Presentation on theme: "First Year Experience Research Lab Safety. Personal Protective Equipment: What must be worn when you work in the laboratory. 2 1. PPE Eye Protection Lab."— Presentation transcript:
First Year Experience Research Lab Safety
Personal Protective Equipment: What must be worn when you work in the laboratory PPE Eye Protection Lab Coat Long Pants Closed Toed Shoes – no exposed skin around feet Lab gloves – when required
Eye Protection Contact lenses are OK as long as glasses/goggles are worn Prescription glasses – you must wear goggles over them Safety goggles are provided in organic labs in UV irradiating cabinets Eye wash stations are present in all labs 3
Clothing must cover all exposed skin including legs/ankles Stockings or leggings do not provide good coverage Sandals, flip-flops, Crocs, open-toe and open-top (i.e. ballet flat) shoes and canvas shoes (i.e. Toms) are not appropriate. These are not going to protect your feet if you drop a piece of glass with a liquid chemical reagent in it. Clothing and Foot Protection 4
Be smart about the shoes you elect to wear to lab This person has on pants and closed toed-shoes but this would not be allowed in lab due to the exposed skin This person added socks, so this option covers your skin but only offers minimal protection This option looks better, but imagine chemicals being spilled into the top of these boots Your best options are sturdy leather footwear that covers the entire top of the foot or a sturdy running shoe.
Use of Gloves Remove gloves before handling objects such as doorknobs, telephones, pens, computer keyboards, pH meter or other electronic buttons, or phones while in lab. It might be convenient to have one gloved hand and one ungloved hand to do procedures where these kinds of things are used. Throw away gloves anytime you take them off. You should expect to use several pairs of gloves in any given lab period. 6
Eyewash / Safety Shower The eyewash is on the left. Pull the handle and a fountain of water will appear that you can use to bathe your eyes. The safety shower is on the right. Pull the handle and water will start spraying from the shower head on the ceiling. There’s no drain in the floor – we only do this in emergencies, because a flood of water will have to be cleaned up. 7
8 Eye Wash
Safety Shower 9
Using the Fume Hoods properly If this is not saying NORMAL, then the hood is not protecting you. Keeping the sash and sliding panels in proper position keeps this NORMAL, otherwise the alarm goes off. If the alarm goes off, you need to reposition things to the correct positions, then press the “mute” button to reset the controller. The sash should never be raised above the green “operation” level when you are working in the hood. This window/bar is called the sash. 10
× ✓ ✓✓ Closed, not in use In use, side-to-side panel used as shield In use, sash (window) raised to less than 18 inches Don’t open side shields to make one big window. 11
When using a laboratory hood, Check that the airflow is in the normal range on the digital display Turn on the hood light Set the equipment and chemicals back at least 6 inches. Never lean in and/or put your head in the hood when you are working. This is worse than doing the experiment with no hood at all. It’s a good idea to put liquid reagent containers in trays to catch all spills and drips 12
Fire Alarms – know the location of one close to your lab 13
Fire Extinguishers – we have several in the labs and in the hallways. 14
Types of Fire Extinguishers Most of our fire extinguishers are ABC. It contains a dry powder to put out the kinds of fires we might encounter in the chemistry labs where we have class. This is a special fire extinguisher for combustible metal fires. It is a type D fire extinguisher. You won’t need to use this unless you work in a research lab with combustible metals. 16
Student Reaction in a Fire Although we want you to be informed on the operation of a fire extinguisher, we do not expect you to use it. If a fire is ignited in your area, the proper STUDENT response is to: 1)Notify everyone in the room 2)If possible shutdown any reaction in progress by removing heat/energy source 3)Proceed to the nearest exit and pull the nearest fire alarm 4)Evacuate the building 5)Assemble in front of the library or in the YWCA parking lot for a positive headcount 17
