The point from which the story is told. Usually the narrator, character or outside observer who tells the story. http://cctvimedia.clearchannel.com/ktvf/car%20accident.jpg
When a character in the story tells the story. Example: When “I” or “Me” is used in a story or movie to tell the story. http://www.worth1000.com/entries/42000/42129AFhe_w.jpg
When “you” is used to narrate the story. It can be intimate or accusatory. This should be used in adventure and recipe books. http://www.pandora.ca/pictures9/676276.jpg
The narration does not use “I” or “me”. Only he/she/it. The narrator focuses on the thoughts and feelings of just one character. http://www.3d-screensaver-downloads.com/images/harry-potter-screensaver/big3.jpg
The all knowing narrator can tell us about the past, present and future of all the characters (godlike). http://landru.i-link-2.net/shnyves/God.creating.stars.jpeg
The person that is telling the story. A narrator can establish irony based on diction, tone, sarcasm, loose structure in a sentence, shift from one point of view to another, and a string of uncoordinated clauses in a passage. (Hamilton 116, 176, 187) http://www.unca.edu/housing/images/services/video-game-lending-library/videos/covers/forest-gump.jpg
The time and place of a literary work. Example: The setting for “The Cask of Amontillado” is “Early evening in an Italian city during a carnival immediately preceding Lent.” http://cummingsstudyguides.net/Guides2/PoeTales.jpg
A central message of a literary work. It is a generalization about people or about life that is communicated through the literary work. Readers think about what the work seems to say about the nature of people or about life. http://www.militarymuseum.org/Resources/saving%20private%20ryan%20poster.jpg http://victoryatseaonline.com/war/otherwars/images/patriot.gif
A person or an animal who takes part in the action of a literary work. Characters are sometimes classified as round or flat, dynamic or static. http://web.mit.edu/kayla/Public/Backgrounds/LOTR%20Frodo.JPG http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.numberonestars.com/movies/images2/cars.jpg&imgrefurl=http:// www.madeinatlantis.com/movies_central/2006/cars.htm&h=829&w=560&sz=96&hl=en&start=4&tbnid=Y6EU5Svon uLBTM:&tbnh=144&tbnw=97&prev=/images%3Fq%3DCars%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26client% 3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official_s%26sa%3DG
This character develops and grows during the course of the story. http://www.eurpac.com/hepicts/tsdvd/princess%20diaries%20dvd.jpg
This character shows many different traits-- faults as well as virtues. http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/malcolm/gallery/images/340/malcolm4.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/malc olm/gallery/season3/malcolm4.shtml&h=255&w=340&sz=10&hl=en&start=16&tbnid=XhkiSujuGSyOkM:&tbnh=89&tbnw=119&prev=/images%3Fq%3 Dmalcom%2Bin%2Bthe%2Bmiddle%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en- US:official_s%26sa%3DG
This character does not change much in the story. http://static.flickr.com/39/82639167_4bdae091fd_m.jpg
Has only one or two traits. http://www.darrenfrodsham.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/images/batman.jpg http://members.tripod.com/~film_circle/rushhour.jpg
A stereotypical character that occurs frequently in literature. Examples are: Mad scientist the battle scarred veteran the strong-but-silent cowboy
The main character in a literary work. http://www.tribute.ca/tribute_objects/images/movies/napolean_dynamite/napoleandynamite3.jpg
A character or force in conflict with a main character or the protagonist. http://www.tvcrazy.net/tvclassics/wallpaper/superman/smallville/lex-luthor.jpg
The sequence of events in a literary work. http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/toolkits/images/TMP_plotdiagram_large.jpg
Is a writing or speech that explains a process or presents information. In the plot of a story or drama, the exposition is the part of the work that introduces the characters, the setting, and the basic situation. Exposition
All the events leading up to the climax. Rising Action
The conflict reaches a high point of interest or suspense. Climax
Follows the climax and leads to a resolution. Falling Action
A literary work that has a second meaning beneath the surface, often relating to a fixed, corresponding idea or moral principle.
Repetition of initial consonants for rhyme. Example: Sally sells seashells by the seashores.
A reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art. http://images.barnesandnoble.com/images/7050000/7053060.jpg http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/b/b1/350px-Da_Vinci_The_last_supper_detail_Da_Vinci_code.jpg http://www.sonypictures.de/landing/the-da-vinci-code/images/img_1.jpg
A literary character or narrator who is a thinly disguised representation of the author, poet, or playwright creating a work.
Repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row. This is a deliberate form of repetition and helps make the writer’s point more coherent. Example: *We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender. Churchill. http://www.crab.rutgers.edu/~awoll/churchill.jpg
Directly addressing an imaginary person, place, thing, or abstraction, either living, dead or absent from the work. Example: Ophelia, in Hamlet, says, “O, heavenly powers, restore him.”
Intended elimination of conjunctions such as the word “and” and “for” in a list of words or phrases and clauses separated by commas. Examples: I came, I saw, I conquered. -- Julius Caesar The infantry plodded forward, the tanks rattled into position, the big guns swung their snouts toward the rim of the hills, the planes raked the underbrush with gunfire...and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. –Abraham Lincoln
REP of vowel sounds in nearby words. The cat with a hat sat on a bat named Tat.
REP of middle or ending consonance sounds in nearby words. The repetition of consonants or of a consonant pattern, especially at the ends of words, as in blank and think or strong and string
A word that contains a set of ideas associated with it in addition to its explicit meaning. Based on the word, it can be personal and/or based on individual experiences. Example: “My bad” or “Sorry” “House” or “Home”
A word that is its dictionary meaning, independent of other associations that the word may have. Example: “Gorgeous” means beautiful instead of “Da Bomb”
A word choice intended to convey a certain effect. Example: “It was easy to use that laptop” or “It was effortless using that laptop”
The term (“ghostly double”) refers to a ghostly counterpart of a living person. Hawthorne and Poe are among the many writers who have used this device commonly to dramatize the dual nature—the “good” and “bad” selves– of a particular character.
Deliberate omission of a word or of words which are readily implied by the context. And he to England shall along with you. from Hamlet, Act 3, Scene 3 Red light means stop; a green light, go.
Novel in which a character (or characters) tells the story through letters (epistles) sent to a friend, relative, etc. For example, in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Captain Robert Walton writes letters to his sister to bring her up to date on his expedition in the Arctic. After his ship takes Victor Frankenstein aboard, he listens to Frankenstein’s story and writes it down in letter form.
A literary or dramatic device in which an earlier event is inserted into the normal chronological order of a narrative. http://www.foxmovies.com.au/content/fox_films/277/images/SANDLOT%20THE_FLR.jpg
A foil is a character who provides a contrast to another character. In Frankenstein, Robert Walton and Victor Frankenstein are foils.
The use in a literary work of clues that suggest events that have yet to occur (future action). Use of this technique helps to create suspense, keeping readers wondering and speculating about what will happen next. htt://www.hyperborea.org/journal/images/foreshadowing.jpg
A framework story is a “story within a story” – a convention used in such classical writings as the Arabian Nights and the Canterbury Tales. (Novel Units, Inc.) http://www.flash-screen.com/free-wallpaper/free,wallpapers,37841.html
Is an extreme exaggeration. Example: I have so much money, I am burning a hole in my pocket If I told you once, I’ve told you a thousand times
The descriptive or figurative language used in literature to create word pictures for the reader. These pictures or images, are created by details of sight (visual) – p. 678, sound (auditory), taste (gustatory), touch (tactile), smell (olfactory), movement (kinesthetic), or internal (organic). http://www.thailandtradenet.com/photos/cat alog/bedroom/chinese-bed.jpg http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/article s/20050601/a798_129.SMELL.JPG
The general term for literary techniques that portray differences between appearance and reality, expectation and result, or meaning and intention. Implies a twist. http://kilby.sac.on.ca/towerslibrary/pages/users/DVD%20-%20Romeo%20&%20Juliet%20(Hollywood).jpg
There is a contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader or audience knows to be true. http://www.sunnews.com/images/2003/0821/jasonRGB.jpg
Words are used to suggest the opposite of what is meant. http://us.movies1.yimg.com/movies.yahoo.com/images/hv/photo/movie_pix/twentieth_century_fox/ star_wars__episode_iii___revenge_of_the_sith/_group_photos/hayden_christensen5.jpg
An event occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the audience. http://www.d8a.co.uk/vcd/Planet-of-the-apes.jpg
A figure of speech in which one thing is spoken of as though it were something else. Example: “Time is a monster that cannot be reasoned with” http://www.alyon.org/generale/theatre/cinema/affiches_cinema/s/seu-smo/simon_birch.jpg
Metonymy (unlike metaphor) uses figurative expressions that are closely associated with the subject in terms of place, time or background. The figurative expression is not a physical part of the subject. Examples are: The White House declared (White House = US government / President) The land belongs to the crown. (crown = king / queen / royal family / monarchy) Empty pockets never held anyone back. Only empty heads and empty hearts can do that. (Norman Vincent Peale) (empty pockets = poverty; empty heads = ignorance / dullness / density; empty hearts = unkindness / coldness) the spit-and-polish command post (meaning: shiny clean) The name of one thing is applied to another thing with which it is closely associated: “I love Shakespeare.”
