Have a pen and paper available. Keep sanitary carts handy. Plan ahead to make sure you have enough space.

39 Receiving Guidelines Lesson 5, Slide 39 Have the receiving ticket or market order ready. Have the product specification list ready. Keep receiving areas well lit and clean. Keep all flooring clean.

40 Receiving Guidelines Lesson 5, Slide 40 Make sure the truck looks and smells clean. Check the interior temperature to make sure it is appropriate for the foods delivered.

41 Receiving Guidelines Lesson 5, Slide 41 Inspect for appropriate temperatures, food specifications, and food quality. Mark “use by” dates. Check expiration dates of perishables. Make sure shelf-life dates have not expired.

42 Receiving Guidelines Lesson 5, Slide 42 Make sure frozen foods are in airtight, moisture-proof wrappings. Reject thawed and refrozen food. Reject cans if swollen, rusty, dented, or with flawed seams. Check food temperatures.

43 Receiving Guidelines Lesson 5, Slide 43 Look for content or pest damage. Reject foods from dirty flats or crates. Remove empty containers and packing materials immediately. Move foods quickly from receiving area to appropriate storage.

44 Receiving Meat Lesson 5, Slide 44 USDA inspected (grading is voluntary) Firm and elastic to the touch –Not slimy, sticky, or dry 41 °F or below at delivery No signs of spoilage –Brown, green, purple blotches –Black, white, or green spots

45 Receiving Poultry Lesson 5, Slide 45 Grade A 41 °F or below and surrounded by crushed ice at delivery No signs of spoilage –Greenish or purplish discoloration –Abnormal odor –Stickiness under wings/around joints –Dark wing tips

46 Receiving Eggs Lesson 5, Slide 46 Grade A or AA, USDA inspected Clean shells Fresh At 45 °F or below when delivered Free of cracks or chips

47 Receiving Milk Lesson 5, Slide 47 Pasteurized, Grade A milk Sweet taste and smell At 41 °F or below and delivered refrigerated No sour, moldy taste and/or odor

48 Receiving Dairy Products Lesson 5, Slide 48 Pasteurization: –Destroys all disease-causing microorganisms in the milk –Reduces the total number of bacteria, thus increasing the shelf life

49 Receiving Dairy Products Lesson 5, Slide 49 “UHT”: –Pasteurization using Ultra High Temperatures –Milk marked “UHT” is also placed in aseptic packaging –No refrigeration required for short storage periods –Example: individual creamers

50 Receiving Dairy Products Lesson 5, Slide 50 Cheese –Received at 41 °F and delivered refrigerated –Proper color and moisture –Reject if contains mold (not a normal part of the cheese)

51 Receiving Dairy Products Lesson 5, Slide 51 Butter –Received at 41 °F and delivered refrigerated –Firm texture, even color, and free of mold –Package intact

52 Receiving Dairy Products Lesson 5, Slide 52 Cheese and butter must be kept out of the temperature danger zone!

53 Receiving Fresh Produce Lesson 5, Slide 53 Fresh taste Little or no dirt Firm texture Reasonably unblemished No evidence of mold No signs of insect infestation

54 Receiving Fruits and Vegetables Lesson 5, Slide 54 Purchase raw fruits and vegetables from approved sources and wash them thoroughly to remove soil and other contaminants before they are… –cut –combined with other ingredients –cooked –served –offered for human consumption in a ready-to eat form

55 Receiving Frozen Food Lesson 5, Slide 55 Packaging intact 0 °F or below For ice cream, 6 °F to 10 °F is permissible No signs of thawing and refreezing

56 Receiving Canned Food Lesson 5, Slide 56 Packaging intact No swollen, leaking, rusty, or dented cans No flawed seals No abnormal odor, color, or texture No foamy or milky colored liquid not natural to the product

57 Receiving Dry Food Lesson 5, Slide 57 Packaging intact Dry and undamaged No damp or moldy containers No signs of insect infestation

