Presentation on theme: "Electrical safety and performances for household refrigerators"— Presentation transcript:
1 Electrical safety and performances for household refrigerators Fabio Gargantini IECEE Lead AssessorIECEE Workshop August 26 & 27Nairobi - Kenya
2 SummarySafety and performance aspects of household refrigerating appliancesConformity Assessment of household refrigerating appliancesBuilding a Testing Laboratory for safety and performance tests of refrigerating appliances
3 Safety and performance aspects of household refrigerating appliances
4 Standards on safety and performance of household refrigerators Why a standard is neededTo give a common harmonized approach to the evaluation and testing of a productTo be used as common reference for the producer, the laboratory, the client, the Regulators, the Market surveillance AuthoritiesTo serve as reference for the international trade and acceptance of products worldwide
5 Safety of refrigerating appliances Refrigerators are covered by IEC Edition 7.1:2012IEC supplements or modifies IEC Edition 5:2010Appliances covered:refrigerators for household and similar useice-makers with motor-compressor and ice-makers incorporated in frozen food storage compartmentsrefrigerating appliances and ice-makers for use in camping, touring caravans and boats for leisure purposes.
6 Safety of refrigerating appliances Examples of appliances NOT covered by IEC :motor-compressors (IEC );appliances intended to be used in the open airappliances designed exclusively for industrial purposesappliances with remote motor-compressors;commercial dispensing appliances and vending appliances (IEC );commercial refrigerators and freezers (IEC );commercial ice-cream appliances.
7 Safety of refrigerating appliances IEC covers safety requirementsIEC does not cover:Performances and energy efficiencyFitness for useRoHsPAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons)WEEE
8 Safety of refrigerating appliances Main risks covered by IEC Series :Risks of electrical origin: access to live parts or parts that may be live in case of faultsRisks due to contacts with hot accessible surfacesRisks due to access to moving partsRisks due to flames and fire
9 Safety of refrigerating appliances Main points of IECScope and definitionInstructions and markingAccessibility to live partsHeating and abnormal useConstruction: grounding connections, resistance of materialsProtection to penetration of liquids or solidsInsulation distancesResistance to fire/no spread of flames
10 Safety of refrigerating appliances Accessibility to live parts (Cl. 8)Accessibility to live parts with a test finger to verify if no active parts are accessibleFor Class II appliances, only double or reinforced insulation can be touched by the test pin (pin 15 mm long, with 3 mm diameter).
11 Safety of refrigerating appliances How the test is carried out?
12 Safety of refrigerating appliances Examples of different probes for accessibility to live parts (Cl. 8)
13 Safety of refrigerating appliances Heating test (Cl.11)Scope: to verifiy that temperatures of accessible surface and components are within limit prescribed for the specific materialTest set-up: appliances installed in a test corner and thermocouples positioned in the relevant parts of the appliance (e.g. components, accessible surfaces, plastic materials, wiring)Appliances supplied and temperatures measured with appropriate equipment & instruments
14 Safety of refrigerating appliances Protection against moisture (Cl.15)Scope: to verifiy that penetration of water does not cause reduction in creepage and clearancesTest set-up: appliances subjected to water penetrationProduct under test a luminaire, but test set-up is the same !The results of the test:
15 Safety of refrigerating appliances Abnormal use (Cl.19)Scope: to verifiy that non operation of temperature control devices, or overload, or EMC phenomena, or failures in components, do not cause safety problemsTest set-up: appliances subjected to consequences of unwished situations (e.g shortcircuit of thermostats)Some results of the test :
16 Safety of refrigerating appliances Stability Test (Cl.20)Scope: to verify that overturning of the product does not cause safety problemsTest set-up: appliance placed on an inclined plane
17 Safety of refrigerating appliances Mechhanical resistance (Cl.21)Scope: to verifiy that product resists to impactsTest set-up: appliance subjected to impacts with impact hammer
18 Safety of refrigerating appliances Supply connection (Cl.25 & 26)Scope: to verifiy that means for connection to supply are suitableTests: verification of terminals and supply cable subject to pull and push force
19 Safety of refrigerating appliances Provision for earthing (Cl.27)Scope: to verifiy that means for earthing are suitableTests: verification of suitability of earth connection
20 Safety of refrigerating appliances Resistance to heat and fire (Cl.30)Scope: to verify that plastic materials have adequate characteristics to avoid deformation or leakages or spread of fireTests carried out:Ball pressureCTICurrent Tracking IndexGlow Wire
21 Performance and noise emission of household refrigerators Covered by IEC Ed for performances and IEC Ed for noise EmissionIEC is a stand alone standardIEC is a part 2 of EN Ed and shall be read with EdAppliances covered by IEC and IEC : all refrigerators for household and similar use
22 Performance and noise emission of household refrigerators Appliances NOT covered by IEC and IECice-makers with motor-compressor and ice-makers incorporated in frozen food storage compartmentsappliances designed exclusively for industrial purposesappliances with remote motor-compressors;commercial dispensing appliances and vending appliancescommercial refrigerators and freezerscommercial ice-cream appliances.
