2Food safety must be taken seriously The consequences of food being unsafe to eat are rather more far-reaching than a consumer being disappointed about its quality.If foods do not meet the required safety standards the outcome is potentially fatal.Manufacturers are required to adhere to food laws.The Food Safety Act ensures that all food products:meet all food safety regulationshave not been contaminated, making them harmful to healthare fit for human consumptionhave been accurately described and presented to the consumer
3About HACCPspace age technology designed to keep foods safe in outer space.in the 1970's, a food safety programme was developed for astronauts.focused on preventing hazards that could cause food-borne illnesses by applying science based controls to the manufacturing process, from raw material to finished products.
4Why HACCP?Throughout the manufacturing process, food products are subject to strict quality checks to ensure that the products meet the agreed quality standards.These have to be right first time, every time.This quality assurance is different to quality control, which involves inspection and testing at the end of the manufacturing process.
5WHY?HAACP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is one particular quality assurance process used by the food industry.It takes a systems approach to identifying hazards and risks and defining the means for their control.Developing HACCP assists companies to comply with legislation and fulfils customer requirements for a food safety management system.
6HACCP involves seven principles: Analyse hazards. Potential hazards associated with a food and measures to control those hazards are identified. The hazard could be biological, eg. a microbe; chemical, eg. a toxin; or physical, eg. metal fragments.Identify critical control points. These are the points during a food's production - from its raw state through processing and distribution to consumption by the consumer - at which the potential hazard can be controlled or eliminated. Examples are cooking, cooling, packaging and metal detection.Establish preventative measures with critical limits for each control point. For a cooked food for example, this might include setting a minimum cooking temperature and time required to ensure the elimination of any harmful microbes.Establish procedures to monitor the critical control points. Such procedures might include determining how and by whom cooking time and temperature should be monitored.Establish corrective actions to be taken. This would be when monitoring shows that a critical control limit has not been met, for example, disposing of food if a metal has been detected.Establish effective record keeping. Documenting the HACCP system provides detailed records that may be needed for traceability and accountability.
7About the product Customers expect same quality every time. possible to maintain consistency of quality, taste and appearance by using systems and computer technology.particularly with a popular product like Hamburgers!!!If customers disappointed they will take their custom elsewhere.The burgers featured in this case study are a single commodity product, ie. they contain 100% beef with no fillers or binders added.
8About HACCP during burger production As part of HACCP in a food factory, the operating manual for each product provides instructions for all stages of manufacture.is for quality assurance and for training staff in exact procedures and processes.this helps identify and list all the potential hazards.hazards identified then preventative control measures based on knowledge of the hazards & contamination points can be drawn up.About HACCP during burger production As part of HACCP in a food factory, the operating manual for each product provides instructions for all stages of manufacture. This document is a reference point for quality assurance and for training staff in exact procedures and processes. The operating manual conforms to the international standard ISO9000. The manual contains prompts to help identify and list all the potential hazards.Once the hazards have been identified, preventative control measures based on knowledge of the hazards, and their normal sources and contamination points can be drawn up. The following account shows how HACCP is approached for burger production.Refer to the diagram to see where on the factory floor the critical control points are managed.
9How HACCP is approached for burger production. See where on the factory floor the critical control points CCP’s are managed!
10Unit operations and critical control points: Flow chart shows unit operations in burger manufacture.made in a purpose built factory.3.8 million patties (regular hamburgers) and 1.52 million quarter pounders produced every day for distribution.
11Critical control point 1: Delivery of meat Inspect all deliveries to check that food is not contaminated *observe delivery vehicle to see if it is clean.Reject food if it is unacceptable *seek out new supplierThe process starts with the arrival of the raw ingredients. Fresh and frozen meat are used to make the burgers. Some frozen meat is used because it keeps the ambient temperature of the meat low during processing and assists in the binding process. All products used in the food industry must be traceable to the original suppliers.Every animal born after July 1996 must be given a passport. This has details of its birth, parentage, health and farms. This passport follows the animal from when it is sold to when the carcass arrives from the abattoir. When the containers of meat arrive they will include meat from several carcasses. Each container will have the name of the abattoir, a container number and the date.This information is transferred onto a barcode so it can be tracked throughout the manufacturing process using a computer tracking system. The meat goes through a number of checks on arrival.meat must be from approved supplierall vehicles must be sealed on deliveryvehicles must be clean, without off- odours, fit for purpose and free from other materials
12Critical control point 1: Delivery of meat Inspect meat for damage or contamination *ensure properly packaged, correct temperature, no signs of contamination.Reject products in damaged packaging, incorrect temperature or appear to be contaminatedfresh meat temperature: target <+4degrees Cfrozen meat temperature: target <minus 18 degrees Cfresh meat less than 6 days from kill datepackaging fully protects meat against possible contamination risksmeat is bright red colour, no off odours, free of any slime or contamination.If the meat passes all these checks the container is accepted and put into chilled storage. The temperature of the chilled and frozen storage is checked regularly.
