# States of Matter 7.1 Matter – anything that has mass and volume Mass – quantity of matter that a substance or object contains. More matter, more mass.

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Ch. 7 Kinetic Molecular Theory Explains the Characteristics of Solids, Liquids and Gases

States of Matter 7.1 Matter – anything that has mass and volume Mass – quantity of matter that a substance or object contains. More matter, more mass. Volume – amount of space taken up by a substance or object.

States of Matter 7.1 Solid – definite shape and volume Liquid – definite volume but not shape Gas – no definite shape or volume

Watch Brainpop: “States of Matter”

Kinetic Molecular Theory
All matter is made up of very small particles (atoms and molecules) There is empty space between particles Particles are constantly moving Solid – particles are tightly packed together and cannot move freely – only vibrate Liquid – Particles are farther apart and they can move by sliding past each other Gas – particles are very far apart and move freely. Energy makes particles move. The more energy the particles have, the faster they can move and the farther apart they can get

Thermal Expansion Thermal Expansion – as the temperature of a solid liquid or a gas increases, the particles move farther apart and they take up more room or volume.

Thermal Contraction Thermal contraction – as the temperature of a solid, liquid, or a gas decreases, the particles move closer and they take up less room or volume

Thermal Expansion and Contraction
Different materials expand or contract with changing temperatures at different rates. An aluminum rod will expand 3 times faster than glass for the same temperature change.

What about Water to Ice? Question I am learning that the particles in matter expand when heated and contract when cooled. But how come when you put water in the freezer to make ice cubes, the ice expands? Shouldn't the water have contracted because its being cooled?

What about Water to Ice? For most substances; the solid form of the substance is more dense than the liquid phase (a block of pure solid substance will sink in a tub of pure liquid substance). However, a block of ice will float in a tub of water because solid water is less dense than liquid water. At 4 °C, just above freezing, water reaches its maximum density. As water cools further toward its freezing point, the liquid water, expands to become less dense. The physical reason for this is related to the crystal structure of ordinary ice, known as hexagonal ice. Each oxygen atom  has it's own 2 electrons, and grabs hold of 2 more electrons from the water molecule next to it. They crystallize into a big hexagon shape, which takes up more space than the same molecules do when the water is in liquid form. An ice crystal's form is called a 'network structure.' Same molecules, but they take up more space. Water, gallium, bismuth, acetic acid, antimony and silicon are some of the few materials which expand when they freeze.

Heat and Temperature Heat – energy transferred from one material to another. When you touch a hot cup of hot chocolate, you feel the heat transfer from the cup to your hands. Temperature is the average kinetic energy of a substances’ particles. Temperature is not energy, but a measure of it. Heat is energy Great video to explain

Changes of State: Chemical
In a chemical change where there is a chemical reaction, a new substance is formed. Examples: piece of paper is burned, it is a different substance that in no longer paper, when metal rusts. Chemical changes cannot be reversed. Example: cooking an egg

Changes of State: Physical
A physical change in a substance doesn't change what the substance is. Examples: a piece of paper is cut up into small pieces it still is paper, a crushed can of pop Physical changes can be reversed Example: a cup of water can be frozen and then can be returned to a liquid form when heated.

Watch Brainpop: “Property Changes”

Changes of State: Physical
Matter (elements and compounds) can change from one state to another. Change of state/phase happen when certain points (temperature or pressure) are reached. With temperature, the state of matter can change when the temperature increases or decreases.

Changes of State: Physical
Solid Melting: from a solid form to a liquid form ice (solid) -> water (liquid) Sublimation: from a solid form to a gas form (skips liquid). dry ice (solid) -> fog (gas)

Changes of State: Physical
Liquid Solidification: from liquid to solid water (liquid) -> ice (solid) Evaporation: from liquid to gas water (liquid) -> steam (gas)

Changes of State: Physical
Gas Condensation: from gas to liquid steam (gas) -> water (liquid) Deposition: from gas to solid air (gas) -> frost (solid)

Changes of State: Physical

Wild, Weird, Wonderful: What Is Plasma?
Solids, liquids, and gases are not the most common forms of matter in the universe. The most common form of matter is called “plasma.” Most of the universe, including our solar system, is made up of plasma. Plasma is a very hot gas in an ionized state. It has a mixture of positively and negatively charged particles. When matter is heated to extremely high temperatures, the particles begin to collide violently and to break apart into smaller particles that can conduct electricity. The particles in plasma vibrate at certain frequencies, which allows scientists to measure the electric fields in plasma. They can use this information to determine the electron density of plasma. Glowing plasmas occur naturally in stars such as the Sun and in lightning. Much cooler plasmas are formed in fluorescent tubes and neon signs. Further applications of plasma technology are being studied because plasma technology seems to be efficient in many ways. For example, gas plasma technology seems to be cleaner and to require less energy than conventional methods.

Watch Brainpop: Matter Changing States

Text Work Check Your Understanding P. 259 # 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10

Watch Bill Nye the Science Guy:
“Phases of Matter”

7.2 Fluids and Density Fluid: Any form of matter that can flow
liquids and gases are fluids No fixed shape

Watch Bill Nye the Science Guy:
“Fluids”

7.2 Fluids and Density Mass – quantity of matter that a substance or object contains. More matter, more mass. Volume – amount of space taken up by a substance or object. Density – mass of a given volume (or how close together the particles are)

7.2 Fluids and Density The key to density = spacing of particles: tightly packed vs. free to move When a substance changes states; density changes as well As you increase the temperature of a substance, particles move further apart and density decreases The solid & liquid state are denser than the gas state

Less dense objects float on top of more dense objects
In general, the solid state of a substance is denser than the liquid state An exception is water. Water is denser than ice. That is why ice floats on water

7.2 Fluids and Density Reading Check: p. 263
1. Gases and liquids can flow, but solids cannot. 2. Density decreases when matter is heated due to particles moving farther apart. 3. Water is unique in the sense that the particles actually move slightly farther apart when it freezes. Ice has a lower density than liquid water. 4. Water has a lower density than corn syrup.