58 Receiving Fish Lesson 5, Slide 58 Finfish (Catfish, Trout) Mild, pleasant odor Bright, shiny skin with scales tightly attached 41 °F or below Not slimy, sticky, or dry

59 Receiving Shellfish Lesson 5, Slide 59 Shellfish 45 °F or below Free of mud No dead shellfish or shellfish with open or broken shells No strong, fishy odor Not slimy, sticky, or dry

60 Food Thermometers Lesson 5, Slide 60 Thermometer features Metal-stemmed, numerically scaled Able to measure internal temperatures, from 0 °F to 220 °F Accurate to ± 2 °F Sanitized and air-dried before and after each use

61 Food Thermometers Lesson 5, Slide 61 Types of Thermometers Bi-metallic stemmed thermometers Thermocouples Dimple

62 Food Thermometers Lesson 5, Slide 62 Types of Thermometers Digital Thermometers Time-temperature indicators (TTIs) Others (meat, deep-fry, candy)

63 Calibration Methods Lesson 5, Slide 63 Ice-Point Method

64 Calibration Methods Lesson 5, Slide 64 Boiling-Point Method

65 Checking Temperatures of Specially Packaged Foods Lesson 5, Slide 65 The following require special procedures: Eggs Milk

66 Checking Temperatures of Specially Packaged Foods Lesson 5, Slide 66 The following require special procedures: Modified Atmosphere Packaged (MAP) Foods Frozen Entrees

67 Transporting Food to Satellite Sites Lesson 5, Slide 67 Use carriers approved by the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) International. Sanitize carriers daily. Check that insulating properties work. Be sure trucks can keep hot foods hot (at 135 °F or above) and cold foods cold (41 °F or below).

68 Satellite Sites Lesson 5, Slide 68 Use appropriate containers. –Rigid and sectioned –Tightly closed –Nonporous –Easy to clean or disposable –Approved to hold food

69 Satellite Sites Lesson 5, Slide 69 Transport an extra sample of hot and cold food to… –test food temperatures on arrival and –keep a 48-hour sample of potentially hazardous food. Be ready to store food immediately

70 Food Storage Lesson 5, Slide 70 Dry Storage –Keep storage area clean and dry –Hold dry foods between 50 °F – 70 °F

71 Food Storage Lesson 5, Slide 71 Dry Storage –Use the “First in, First out” rotation method –6 inches above ground

72 Food Storage Lesson 5, Slide 72 Refrigeration –Be sure cold air can circulate –Label all food properly

73 Food Storage Lesson 5, Slide 73 Refrigeration –Keep refrigerator 39 °F or below –Cool hot foods before refrigerating them

74 Food Storage Lesson 5, Slide 74 Deep-Chilling Units –Make sure temperature remains between 26 °F and 32 °F –Keep foods in proper containers

75 Food Storage Lesson 5, Slide 75 Freezer –Always remember FIFO! –Leave space between the items to provide for air circulation

76 Food Storage Lesson 5, Slide 76 Freezer –0 °F –Avoid placing large amounts of hot foods in the freezer

77 Thawing Lesson 5, Slide 77 Thawing Methods: In refrigerator on lowest shelf Under cool, clean running water From the frozen state Remember: Keep food out of the temperature danger zone.

78 Marinating Lesson 5, Slide 78 Marinate meat, fish, and poultry in the refrigerator. Never marinate at room temperature. Never save and reuse marinade. Wash and sanitize equipment used to marinate potentially hazardous foods.

79 Cautions for Cold Food Lesson 5, Slide 79 Chill ingredients and combine them while chilled. Prepare food close to serving time. Prepare food in small batches and place in cold storage immediately. Hold prepared food at 41 °F or below.

80 Cautions for Cold Food Lesson 5, Slide 80 Wash fresh produce with plain, drinkable water. Use brush to scrub thick- skinned produce such as melons.