23 News on standard for performance of household refrigerators IEC under significant revision processCDV circulated in May 2013Comments by August 2013By end 2013 it should be possible to release an FDIS, depending on comments from NCsNew Edition should be published in 2014
24 Why a new editionVariety of standards used worldwide linked to regional regulatory measures, such as energy labelling.Revision aims at a global acceptance and application.The new Edition will have very significant changes and major improvements.Revision is in fact an integration of different worldwide standards into one
25 New Standard on Performance of household refrigerators IEC , Definitions and General conditions for testing:IEC : Determination of linear dimensions, volumes and areas - Energy consumption testIEC : Other checksair-tightness of doors, lids or drawer sealsopening force of doors or lidsdurability of doors, lids and drawersmechanical strength of shelves and similar componentsstorage temperatures, temperature rise testfreezing testice-making testcooling test (not in 1st Edition)
26 New Standard on performance of household refrigerators Energy consumption tests:Performed with the appliance in empty condition rather than loaded with test packagesSignificant reduction of the uncertainty in the test result is expectedThe thermal capacity of frozen food compartments is reduced, the testing time will be shortened.
27 New Standard on performance of household refrigerators Energy consumption testPerformed at two ambient temperatures (16 and 32 °C instead of only at 25 °C)Rated energy consumption calculated by a combination of the results at 16 and 32 °CThe weighting factor to be defined and can be different depending on the world regionFresh food compartment temperature reduced to 4 °C
28 New Standard on performance of household refrigerators Energy consumption test:A new adaptive test algorithm defines the time needed for a stable and reproducible testTest time reduced from a 70 ÷ 120 h to 10 ÷ 30 hVery short test times for regular behaving productsTest time automatically increases for products having an irregular control behaviorAlgorithm is also applicable to frost-free appliancesThis new procedure will reduce the uncertainty and the costs of the tests
29 New Standard on performance of household refrigerators Temperature performance testingStorage temperature tests still performed with packagesThe warmest package in frozen food compartments must meet the -18 °C to guarantee proper conservationLoad scheme drastically simplified using only 0.5 kg packagesA new cooling capacity performance test introduced for fresh food compartments
30 New Standard on performance of household refrigerators Due to changes in reference temperatures, ambient temperatures and procedures, changes to the rated energy consumption are evident for all productsRated energy consumption of refrigerators-only will increaseRated energy consumption of frozen food compartments will decreaseCombination appliances will be between these two extremes.
31 New Standard on performance of household refrigerators The new energy consumption values can be matched reasonably to the current values, though actual values will be different for every product
32 Related parameters in a test under EEE Scheme VolumeNoiseTemperatureRisingTimeStorageFreezingcapacityEnergy-consumption
33 The impact of the new standard As the new global standard significantly differs from the current standard, many questions may arise. Points to be addressed: 1. The change in rated energy consumption of a series of appliances in various categories as a function of the weighing factor 2. The effect on the uncertainty of the test results 3. Have ambiguities been effectively removed? 4. Effect on testing costs
34 The new standard in the international arena High worldwide interest in the new IEC 62552China new energy label will include the most important changes of the new standard (freezer unloaded, test at ambient temperature 16°C and 32°C, etc.)2015 energy regulations in Australia/New Zealand will be based on the new global standardEurope will consider the new standard in revision process of Ecodesign and Energy labelling Regulations
35 Conformity Assessment of household refrigerating appliances
36 Conformity Assessment of household refrigerating appliances Demonstration that specified requirements (IEC Standards) relating to a product, process, system, person or body are fulfilledTesting, inspection and certification are part of the concept of Conformity Assessment either as a stand alone activity or all together.