Keep your lab area clean. × × × × Throw away used paper towels and used gloves, immediately. Don’t block the floor in front of the eyewash/shower station. Don’t leave things in the floor because someone will trip over it. Don’t leave cords dangling because someone will trip over them. 18
Please take a moment now to program this number into your cell phone. The number to call in an emergency on campus is : 19
Rotor Safety Do not run rotors above their rated speed Inspect rotor for imperfections and signs of wear that can eventually lead to catastrophic failure Do not drop rotor Rinse the rotor after every use Avoid using abrasive brushes for cleaning If you suspect rotor has been damaged, do not use it Do not use a rotor that is not compatible with your model centrifuge Use tubes and adapters that are rated for use in the rotor being used Swinging Bucket rotor Disposable tubes Need adaptors Fixed angle rotor
Accident involving improper rotor usage Centrifuges that malfunction can create projectiles out of the rotor shards. If the centrifuge starts to make horrible noises, cut the power and leave the room
Loading the Centrifuge Be certain that tubes are balanced with a partner Don’t forget to include caps when weighing the tubes for balance Secure the rotor on the spindle by tightening all knobs on the lid Tug gently on the rotor to make sure it is secured to the spindle Do not overfill bottles (3/4 full max) Both knobs are tightened in some models to secure rotor to the spindle Counterbalance your labeled sample
Unloading Centrifuge Take precautions if biohazards or other hazardous material is used as aerosols can form during vacuum cycles Clean the chamber from condensation and any spills Never try to open the centrifuge door before the rotor is done spinning Never reach a hand or anything else into the chamber when rotor is spinning Note: it is sometimes difficult to look at a spinning rotor and determine if it is spinning
Centrifuge Safety Overview 4n0 4n0 Note: A modern centrifuge will have low tolerance for mismatched tubes and will shut itself off if tubes are not balanced Also, most modern centrifuges will not allow the door to unlock while the rotor is still in motion.
Autoclave Safety 26
What is an Autoclave? An autoclave is a specialized piece of equipment designed to deliver heat under pressure to a chamber, with the goal of decontaminating or sterilizing the contents of the chamber.
Personal Protective Equipment Autoclaves utilize steam, heat and pressure and therefore the risk of personal injury through scalding, burns and exploding glassware is great. Personal protective equipment is absolutely required. 1)Safety Glasses 2) Lab Coat 3)Long pants 4)Closed Shoes 5)Long thermal gloves 6)Face shield recommended
What can be autoclaved? Cultures and stocks of infectious material Culture dishes Tips, pipettes, gloves, paper towels, aluminum foil Centrifuge bottles Glassware -- all caps must be loosened Media and other aqueous solutions Contaminated solid items
What CANNOT be autoclaved? Solvents or volatiles Chlorinated compounds (HCl, bleach) Corrosives Radioactive material Some plastics
Cycle Differences Fluids must be autoclaved under a “liquid” setting Items such as pipette tips, test tubes, and centrifuge bottles are run under “dry” or “gravity” setting The difference in settings is how the cycle is vented Liquids must depressurize slowly and dry cycles conclude with a vacuum step to draw off condensation
Loading and Unloading the Autoclave All screw caps must be loosened to prevent pressure changes in the glassware that can cause the container to burst All items should be placed in an autoclave tray to prevent scald burns in the event of a spill Return autoclave trays promptly so that other users do not skip using a tray because they can’t find one Don’t skip using a tray Do not remove liquid that is still boiling If possible, allow glassware to cool before removing Loosen cap by several threads
Door Safety Never try to open a door that is under pressure Never try to speed up the venting process by tampering with the door, by turning on and off the machine, etc. Venting takes time. Know where the pressure gauges are for the instrument you are using If possible, vent door slowly