81 Cautions for Cold Food Lesson 5, Slide 81 Wash hands properly and use single-use gloves. Separate raw from ready-to- serve food.

82 Cautions for Cold Food Lesson 5, Slide 82 Sanitize cutting boards, knives, etc. after contact with potentially hazardous foods. Discard leftover marinade and batter.

83 FDA Food Code Says… Lesson 5, Slide 83 The acceptable storage time for deli meats, potato and macaroni salads, chicken and seafood salads, cooked shrimp and similar items is… –seven (7) calendar days when held at 41 °F or below, and –four (4) calendar days when held at 45 °F or below.

84 Central Kitchen Chicken Lesson 5, Slide 84 A case study (Part 1): On Wednesday… Marge works for the central kitchen in a large school district. She is preparing chicken salad to be delivered to the other schools for tomorrow’s lunch. Marge puts the frozen chicken in a pot of boiling water and stews it until done.

85 Central Kitchen Chicken Lesson 5, Slide 85 Although she has a bad cough- and is coughing continuously- there is no one else available to help her, so she debones the chicken herself when it is cool enough to handle.

86 Central Kitchen Chicken Lesson 5, Slide 86 Where did Marge go wrong?

87 Central Kitchen Chicken Lesson 5, Slide 87 Where did Marge go wrong? Boiling frozen chicken is not a proper thawing and cooking technique. Marge should not have worked with her cough, due to the risk of spreading Staphylococcus organisms.

88 Central Kitchen Chicken Lesson 5, Slide 88 A case study (Part 2): A little later on Wednesday… After deboning, Marge cools the chicken further at room temperature. She chops it into pieces and puts the pieces into 12-inch deep pans. To cool the chicken overnight, she puts the pans in the walk- in refrigerator. She is careful to check the refrigerator thermometer, and sees that it reads 45 °F.

89 Central Kitchen Chicken Lesson 5, Slide 89 Where did Marge go wrong?

90 Central Kitchen Chicken Lesson 5, Slide 90 Where did Marge go wrong? Chicken should be put into shallow pans, covered, and refrigerated. The refrigerator temperature was not cold enough; it should be 41 °F or below. Marge did not use a thermometer to check the internal temperature of the chicken itself; it should be 41 °F or below.

91 Central Kitchen Chicken Lesson 5, Slide 91 A case study (Part 3): On Thursday… Marge adds the remaining ingredients to the chicken salad. The salad is packed in thermal containers and delivered to the schools between 9:00 am and 10:30 am. The containers go to the warm classrooms, where they are held until lunchtime (around noon).

92 Central Kitchen Chicken Lesson 5, Slide 92 Was the salad completed and delivered safely?

93 Central Kitchen Chicken Lesson 5, Slide 93 Was the salad completed and delivered safely? No, because the chicken was never going to get cooler than the temperature it was when placed into the thermal containers. No because Marge’s cough may have infected the food with Staphylococcus bacteria, which would multiply rapidly under these conditions.

94 Tips for Cooking Safely Lesson 5, Slide 94 Cook food to proper internal temperature. Frequently stir foods cooked in deep pots. Make size and thickness of each portion as uniform as possible. Allow cooking equipment to return to proper temperatures between batches.

95 Tips for Cooking Safely Lesson 5, Slide 95 Never interrupt the cooking process. Monitor accuracy of heating equipment with each use. Always use calibrated, sanitized thermometers to take internal temperatures of food.

96 Taking Temperatures Lesson 5, Slide 96 Use a metal-stemmed, numerically scaled thermometer accurate to ± 2 °F. Sanitize and air dry the thermometer before and after each use. Check food temperature in several places, especially the thickest part. Do not let the thermometer touch the pan, bone, fat, or gristle.