7.2 Fluids and Density Reading Check: p. 263
5. When air is heated near the ground on a hot summer day, the particles gain energy and move farther apart. The warm air has a lower density than the air around it, and as a result, it begins to rise. As the warm air rises, cooler air rushes in beneath it, and a breeze is created. 6. The higher you go in the atmosphere, the farther apart the air particles are spread out. The lower you go in the atmosphere, the closer together the air particles are, so more air particles enter the lungs with every breath.

7.2 Fluids and Density Think About It: p. 262
1. Gold 2. Hydrogen 3. Mercury 4. Styrofoam, cork, and oak 5a. All substances with a density of less than 1.00 g/mL 5b. All substances with a density greater than 1.00 g/mL 6. Aluminum, iron, nickel, copper, lead

7.2 Fluids and Density: Measuring Matter
Layering is a technique used for comparison of densities. However it does not provide a specific measurement. To measure you need: 1) mass, 2) volume of the substance Volume is measured in cm³

7.2 Fluids and Density: Measuring Matter
Displacement is used to find the volume of an irregular shaped substance Use this formula to calculate the density of an object: Density = mass / volume or D = m / v Density of fluids is g/ml Density of solids is g/cm³

Watch Brainpop: “Measuring Matter”

7.2 Fluids and Density Reading Check: p. 264
1. Use the equation: volume = length × width × height. 2. Measure the amount of fluid displaced by the object. 3. Mass, volume cm³

7.2 Fluids and Density Practice Problems: p. 265
P. 265 Mark it Yourself (to the right) P g / 200 cm³ = 8.9 g/cm³ (nickel) g / 360 cm³ = 2.7 g/cm³ (aluminum) g / 9.8 mL = 13.55g/mL (mercury) g/650 cm³ = 2.16 g/cm³ (salt) g/1800 mL = 0.79 g/mL (ethyl alcohol)

7.2 Fluids and Density Check Your Understanding
p. 271 #1-5

7.2 Fluids and Density Check Your Understanding: p. 271 #1-5
1. Styrofoam, oil, plastic, water, grape, corn syrup 2. The density of the helium has decreased. In the warm room, the helium particles gained energy and moved farther apart, increasing the volume of the balloon. With the same mass but greater volume, the density is lower. 3. The diet soft drink has a lower density than that of water, and water has a lower density than that of the regular soft drink g ÷ 500 cm3 = 2.16 g/cm³. This is the density of salt. 5. The copper is solid, therefore the particles are very close together. Even though the mercury has a greater density, the particles of mercury cannot move in between the copper particles.

Chapter 7: Chapter Review
p #1-7, 9b-15, 17

Chapter 7: Chapter Review: p. 272-273 #1-7, 9b-15, 17
1. The particles in a gas are much farther apart than the particles in a solid. Gas particles move freely, therefore gases spread out or diffuse in their container. Solids have particles that are very close together and held in position. Solids have a defined shape and volume that is independent of any container. 2. (a) Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. 2. (b) Particles move slower when their kinetic energy is decreased. 3. Thermal energy is the total amount of kinetic energy in all the particles of a substance. Heat is the energy transferred from one material or object to another. 4. (a) When a state change occurs from solid to liquid, particles gain energy and go from being in a fixed position to being able to change position and slide past one another.

Chapter 7: Chapter Review: p. 272-273 #1-7, 9b-15, 17
4. (b) When a change of state occurs from gas to liquid, particles lose energy. In the gas state, particles are free moving with lots of space between them. When the state change to liquid occurs, the particles move much closer together, until they are in contact with each other, but can still move past one another. 5. Condensation is a change of state from gas to liquid. Evaporation is a change of state from liquid to gas. 6. Solids are denser than gases because they have more particles in a given area of volume. This means the mass of a solid will be greater than the mass of a gas for an equal volume. 7. Density = mass/volume, therefore mass = density × volume. For example, if a substance has a density of 2 g/mL, and there is 10 mL of the substance, then 2 g/mL × 10 mL = 20 g.

Chapter 7: Chapter Review: p. 272-273 #1-7, 9b-15, 17
9. (b) When the ball is heated, its particles gain energy and as a result, the particles move farther apart. This results in an increase in volume of the ball. When the volume of the ball increases enough, it will no longer fit through the ring. 10. When the heat was added to the cold glass, the particles of the glass increased in kinetic energy very rapidly. As a result, the motion of the particles increased rapidly. This rapid increase in motion caused the particles to move farther apart. This rapid thermal expansion caused the glass to crack. 11. Saturated fats have a higher melting point because they are solid at room temperature, while unsaturated fats have already melted at room temperature. 12. Hot water has a lower density than cold water, therefore it will layer on top of cold water. The particles of hot water have more energy and are farther apart, and so have a lower density.

Chapter 7: Chapter Review: p. 272-273 #1-7, 9b-15, 17
13. (a) D = m/V = 192 g ÷ 800 cm3 = 0.24 g/cm3 13. (b) The mass will float on water because it has a lower density than water. 14. (a) Fluid A: 1.03 g/mL, Fluid B: g/mL, Fluid C: 0.9 g/mL 14. (b) The drawing should show Fluid A on the bottom, Fluid C in the middle, and Fluid B on top. 15. (a) g/cm3 15. (b) Yes

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