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Jams, Jellies, Preserves & Butters

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Presentation on theme: "Jams, Jellies, Preserves & Butters"— Presentation transcript:

1 Jams, Jellies, Preserves & Butters
The Basics of Making Jellied Products Nothing says “homemade” like the sweet tastes of homemade jams, jellies, preserve and butters.

2 Types of Sweet Spreads Jelly - firm gel made from juice.
Jam - sweet spread that holds shape - crushed or chopped fruit. Preserves - small whole fruits or uniform pieces in thick, slightly gelled syrup Marmalades – soft fruit jellies containing fruit or fruit peel, often citrus Fruit butters – fruit pulp, sugar and spices cooked to a consistency that mounds on a spoon There are several different jellied products that can be made. Let’s look at the different types. (Go over information on slide)

3 Basics of Jellied Products – Ingredients
Fruit - provides the flavor and color for the product. Furnishes at least part of the pectin and acid needed to gel. Should be good quality with no visible signs of spoilage. Best to use ¼ slightly under-ripe and ¾ fully ripe. Let’s take a look at the ingredients used to make jellied products. Fruit is usually the basis for the product. (Go over information on slide)

4 Basics of Jellied Products
Sugar - is the preservative that prevents the growth of microorganisms. Sugar must be present in the proper ratio with pectin and acid for a gel to form. Never cut down on the amount of sugar called for in a recipe or it may not gel.** Granulated white sugar is the type to use unless the recipe calls for some corn syrup or honey. Brown sugar, sorghum and molasses are not recommended. ** If you want to make low or no sugar jellied products, then you must use a special pectin product or a special recipe for low sugar spreads. Sugar is a preservative that prevents the growth of microorganisms. In jellied products, the microorganisms of concern are yeasts and molds that can cause the product to spoil. (Go over information on slide) The question we probably get most often is, “Can I just leave out some of the sugar in my recipe?” The answer is, “No.” IF YOU WANT TO MAKE LOW OR NO SUGAR JELLIED PRODUCTS, THEN YOU MUST BUY A SPECIAL TYPE OF PECTIN PRODUCT CALLED “LITE” OR “NO SUGAR NEEDED” PECTIN AND FOLLOW THE RECIPE AND DIRECTIONS THAT COME WITH IT ON THE PACKAGE INSERT OR USE A SPECIAL RECIPE FOR LOW SUGAR SPREADS.

5 Basics of Jellied Products
Pectin - the substance that causes the product to gel. Some fruits contain enough natural pectin if not overripe (Apples, Crabapples, Eastern Concord grapes, Non-Italian plums). Other fruits may need pectin or acid added (Ripe apples, Ripe Blackberries, Elderberries, California Grapes). Still other fruits ALWAYS need pectin, acid or both added (Raspberries, Apricots, Figs, Western Concord Grapes, Pears, Italian Plums). Commercially prepared pectin is available in food preservation section of grocery and discount department stores. What exactly is pectin? Pectin is the ingredient that causes the product to gel. (Go over information on slide)

6 Basics of Jellied Products
Acid - needed for gel formation Amounts vary in different fruits. Typically higher in under-ripe fruits. Lemon juice or citric acid may be added if more acid is needed. Contributes to flavor and tartness. Another important ingredient for gel formation is acid. (Go over information on slide)

7 What has to happen for gels to form?
For gels to form, you must have correct proportions of: 1) Acid 2) Pectin When you are making jellied products, and this is especially critical for jelly, there are two ingredients that must be present in the right proportions in order for the gel structure to form. You must have acid and pectin, and they must be in a certain proportion for the gel to form.

8 Does My Juice Have Enough Natural Pectin to Make Jelly?
Tests for natural pectin 1. Cooking Test 1/3 cup juice 1/4 cup sugar Heat, stir, dissolve sugar. Boil rapidly until it sheets from spoon. Pour in bowl or jelly glass and cool. If cooled mixture is jelly-like, it has enough natural pectin to gel. There are some simple tests you can perform to see if your juice has enough natural pectin in it to make jelly. One is the cooking test. Measure 1/3 cup of juice and add ¼ cup of sugar. (Go over information on slide)

9 Pectin Tests 2. Alcohol Test 1 tsp. juice 1 T. rubbing alcohol
Gently stir or shake in closed container. Solid jelly-like mass forms if enough pectin to gel - can pick up with fork. DO NOT EAT ANY OF THIS! A second way to test for pectin is the alcohol test. Measure 1 teaspoon of juice into jar or cup. Add 1 tablespoon of rubbing alcohol to it. Stir gently or shake this mixture in a closed container. If a solid jelly-like mass forms that you can pick up with a fork, then there is enough natural pectin present in the juice to make jelly. BE SURE TO THROW THIS MIXTURE AWAY AND DO NOT TASTE IT.