97 Taking Temperatures Lesson 5, Slide 97 Roasts: Insert tip midway Chops and Steaks: Insert tip into thickest part Hamburgers and thin food: Insert thermometer into the side Poultry: Insert tip into thickest part of the thigh, avoiding bone Poultry parts: Insert tip into thickest area

98 Taking Temperatures Lesson 5, Slide 98 Combination dishes: Insert thermometer into thickest part of the food or center of the dish; check egg dishes and dishes with ground meat and poultry in several places. Wait 15 seconds for the reading to stabilize, then record the temperature. Be careful to avoid recontamination!

99 Food*Minimum TemperatureTime Required Ground beef and other ground meats (except for poultry) 155 °F (68 °C)15 seconds Poultry165 °F (74 °C)15 seconds Stuffing, stuffed meats (including stuffed fish), stuffed pasta, casseroles, raw/cooked dishes 165 °F (74 °C)15 seconds Beef and pork roasts and ham Roast beef (rare) 145 °F (63 °C) 130 °F (54 °C) or 140 °F (60 °C) 4 minutes 112 minutes 12 minutes Pork (other than roasts and ground pork)145 °F (63 °C)15 seconds Beef steaks, veal, lamb, commerically raised game145 °F (63 °C)15 seconds Fish, foods containing fish145 °F (63 °C)15 seconds Shell eggs (for later service) 155 °F (68 °C) Hold at 140 °F (60 °C) 15 seconds until service Vegetables Must be held at 135 °F (60°C) Until service Microwaved foods (cover food, rotate, or stir halfway through the cooking process, take temperature in several places to verify temperature, let stand covered for two minutes after cooking) 165 °F (74 °C) temperature reached throughout food Hold, covered, for two minutes after removing from microwave *California Retail Food Code

100 Holding Hot and Cold Foods Lesson 5, Slide 100 Keep food HOT and keep cold food COLD. Only use hot holding equipment during service. Stir food periodically. Check temperatures and keep records.

101 Holding Hot and Cold Foods Lesson 5, Slide 101 Cover hot holding equipment and prevent contamination; monitor its temperature. Discard any food held at room temperature for more than four hours. Never add fresh food to food already being served.

102 A One-Server Show Lesson 5, Slide 102 A case study: Veronica prepares, serves, and is cashier for breakfast in a small elementary school. Students go through the line and basically serve themselves. This morning, the ham biscuits were on the baking pan brought to the serving line. They were not pre- wrapped.

103 A One-Server Show Lesson 5, Slide 103 Veronica had finished cashiering and was counting money when some students arriving on a late bus came for their breakfast. Trying to help the students hurry, Veronica put the ham biscuits on their trays for them.

104 A One-Server Show Lesson 5, Slide 104 Where did Veronica go wrong?

105 A One-Server Show Lesson 5, Slide 105 Where did Veronica go wrong? Veronica should have pre- wrapped the ham biscuits to avoid contamination by students coming through the line. She contaminated the biscuits when she touched them by not washing her hands and putting on serving gloves after touching the money.

106 On the Front Line Lesson 5, Slide 106 Always wash hands before serving. Use clean, sanitized ladles and spoons. Never touch parts of plates, tableware, or glasses/cups where a food or a customer’s mouth touch. Wear gloves to serve food by hand.

107 On the Front Line Lesson 5, Slide 107 Cover cuts or infections with bandages. Discard gloves if they touch any unsanitary surface. Use tongs to serve rolls, or wear gloves. Clean and sanitize equipment and utensils after each use.

108 On the Front Line Lesson 5, Slide 108 Use lids and sneeze guards. Wash hands and tools between contact with raw and prepared foods. Throw away garnishes. Maintain water for storage of in-use utensils at 135 °F.

109 Sanitary Self-Service Lesson 5, Slide 109 Child Nutrition Professionals can: Observe customer behavior and remove food that may have been contaminated.

