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 Two million deaths prevented by vaccines and immunizations today 1  Temperature-dependence of Vaccines  Mishandling vaccines can damage them permanently.

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Presentation on theme: " Two million deaths prevented by vaccines and immunizations today 1  Temperature-dependence of Vaccines  Mishandling vaccines can damage them permanently."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Two million deaths prevented by vaccines and immunizations today 1  Temperature-dependence of Vaccines  Mishandling vaccines can damage them permanently  Vaccine wastage is costly  WHO: monitoring temperature of vaccines during transportation and post-delivery storage needs improvement “lack of appropriate temperature-monitoring devices for primary and intermediate stores” Hyun-Sun Seo

3  WHO 1 : Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) in -15°C to -25°C All others in 2°C to 8°C “liquid formulations of vaccines containing diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B, Hib, IPV and their combinations should not be frozen.”  CDC 2 : Live Attenuated Influenza (LAIV) for shipping, Varicella (Chicken Pox), Zoster (Shingles) frozen at -15°C (5°F). Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccine (MMR) at 10°C (50°F) All others in 2°C-8°C (35°F to 46°F) Hyun-Sun Seo

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5  County Health Departments in CO 5 – 93% of vaccine refrigerators with recorded temperatures outside of acceptable ranges  Pediatric offices in clinics in LA 6 : – Only 16% vaccine storage coordinators knew appropriate storage temperatures for vaccines – 18% unaware that heat can harm certain vaccines – Refrigerator thermometers checked weekly in only 20% of offices – 22% of refrigerators had inappropriately high temperatures  Hungary: 4% vaccines are “compromised” by summer heat and 38% by winter cold 7 Hyun-Sun Seo

6  Wastage and Cost WHO: with proper vaccine and temperature monitors, could save US$4.8 Million 8  Epidemics Measles outbreak in NY 1970s attributed to improperly stored vaccines 9 Polio outbreaks in South Africa may be attributed to damaged vaccines 10 Hyun-Sun Seo

7  Temperature monitor LM34 Fahrenheit Temperature Sensor LM339 Quad Voltage Comparator Thresholds at 0°C (32°F) 2°C (35.6°F) 8°C (46.4°F) 10°C (50°F) 10k Ω trimmer potentiometers LED Bargraph Hyun-Sun Seo

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12 WeekTask 1Researched Temperature Sensors Researched Comparator Circuits 2Tested LM34 (temperature sensor) Tested INA128 (Instrumentation Amplifiers) 3Ordered Thermocouples (Type K) Looked into RF Tested LM339 (voltage comparator) 4Constructed circuit with LM339 and LM34 Solder work, wiring, LEDs Adjusted Potentiometer resistors Finalized Design Tested Device Hyun-Sun Seo

13 Item Number of UnitsDistributorUnit PriceTotal Price LM3391RadioShack1.49 LM341Parallax, Inc kOhm Resistors (1/4 Watt Carbon Film Resistor, 5- pack)1RadioShack kOhm TrimPots (10K OHM TRIMMER POTENTIOMETER CERMET 15 TURNS 3006P)5 Tayda Electronics LEDs Case13.00 Other Resistors1RadioShack0.99 Multi-color Wires Hyun-Sun Seo

14  Sophisticated temperature monitors ~ $500 Temperature Guard’s Refrigerator/Freezer Guard 11  Proposed Invention No alarm system Monitors one fridge No telephone alert calls  RF - $40 for few inches of coverage Hyun-Sun Seo

15  Benefits of Proposed Device User-friendly Meets the sensitivity requirements for clinical settings Any person can identify conditions in the fridge Buzzer could be easily implemented for an auditory cue at unsafe temperatures 12 Trimpots could be replaced with resistors Significantly cheaper  ~$15 vs. $500  hugely beneficial in clinics with limited resources Hyun-Sun Seo

16  Gates Foundation – Global Health Initiative Letter of Inquiry application  Global Brigades Distribution of device through traveling medical teams. Hyun-Sun Seo

17  Chris Browne Circuitry Final Design Testing  Heather Benz Circuitry RF  Matt Trachenberg RF Hyun-Sun Seo

18 1.Temperature Sensitivity of Vaccines. Department of Immunizations, Vaccines and Biologicals, World Health Organization. August Vaccine Managemenet: Recommendations for Storage and Handling of Selected Biologicals. Center for Disease Control. April V. Atrasheuskaya, et al. “Mumps vaccine failure investigation in Novosibirsk, Russia, 2002– 2004.” February Clinical Microbiology and Infection. Vol. 13, p. 670– Y. Chen Lee, et al. “Haemophilus Influenzae Type b Vaccine Failure in Children is Associated with Inadequate Production of High-Quality Antibody.” January 15, Clinical Infectious Diseases. Vol. 46, p S. Setia. “Frequency and Causes of Vaccine Wastage.” Jan. 15, Vaccine. Vol. 20:7-8, p D.M. Bishai, S. Bhatt, L.T. Miller and G.F. Hayden, Vaccine storage practices in pediatric offices. Pediatrics 89 (1992), pp. 193– L. Lugosi and A. Battersby. “Transport and storage of vaccines in Hungary: the first cold chain monitor study in Europe.” Bull. WHO. Vol. 68, p. 431– “Expanded Programme on Immunization:WHO–UNICEF policy statement on the use of vaccine vial monitors in immunization services.” World Health Organization R.B. Borkow. “Vaccine spoilage and vaccine failure.” NY State Journal of Medicine. Vol. 75, p B.D. Schoub and N.A. Cameron. “Problems encountered in the delivery and storage of OPV in an African country.” Dev. Biol. Stand. Vol. 87, p. 27– Temperature Guard, Refrigerator/Freezer Guard model VM AliExpress, LEB1295 buzzer,magnetic buzzer,piezo buzzer. gs/ LEB1295-buzzer-magnetic-buzzer-piezo-buzzer-wholesalers.htmlhttp://www.aliexpress.com/product- gs/ LEB1295-buzzer-magnetic-buzzer-piezo-buzzer-wholesalers.html Hyun-Sun Seo


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