Autoclaving Waste Contaminated pipette tips and solid waste should be sterilized prior to disposal Collect waste in a special autoclave-safe biohazards bag Place bag in secondary container Vent the bag by opening Do not overfill bag After removal place entire bag in a new trash bag so that “biohazard” signs are no longer showing Sterilized waste can go into the normal trash Autoclave tape can be used to verify heat delivery but it does not guarantee proper sterilization This bag is too full
Container Choice Pyrex glass, metal, polypropylene (PP) plastic and polycarbonate (PC) plastic are best choices Polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and high density polyethylene (HDPE) will often melt and make a mess
Autoclaving Tips Add a 2 cm depth of water to trays with glassware; the water helps eliminate air pockets between the tray and the glass and helps prevent glass from breaking Do not fill liquid past 75% volume Separate items to increase steam penetration Increase cycle time for large volumes of liquid Temperature must be maintained at 121°C for at least 30 minutes for liquid loads
Maintenance Report any irregularities to your supervisor Do not operate if there is a steam outage Failed runs should be reported and logged
Other Biochemistry Safety Concerns
Toxic and Health Hazardous Chemicals Categories: – Irritants – Sensitizers – Corrosives – Carcinogens – Target Organ Effects – Reproductive Health Toxins – Acute Toxins – Physical Health Hazards Common routes of exposure in the lab are inhalation and skin absorption, while ingestion is less common. Carcinogens, reproductive toxins, target organ damage Acute toxicity, fatality Corrosives Irritants, sensitizers, acutely toxic
Biological Hazards Biological hazards are potential sources of infectious agents that could be harmful to human health. – Bacterial, fungal, parasitic, viral, and prion agents. – Sources may include animals, tissues, cells, blood, and nucleic acid samples, including recombinant DNA.
High Voltage Techniques DNA and protein gel electrophoresis combine high voltage with the use of aqueous solutions – Take precautions to avoid electrocution. – Modern gel boxes have electrodes positioned on the lids to drastically reduce the risk of electrocution. – Always secure the gel box lid before turning on the voltage. Turn off the voltage before removing the lid to a gel box. – Match the red and black electrodes to the corresponding red and black outlets on the power supply.
Ultracold (-80°C) Freezer Use Many biological samples and chemicals need to be preserved at temperatures below room temperature – Always consult the label: 4°C (refrigerator), -20°C (conventional freezer), -80°C (ultracold freezer), -196°C (liquid nitrogen) – Cold storage can slow cell death rate, preserve enzyme activity, inhibit contaminating bacterial growth, and prevent degradation. – Use insulated gloves to handle ultracold materials. – Handle glass dewars with caution – danger of exploding glass if they are knocked over and broken.
Liquid Nitrogen Safety Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is commonly used to rapidly freeze proteins and bacteria LN2 rapidly evaporates and can displace air in enclosed spaces causing suffocation LN2 can cause death of human tissue from extreme cold Minor contact can cause “burns” Evacuated glass dewars can sometimes burst unexpectedly LN2 can condense liquid oxygen
Liquid Nitrogen DON’T’s DON’T use in confined space DON’T freeze items in centrifuge tubes with snap caps DON’T transport LN2 in a closed automobile DON’T transport LN2 in a passenger elevator DON’T allow a storage dewar to tip over DON’T leave cold fingers on a vacuum line in LN2 overnight DON’T use without PPE! NO!
Liquid Nitrogen Do’s DO use or dispense LN2 only in well ventilated areas DO ensure glass dewars are taped or wrapped DO use approved containers only such as a dewar or threaded cryovials for storage DO make sure any vessel with LN2 is VENTED DO secure storage dewars against spilling DO use appropriate PPE which includes: Face shield (or minimally goggles) Long thermal gloves Apron or lab coat Closed toed Shoes Long pants YES! NO! YES!
Report any concerns If you have any safety concerns about the lab you are working in or the people working around you, you can contact: – Your lab instructor – Dr. Neal Tonks– Head of the departmental safety committee – Dr. Pamela Riggs-Gelasco – Department Chair for Chemistry and Biochemistry – Dr. Jim Deavor, Associate Dean of the School of Science and Mathematics.