110 Sanitary Self-Service Lesson 5, Slide 110 Customers may contaminate food by: Using the same plate twice Not using the serving utensils Touching food with their hands Touching the edges of serving dishes Sneezing or coughing on food

111 Sanitary Self-Service Lesson 5, Slide 111 Customers may contaminate food by: Picking up foods with their fingers Eating on the food line Dipping fingers in food to taste it Returning food items to avoid waste Putting their heads under sneeze guards

112 Just when you thought you were safe… Lesson 5, Slide 112 Myth: After food is served, we can relax about ensuring its safety. Facts: Improper cooling is the number one cause of foodborne illness. Child nutrition programs often prepare foods in advance or use leftover food.

113 Just when you thought you were safe… Lesson 5, Slide 113 What to do: Take two key precautions when cooling food: –Cool food rapidly –Protect food from contamination

114 Cooling Hot Foods Lesson 5, Slide 114 Rapid reduction of temperature

115 Chilling Food Quickly Lesson 5, Slide 115 Goal: Chill potentially hazardous food as rapidly as possible to reduce time in the “temperature danger zone.”

116 Chilling Food Quickly Lesson 5, Slide 116 To chill food quickly: 1.Divide into small portions. 2.Chill. 3.Stir frequently.

117 Chilling Food Quickly Lesson 5, Slide 117 To chill food quickly: 4.Measure temperature periodically. 5.Tightly cover and label cooled food with preparation date and time.

118 Cook-Chill Equipment Lesson 5, Slide 118 Cook-chill equipment rapidly cools and then reheats foods. –Blast chillers –Tumbler chillers

119 Reheating Food Safely Lesson 5, Slide 119 Boil sauces, soups, and gravies; heat other food to no less than 165 °F within 2 hours. Never reheat food in hot holding equipment. Never mix leftovers with fresh food.

120 Reheating Food Safely Lesson 5, Slide 120 Never reheat food more than once. Keep refrigerated leftovers no longer than 7 days if held at 41°F or below and 4 days if held at 45 °F or below.

121 Food Process HACCP Lesson 5, Slide 121 To evaluate current operating procedures: –Identify the flow of food –Identify potentially hazardous foods –Develop a flow diagram

122 Food Process HACCP Lesson 5, Slide 122 The USDA requires all districts to have a HACCP plan The California Department of Education offers a HACCP course. For more information call

123 The Three Food Process Flows Lesson 5, Slide 123 1)No Cook: tuna salad and cold meat sandwiches 2)Same Day Service: hamburgers, hot vegetables, and cooked eggs 3)Complex: taco filling, chili, large roasts, soups, gravies, or sauces

124 No Cook Food Process Flow Lesson 5, Slide 124 Avoids a cooking step No step to eliminate bacteria, parasites, or viruses Be sure to: –Obtain food from approved sources –Maintain cold temperatures –Avoid cross-contamination

125 No Cook Food Process Flow Lesson 5, Slide 125 Serve (cold) Hold (in refrigerator) Drain beans Mix liquid/dry PrepareChop and add Dry (on shelf) StoreRefrigerator Refrigerator (day before prep) Canned Liquid/Dry ReceiveFresh vegetables beansIngredients

126 Same Day Food Process Flow Lesson 5, Slide 126 Generally passes through the temperature danger zone only once The preparation step is complex

127 Same Day Food Process Flow Lesson 5, Slide 127 The following are important: –Time and temperature controls –Good sanitation

128 Same Day Service Food Process Flow Lesson 5, Slide 128 Serve (hot) Hold (hot) Thaw in refrigerator Prepare 1. Drizzle oil on chicken 2. Dip chicken in seasoned breading Freezer StoreDry (on shelf) Frozen Chicken ReceiveDry/liquid Ingredients Cook

129 Complex Food Process Flow Lesson 5, Slide 129 Food is prepared and cooked a day before service Food passes through the temperature danger zone several times Failing to properly control the temperature can lead to foodborne illness