A mixed metaphor occurs when two or more incongruous vehicles are applied to the same tenor. Instead of clarifying some aspect of the subject, the figure confuses it by linking images that clash: “She felt a heavy burden of guilt, but she would not let it engulf her resolve.” The word “burden” is already a vehicle for the tenor, her guilt; it clashes with second vehicle “engulf.” Mixed metaphors often occur because the writer is not thinking clearly, in which case, as in the example above, they sound ludicrous. (Essential Literary Terms with Exercises) The mixed metaphor is the Frankenstein's monster of English -- a head from this body, a torso from this one, a leg from that one, a brain from yet another. It's not pretty. Yet, like Frankenstein's monster, mixed metaphors have their charming, tender side. Their childlike efforts to convey intensity can sometimes be, to use another Frankensteinian term, disarming.
Also known as atmosphere, is the feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage. Usually it is created by the suggestive descriptive details. It can sometimes be described by a single word, such as lighthearted, frightening or despairing. Grammatically it can mean the verbal units and a speaker's attitude (indicative, subjunctive, imperative); literarily, the prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a word http://www.geekroar.com/film/archives/underworld.jpg
A recurring feature (such as a name, an image, or a phrase) in a work of fiction. A conspicuous recurring element, such as a type of incident, a device, a reference, or verbal formula, which appears frequently in works of literature. For instance, the ugly girl who turns out to be a beautiful princess is a common motif in folklore, and the man fatally bewitched by a fairy lady is a common folkloric motif. The mockingbird imagery in To Kill a Mockingbird acts as a motif. The Carpe Diem (seize the day) motif often appears in contemporary literature.
a word whose sound (the way it is pronounced) imitates the meaning. Examples: “roar,” “murmur,” “tintinnabulation.”
Figure of speech containing two conflicting terms. (See examples on next slide)
Found missingResident alien Genuine imitation Good grief Same difference Alone together Silent scream Living dead Small crowd Soft rock Butt Head New classic Sweet sorrow "Now, then..." Passive aggression Taped live Clearly misunderstoodExtinct Life Plastic glasses Terribly pleased Pretty ugly Working vacation
A statement that reveals the truth but at first seems contradictory He is guilty of being innocent.—about Joseph K. in Kafka’s The Trial The past is the prologue. –Paul Newman
The use of phrases, clauses, or sentences that are similar or complementary in structure or meaning.
Inanimate objects have human characteristics. “The wind cried in the dark.” “The leaves were dancing in the trees.” To Kill a Mockingbird
A statement that is formulated into a question that is not meant to be answered. Letter 3. "Why not still proceed...?" "What can stop the determined heart and resolved will of man?" Walton, of course, intends these as rhetorical questions, but we are meant to think about them as very real issues. What can or should stop the heart? Is "follow your heart" always the best advice?
A figure of speech in which like or as is used to make a comparison between two basically unlike ideas. Example: Claire is as flighty as a sparrow. http://www.abcteach.com/circus/images/simile10.gif
Anything that stands for or represents something else. An object that serves as a symbol has its own meaning, but also represents abstract ideas. http://wynn.house.gov/images/American%20Flag.gif http://www.homeschooloasis.com/wedding_rings2.jpg
This is a form of metaphor. A part or something that is used to the signify the whole: “Turning our long boat round […] on the last morning required all hands on deck” (hands = people) (4)(4) Whole used instead of a part: Troops halt the drivers (troops = soldiers) “Canada played the United States in the Olympic Hockey finals.” The container representing the thing being contained: “The pot is boiling” The material from which an object is made stands for the object itself: “The quarterback tossed the pigskin.”