37 Conformity Assessment of household refrigerating appliances under IECEE Scheme IECEE is operating Third Party conformity assessment schemes Third-party conformity assessment activity is performed by a person or body that is independent from the person or organization that provides the product, and of users of that product. Criteria for the independence of conformity assessment bodies and accreditation bodies are provided in the International Standards and Guides applicable to their activities
38 Conformity Assessment of household refrigerating appliances under IECEE Scheme SafetyCategory HOUS – Household and similarequipmentStandars applied IEC and IECPerformances and energy efficiencyCategory E3Standards applied IEC and IEC
39 Conformity Assessment of household refrigerating appliances under IECEE Scheme Products are tested to IEC standards with provision for supplementary testing for national differences, when relevant.Reciprocal recognition of test results among all participating Certification Bodies simplifies the granting of certification or approval at national levels.CB Test Certificates and associated Test Reports facilitate obtaining secondary certifications.
40 Conformity Assessment of household refrigerating appliances under IECEE Scheme Why a CB Certificate + Test ReportQuick testing and certificationWorldwide recognitionAccelerate Product AcceptanceRecognized by Regulators & AuthoritiesAccepted by Retailers and BuyersExpanded marketsFaster TtM
42 Conformity Assessment of household refrigerating appliances IECEE CB-Scheme processNCBA Issues CB Test Certificate with Testing ReportApplicantApplication to the NCB AApplicant receives CB Test Certificate and associated Test ReportNCBA processes application andCBTLcarries out the testingCB Test Certificate + Test ReportApplicant sends documents toNCBB/C/D/n...IECCBTLA completes Testing to theStandard +National DifferenceNCBB/C/D/n.. processes thereceived documents and grants itscertification marks)CBTLA Issues Test ReportNCBA reviews and validates theTest ReportApplicant is granted withNCBB/C/D/n.. certification markwithin 15 working days
43 Conformity Assessment of household refrigerating appliances CB-Scheme Direct acceptance by the market placeApplicant request certificate for their productApplicant receives CB Test Certificate and associatedTest ReportApplication to theNCBNCBprocesses application and assignsaCBTLto carryout the testingCB Test Certificate + Test ReportApplicant addressesCB Test Certificate +Test ReporttoRetailers, Buyers, vendors and National Regulatory AuthorityCBTLcompletes Testing to theIECStandard + National DifferenceRetailers, Buyers, vendors andNational Regulatory Authoritypurchase/accept theCBTC/CBTRtoallow access to their respective marketCBTLIssues Test ReportNCBreceives and validates theTest ReportNCBIssues CB Test CertificateProduct can be sold in the relevant market
44 Building a Testing Laboratory for safety and performance tests of refrigerating appliances
45 Building a Testing Laboratory for safety and performance tests What is important?Quality system set-up according to ISO/IEC 17025The key components for a good laboratory:Testing apparatusMeasuring instruments and their calibration (CTL-OP 111)PersonnelProcedures
46 Main test apparatus for safety tests Suitable air conditioning throughout the whole labSuitable control of characteristics of supply voltage and frequency (CTL-OP 110)Temperature controlled chambersEnvironmental chamber min 93% humidityRoom for tests on materials (CTI, Glow Wire, Needle flame test)IP Test apparatus
47 Main test equipment and measuring instruments for safety tests Voltmeters. ammeters, multimeters, temperature recorders, scanners,Thermocouples (CTL-OP 108 and 109)Series of test probes for Cl. 8, 11, 20, 22Leakage current meter, HV test supply, earth continuity testerForce gauges, impact hammer, masses, inclined plan, torque screwdriver, water pressure test,Ball pressure, needle flameCritical consumable material (e.g. exhane, paper for GW, gas for needle flame)
48 Tests than can be subcontracted for safety tests EMC tests (Cl )Oxigen bomb testTests on components (e.g. on motor compressor, capacitors)Coated printed circuit boardsSoftware evaluationVibration testsTests for flammable refrigerants
50 Main test equipment and measuring instruments for performance tests In addition to those required for safety tests:Specific suitable control of characteristics of supply voltage and frequency (CTL-OP 110)Specific temperature controlled roomCalibrater meter and ruler for volume measurementsTest packagesDevice for durability of hinges of doors
51 Main test equipment and measuring instruments for noise tests Suitable control of characteristics of supply voltage and frequencySpecific anechoic or reverberation room (very expensive)Reference Sound Source (RSS)High sensibility microphonesIn most cases noise measurements are subcontracted
52 Main items for testing engineers and reviewers University or technical school degree on electrotechnics, electronics, telecommunicationsTheroetical and practical training and experience on tests according to the relevant standard(s)Participation to standarisation activitiesKnowledge of IECEE Scheme (e.g CTL DSHs, ODs, IEC ISs)
53 Thank you! Fabio Gargantini IECEE Lead Assessor IECEE Workshop August 26 & 27Nairobi - Kenya
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