130 Complex Food Process Flow Lesson 5, Slide Thaw in refrigerator Prepare ChopAdd to 2.Brown ground ground beef beef and drain Freezer Store RefrigeratorDry (on shelf) Raw Ground BeefReceive FreshCanned Dry vegetables vegetables ingredients Cook Cool/store Reheat Hold (hot) Serve (hot)

131 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide The temperature of frozen food should be measured by… a)Inserting the sensing probe into the center of a package until the temperature stabilizes. b)Inserting the sensing probe between two packages until the temperature stabilizes. c)Measuring the ambient temperature of the frozen food compartment of the delivery vehicle. d)Looking for signs of freezing and thawing, such as large ice crystals or frozen juices in the box.

132 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide The temperature of frozen food should be measured by… a)Inserting the sensing probe into the center of a package until the temperature stabilizes. b)Inserting the sensing probe between two packages until the temperature stabilizes. c)Measuring the ambient temperature of the frozen food compartment of the delivery vehicle. d)Looking for signs of freezing and thawing, such as large ice crystals or frozen juices in the box.

133 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide Frozen foods should not be accepted at a food establishment if… a)They have large ice crystals on the surface. b)The package is intact. c)The temperature is below 32 °F. d)The temperature of the delivery truck is 32 °F.

134 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide Frozen foods should not be accepted at a food establishment if… a)They have large ice crystals on the surface. b)The package is intact. c)The temperature is below 32 °F. d)The temperature of the delivery truck is 32 °F.

135 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide Which practice requires corrective action? a)Products in the dry storage area are being rotated on a first-in, first-out stock basis. b)Foods stored in the walk-in freezer are stored on slatted shelves that are 6 inches above the floor. c)Raw beef is stored above salad in the refrigerator. d)Pesticides are stored in a locked and labeled cabinet in the dry food storage area.

136 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide Which practice requires corrective action? a)Products in the dry storage area are being rotated on a first-in, first-out stock basis. b)Foods stored in the walk-in freezer are stored on slatted shelves that are 6 inches above the floor. c)Raw beef is stored above salad in the refrigerator. d)Pesticides are stored in a locked and labeled cabinet in the dry food storage area.

137 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide Which of the following is the preferred method for thawing potentially hazardous foods? a)In the microwave oven b)At room temperature c)In the refrigerator d)On the counter

138 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide Which of the following is the preferred method for thawing potentially hazardous foods? a)In the microwave oven b)At room temperature c)In the refrigerator d)On the counter

139 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide Hot foods should be held at _______ or above and cold foods should be held at _______ or below. a)165 °F; 41 °F b)165 °F; 32 °F c)135 °F; 41 °F d)135 °F; 32 °F

140 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide Hot foods should be held at _______ or above and cold foods should be held at _______ or below. a)165 °F; 41 °F b)165 °F; 32 °F c)135 °F; 41 °F d)135 °F; 32 °F

141 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide Poultry and stuffed meats should be cooked to an internal temperature of _______ for 15 seconds to be considered safe. a)140 °F b)145 °F c)155 °F d)165 °F

142 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide Poultry and stuffed meats should be cooked to an internal temperature of _______ for 15 seconds to be considered safe. a)140 °F b)145 °F c)155 °F d)165 °F

143 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide Ground beef should be cooked to an internal temperature of _______ for 15 seconds to be considered safe. a)140 °F b)145 °F c)155 °F d)165 °F

144 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide Ground beef should be cooked to an internal temperature of _______ for 15 seconds to be considered safe. a)140 °F b)145 °F c)155 °F d)165 °F

145 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide Regardless of the type of food, all potentially hazardous foods that have been cooked and cooled need to be reheated to an internal temperature of _______ within 2 hours to be considered safe. a)140 °F b)145 °F c)155 °F d)165 °F

146 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide Regardless of the type of food, all potentially hazardous foods that have been cooked and cooled need to be reheated to an internal temperature of _______ within 2 hours to be considered safe. a)140 °F b)145 °F c)155 °F d)165 °F