The term is applied in literature to the description of one kind of sensation in terms of another. In The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, Peter's voice upon entering the Beavers' hiding place is described as being "tired and pale in the darkness" (99). "Pale" is a sight adjective used to describe a sound, "Peter's voice." http://theliterarylink.com/definitions.html
The word Syntax originates from the Greek words uυν meaning "together" and taxis meaning "sequence, order, arrangement". Syntax refers to word order and sentence structure. Normal word order in English sentences is firmly fixed in - subject -verb -object sequence or subject-verb-complement. http://www.types-of-poetry.org.uk/87-syntax-literary-term.htm
The writer or speaker’s attitude toward a subject, character, or audience, and it is conveyed through the author’s choice of words and detail. Tone can be formal or informal, serious or playful, bitter or ironic, indignant, objective, etc. http://pressunic.com/video/images/shangai_kid2.jpg
Forbidden knowledge/power is often the Gothic protagonist’s goal. The Gothic "hero" questions the universe’s ambiguous nature and tries to comprehend and control those supernatural powers that mortals cannot understand. He tries to overcome human limitations and make himself into a "god." This ambition usually leads to the hero’s "fall" or destruction; however, Gothic tales of ambition sometimes paradoxically evoke our admiration because they picture individuals with the courage to defy fate and cosmic forces in an attempt to transcend the mundane to the eternal and sublime.
The courageous search for forbidden knowledge or power always leads the hero to a fall, a corruption, or destruction, such as Satan’s or Adam’s fall. Consequently, the hero in Gothic literature is often a "villain." The hero is isolated from others by his fall and either becomes a monster or confronts a monster who is his double. He becomes a "Satanic hero" if, like Satan, he has courageously defied the rules of God’s universe and has tried to transform himself into a god. Note: the mad scientist, who tries to transcend human limitations through science, is a type of Satanic hero that is popular in Gothic literature (examples include Dr. Jekyll and Frankenstein).
Terrible truths are often revealed to characters through dreams or visions. The hidden knowledge of the universe and of human nature emerges through dreams because, when the person sleeps, reason sleeps, and the supernatural, unreasonable world can break through. Dreams in Gothic literature express the dark, unconscious depths of the psyche that are repressed by reason— truths that are too terrible to be comprehended by the conscious mind.
Reveal the intervention of cosmic forces and often represent psychological or spiritual conflict (e.g., flashes of lightning and violent storms might parallel some turmoil within a character’s mind).
Such settings suggest human confrontation with infinite forces (death, spirits, time, etc.).
The hero’s castle or home can reflect the hero’s psychological character. Hidden chambers, subterranean vaults, twisting corridors, and secret passages can symbolize the hidden depths of the mind, unknown aspects of the psyche that are beyond rational control.
The story is frequently told through a series of secret manuscripts or multiple tales, each revealing a deeper secret, so the narrative gradually spirals inward toward the hidden truth. The narrator is often a first-person narrator compelled to tell the story to a fascinated or captive listener (representing the captivating power of forbidden knowledge). By revealing to us their own souls’ secrets, these narrators reveal the secrets of humankind’s soul.
Suggest humanity’s encounter with the fantastic side of existence that defies human reason. Because mad characters are in touch with a deeper reality beyond rational comprehension, they often speak the truths that normal characters wish to deny. Madmen face universal or psychic forces that rational men fear to acknowledge.
A prominent symbol in Gothic works often intimating the paradox of the human condition; blood can represent both life and death, or both guilt (e.g., murder) and innocence (e.g., redemptive blood).
Murder, innocence victimized by evil, reversal of values, the Wanderer, the Outcast, mistaken or secret identities, dichotomies (attraction/repulsion, life/death, innocence/evil, nobility/corruption, etc.).
Hubris is defined as any exaggerated pride or self- confidence of oneself. Despite the fact that hubris commonly leads to the downfall of a character in literature. However, this MAY not always be the case in all works of literature.