13Critical control point 2: Chiller storage of ingredients Monitor and record chiller storage is operating between 0 and +5 degreesAdjust settings or contact a refrigerator technician.chiller storage operating between 0 and +5 degreescomputer tracks chiller storage progress
14Critical control point 3: Frozen storage of ingredients Monitor and record freezer storage is operating between minus 15 and minus 25 degreesAdjust settings or contact a freezer technician.freezer temperature operating between minus 15 and minus 25 degreescomputer tracks chiller and frozen storage progress
15Critical control point 4: Meat preparation- personal hygiene Personal hygiene procedure before handling ingredients, equipment and utensils.Check fellow workers, use a fresh hairnet each shift,Hairnet- two if required.Wash Hands in warm soapy waterSanitize handsPut jacket onWash hands again
16Critical control point 4: Meat preparation- blending and mincing Ensure fat content meets the nutritional and quality specificationsModify formulation to meet specifications.The fresh and frozen meats are initially ground together. The batch is blended and checked to make sure the fat content meets the specification. If the batch is within 1% of the product specification, the computer allows it to move onto the next stage. If it is outside the parameters, the computer calculates the adjustments needed and these are made.Computers areused to track the progress of each batch of meat stage by stage. The fat content is important as it affects the taste, texture and cooking properties. Too little fat may cause under-cooking problems and too much may result in shrinkage on cooking.The batch goes onto further grinding. The bore size of the grinders is very small and this helps the patties stick together. There is also an elimination point here where any meat that will not go through the small bore and any pieces of bone are rejected.computers used to track the progress of each batch of meat stage by stage.fat content is important as it affects the taste, texture and cooking properties.Too little fat may cause under-cooking problems and too much may result in shrinkage on cooking.
17Critical control point 5: Meat preparation- blending and mincing Ensure physical defects are eliminatedGrind and screen mince to remove any grissel and bone fragmentsdefect eliminators fitted to all final grinding heads to remove bone and gristle fragmentsPhysical defects may pose a risk to the consumer if eaten (bone)They may also cause the product to have poorer quality.Defects could mean the product is recalled and therefore cannot be sold, being a monetary loss to the company.
18Critical control point 6: Pattie production- shaping and forming Ensure patties are visibly the correct shape, size and weightMake adjustments to machinery if necessaryA forming machine is used to shape 600 beef patties or 300 quarter pounders per minute. Experienced operators carry out a visual check on the shaped burgers and make any adjustments to the machinery if necessary.A forming machine is used to shape patties under pressure in mould plates which determines the patty shape, size and weight.
19Critical control point 7: Pattie production- freezing Ensure correct freezer temperatures are maintained to inhibit bacterial growth and prevent dehydration of the final patties.Sensors read and record and monitor temperature of the freezer areas in the factory. Freeze quickly to prevent dehydration.Once formed they move into a freezer tunnel.Once formed the beef patties move directly into a freezer tunnel. Sensors that read and record the temperature every hour monitor the temperature of all of the chilled/freezer areas in the factory.If the temperature rises then alarms are activated. It is vital that correct temperatures are maintained all the time to inhibit bacterial growth and prevent dehydration of the final burgers.There are two points where the product passes through metal detectors. The first is at the end of the freezer tunnel before packaging and the second once the boxes have been filled and sealed.
20Critical control point 8: Pattie production- Metal detection Ensure there are no machinery fragments in the hamburgers which may pose as a risk to consumers.Pass product through two metal detectors to screen patties. Stop process if metal detected and audit machinery.in-line metal detectors fitted with automatic rejection systems at freezing tunnel exitsdetector sensivity set at 1.2mm ferrous, 1.5mmOnce formed they move into a freezer tunnel. In-line metal detectors fitted with automatic rejection systems at freezing tunnel exits
21CCP5: Metal detectionPackaging The beef patties are manually packed into boxes.sealed and coded with the date, time and production line used. This information will allow traceability.
22Boxes are sealed and coded! Boxes are sealed and coded with the date, time and production line used. They are passed through a metal detector. All data is stored on computer and provides an important record in the line of traceability.PackagingThe beef patties are manually packed into boxes. Electronic scales are used to indicate when a box is complete. It is sealed and coded with the date, time and production line used. This data will be stored on the computer and gives the final stage in the line of traceability. Each carton has a 90 day shelf life and once it has passed the final metal detector it is stored in the finished product freezer
23the product is kept at minus 18 degrees C Inspection- CCP6: Product storagethe product is kept at minus 18 degrees CInspection-Patties checked by a quality assurance team.checked against the specifications and all data is recorded on computer.Cleaning-Each night all machinery in the plant is thoroughly cleanedInspection- Regular patties are checked every hour and quarter pounders every 20 minutes by the quality assurance team. They are checked against the specifications and all data is recorded on hand held data loggers before being transferred to the main frame computer.Factory Hygiene- daily strip down and clean of all manufacturing equipmentfoam detergent followed by sanitiserdaily visual inspectionmicrobiological swabbingCleaning- Each night all machinery in the plant is thoroughly cleaned
24Patties are checked & Electronic scales are used to indicate when a packed box is complete.
25Data is recorded on hand held data loggers before being transferred to the main frame computer.
26CCP7: Factory hygienedaily clean of all manufacturing equipmentfoam detergent followed by sanitiserdaily visual inspectionmicrobiological swabbing to check for contamination!
27Samples of the patties are taken from the production line and cooked as they would be in food outlets.Samples of the patties are taken from the production line and cooked as they would be in food outlets. Regular patties should cook in 42 seconds (42-46 seconds is the tolerance) and quarter pounders in 120 seconds ( seconds is the tolerance). Regular taste tests are carried out.
28Where the burgers are cooked and sold to consumers, regular checks are carried out to ensure that they are prepared to the required standards, eg. cooked burgers must reach a minimum internal temperature of 70 degreesWhere the burgers are cooked and sold to consumers, regular checks are carried out to ensure that they are prepared to the required standards, eg. cooked burgers must reach a minimum internal temperature of 70 degrees C.