147 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide All foods that are to be held cold must be held at _______ or below. a)41 °F b)50 °F c)70 °F d)0 °F

148 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide All foods that are to be held cold must be held at _______ or below. a)41 °F b)50 °F c)70 °F d)0 °F

149 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system should be employed… a)Whenever potentially hazardous foods are prepared. b)Only in institutional foods facilities that provide food for very young or elderly consumers. c)Only in convenience stores where mechanical dishwashing equipment is not available. d)Only when foods are sold for consumption off site.

150 10. The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system should be employed… a)Whenever potentially hazardous foods are prepared. b)Only in institutional foods facilities that provide food for very young or elderly consumers. c)Only in convenience stores where mechanical dishwashing equipment is not available. d)Only when foods are sold for consumption off site. Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide 150

151 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide Which is an example of a critical control point? a)Poultry purchased from approved sources. b)Chicken and noodles are heated on the stove until the center of the poultry reaches 165 °F for 15 seconds. c)Only pasteurized milk is used by the school. d)The cutting board is washed and sanitized between chopping carrots and celery for the garden salad.

152 Review Questions Lesson 5, Slide Which is an example of a critical control point? a)Poultry purchased from approved sources. b)Chicken and noodles are heated on the stove until the center of the poultry reaches 165 °F for 15 seconds. c)Only pasteurized milk is used by the school. d)The cutting board is washed and sanitized between chopping carrots and celery for the garden salad.

153 Review of Lesson Performance Standards Lesson 5, Slide 153

154 Define HACCP and explain its importance in child nutrition programs Lesson 5, Slide 154

155 Define HACCP and explain its importance in child nutrition programs Lesson 5, Slide 155 HACCP means Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points. It is important because it is a preventive system to eliminate hazards from food before it is served to consumers. Safe food is important in child nutrition programs because children are “at risk” for foodborne illness.

156 Identify key phases and critical control points in the food preparation process Lesson 5, Slide 156

157 Identify key phases and critical control points in the food preparation process Lesson 5, Slide 157 The key phases in the food preparation process are: purchasing, receiving, storing, preparing, cooking, serving and holding, cooling, and reheating. The most common critical control points are cooking, cooling, reheating, and hot/cold holding.

158 Describe methods of controlling food safety hazards during each of the eight phases in the food preparation process Lesson 5, Slide 158

159 Describe methods of controlling food safety hazards during each of the eight phases in the food preparation process Lesson 5, Slide 159 Purchasing Receiving Storing Preparing Cooking Serving and holding Cooling Reheating

160 Describe and compare the two most common food thermometer types, and know how to use and calibrate at least one Lesson 5, Slide 160

161 Describe and compare the two most common food thermometer types, and know how to use and calibrate at least one Lesson 5, Slide 161 The two most common types are… –Bi-metallic stemmed thermometers –Digital thermometers There are two calibration methods… –Ice-Point Method –Boiling-Point Method

162 Congratulations! You have completed the Food Safety for Child Nutrition Programs online course. Lesson 5, Slide 162

163 Food Safety for Child Nutrition Programs Thank You Lesson 5, Slide 163 Department of Nutrition University of California, Davis

164 Acknowledgements Christine Bruhn, PhD, Specialist in Cooperative Extension Maria Giovanni, PhD, Nutrition, Family, and Consumer Sciences Advisor, University of California Cooperative Extension, Santa Clara County Linda Harris, PhD, Specialist in Cooperative Extension Diane Metz, BA, Yolo County Director, Nutrition, Family, and Consumer Sciences Advisor, University of California Cooperative Extension, Yolo and Solano Counties Shirley Peterson, MS, RD, Nutrition, Family, and Consumer Sciences Advisor, University of California Cooperative Extension, San Luis Obispo County Lesson 5, Slide 164


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