A simple sentence consists of one independent clause; thus, it must have a subject and a predicate. For example Certain lizards can climb trees. lizards (subject) can climb (verb/predicate) A simple sentence can have a compound subject, a compound verb or both. For example During the 1800’s hunters and trappers went west of the Mississippi and explored new territory in America. hunters... trappers (compound subject) went... explored (verbs/predicates)
A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses but NO dependent clauses. A compound sentence should be composed of only closely related independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction such as for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so. Think of it as FANBOYS. Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma. For Example We went to a movie last night, but it was rather boring. We went to the move last night, (independent clause) but it was rather boring. (independent clause) The stew is in the oven, the salad is on the counter, and the dessert is in the freezer. The stew is in the oven, (independent clause) the salad is on the counter, (independent clause) and the dessert is in the freezer. (independent clause)
A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. We bought him a wallet that has his initials on it. We bought him a wallet (independent clause) that has his initials on it. (subordinate clause) We took Ann to the hospital because we were worried that her injury might be serious. We took Ann to the hospital (independent clause) because we were worried (subordinate clause) that her injury might be serious. (subordinate clause)
A compound-complex sentence is made from two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. Although I like to go camping, I haven't had the time to go lately, and I haven't found anyone to go with. independent clause: "I haven't had the time to go lately" independent clause: "I haven't found anyone to go with" dependent clause: "Although I like to go camping... " http://www.eslbee.com/sentences.htm
Pathetic fallacy is a type of PERSONIFICATION, in which inanimate aspects of nature, such as the landscape or the weather, are represented as having human qualities or feelings. The term, which was invented by the Victorian critic John Ruskin, derives from the logical absurdity (“fallacy”) of supposing that nature can sympathize with (feel pathos for) human moods and concerns. Usually the pathetic fallacy reflects or foreshadows some aspect of the poem or narrative at that point, such as the plot, theme, or characterization, and so intensifies the tone. At times, writers reverse the usual use of the pathetic fallacy for purposes of IRONY. (Hamilton 40)
When dramatic irony occurs in tragedies, it is called tragic irony. The audience knows from the opening scene of Othello, for example, that the malevolent Iago is plotting his demise of the noble general who he pretends to serve faithfully, and that his epithet, “honest Iago,” is entirely ironic. In Romeo and Juliet, we watch in helpless dismay as the rash Mercutio wholly misconstrues his friend Romeo’s motives for refusing to respond to Tybalt’s challenge. Unlike Mercutio, we know that Romeo is secretly married to Juliet, the daughter of his family’s enemy. Rather than demurring out of fear, he is trying to appease the insolent Tybalt’s challenge, who has just become his cousin by marriage. Mercutio takes Romeo’s courtesy for cowardice, steps in the fray, and inadvertently triggers the series of deaths that devastate both families. (Hamilton 46)
Refers to an implied worldview in which characters are led to embrace false hopes of aid or success, only to be defeated by some larger force, such as God or fate. For instance, MacBeth believes that he is protected by the weird sisters’ prophecies, but he is betrayed by their fiendish duplicity, and Arthur Miller’s Willy Loman kills himself to secure his family the insurance payment that his suicide will, in fact, make invalid. Shakespeare’s King Lear, is a tour de force cosmic irony, in which several characters congratulate themselves on a triumph or a narrow escape, only to be destroyed shortly afterward. (Hamilton 46)
Is a form of IRONY in which a point is deliberately expressed as less, in magnitude, value, or importance, that it actually is. For example, in Romeo and Juliet, Mercutio dismisses the fatal wound he has just received as “a scratch.” He elaborates on the figure with a second understatement:
Refers to an implication of alternate or reversed meaning that pervades a work. A major technique for sustaining structural irony is the use of a naïve protagonist or an unreliable narrator who continually interprets events and intentions in ways that the author signals are mistaken. For example, Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain’s boy narrator, believes at first that the rascally King and Duke are the brave and erudite noblemen they claim to be, despite signs of their shady past and specious learning. Other narrators may be unreliable not because they are gullible but because they are mentally incapacitated. The narrator of Edgar Allen Poe’s short story “The Tell-Tale Heart” is paranoid and hallucinatory. (Hamilton 45). Another means of creating structural irony is to relate the same events from the perspectives of different narrators. (Hamilton 45) An example, Everybody Loves Raymond, Deborah and Ray are continuously fighting over items that are not important or insignificant yet whenever they interpret their argument to the audience both have different versions of what the argument actually entails.
The taunting use of apparent approval or praise for actual disapproval or dispraise, is mistakenly used as synonymous with verbal irony. The distinctions are that sarcasm is simpler and more crude; in dialogue, it is often signaled by vocal inflection. For example, someone might react to the news that the car is out of gas with the sarcastic retort, “Great! Just what we needed.” In another example, Amanda Wingfield, the controlling mother in Tennessee Williams’s play The Glass Menagerie, demands to know of her adult son where he has been going at night. Tom, an aspiring writer who feels trapped by having to work in a warehouse to support his mother and sister, has been escaping to bars and movies in his free time. When Amanda calls his explanation that goes to the movies “a lie,” Tom reacts with bitter sarcasm: I’m going to opium dens, dens of vice and criminals’ hangouts, Mother. I’ve joined the Hogan Gang, I’m a hired assassin, I carry a tommy gun in a violin case!... They call me Killer, Killer Wingfield, I’m leading a double-life, a simple, honest warehouse worker by day, by night a dynamic czar of the underworld, Mother. Tom’s sarcasm is signaled by the exaggerated details, cliches of B- movie gangster plots, which mock Amanda’s groundless charges, and by the italicized words that emphasize his frustration and outrage. (Hamilton 44-45)