10 Does My Fruit Have Enough Acid?
Test for acid: 1 tsp. lemon juice 3 T. water 1/2 tsp. sugar Mix and taste. Taste fruit juice. If your juice is at least equal in tartness, then it has enough acid to make jelly. We said the amount of acid is important also. To test for acid, mix 1 teaspoon of lemon juice, 3 tablespoons of water and ½ teaspoon of sugar. Mix this thoroughly and taste it. Then taste your fruit juice. If your juice is at least equally tart, then it has enough acid to make jelly.

11 If I don’t have enough pectin or if I just want to use commercial pectin, what do I do?
Look for commercial pectins in the food preservation aisle of your grocery store or discount department store. If you are making a full sugar product, then choose regular pectin. If you are making a low or no sugar product, then choose “lite” or “no sugar needed” pectin. (Go over information on slide)

12 Is there any advantage or disadvantage to using the added pectin?
Without added pectin: Long boiling time with fruit and sugar. Less added sugar, but concentrated natural sugar. Loss of flavor from long boiling. With added pectin: Greater yield from measure of fruit. Fresher fruit flavor, but some flavor may be masked. Better color. Less chance of failure. (Go over information on slide)

13 Commercial Pectins Regular Available in liquid and powder forms.
Higher yield per measure of juice. Can use fully ripe fruit. Use more sugar, flavor may be masked. Do not have to cook fruit to extract juice. Do not need to test for pectin or acid.

14 Commercial Pectin Regular (continued)
Shorter cooking time No doneness tests Uniform results, quality Store in cool, dry place Use within 1 year or see expiration date Powdered and liquid pectin are not interchangeable in recipes. (Go over information on slide)

15 But I want a product with less sugar. What should I do?
Purchase a special pectin product made to be used with less or no sugar. Look for “lite” or “no sugar needed” on the package label. Follow the recipe on the package insert for the type of jelly or jam you are making. (Go over information on slide)

16 Equipment Measuring cups and spoons Bowl for sugar
Heavy, metal pot – large! Ladle Jar filler/funnel Jars and lids Boiling water canner and rack Jar lifter Some of the equipment that is useful when making jams, jellies, preserves and butters are listed on this slide. One very important piece of equipment is the pot for boiling the product. You want to use a large pot so there is less chance of it boiling over. Heavy metal pots work best. (Go over information on slide)

17 Other Possible Equipment
Scales Sieve, food mill, fruit press Jelly bag Thermometer - jelly or candy Other equipment you may need are scales for weighing out produce, sieves or mills if you are making your own juice, muslin cloth jelly bags for straining juice to make it clear, and a jelly or candy thermometer to tell when you have reached the gelling point if you are not using added pectin.

18 Preparing the Fruit 1. Use fruit immediately. Do not refrigerate longer than one day. 2. Discard over-ripe or rotten fruit. 3. Use 1/4 under-ripe fruit and 3/4 just-ripe fruit, if no added pectin is used. 4. Approximately 1 lb. prepared (washed, trimmed, cut) fruit = 1 cup juice. To prepare the fruit for making these products, follow these tips. (Go over information on slide)

19 Preparing the Fruit 5. Wash fruit, lifting out of water.
DO NOT SOAK. 6. Remove stems and blossoms. 7. Do NOT remove skins, cores, or pits. high pectin concentration 8. Cut into the size of pieces as recipe indicates. (Go over information on slide)

20 Extracting Juice 1. Place prepared fruit and cold water in saucepan (soft berries can be crushed and no water added). 2. Bring to boil on high heat. 3. Reduce heat. (Go over information on slide)

21 Extracting Juice 4. Cook until fruit is soft.
Grapes, berries: 10 minutes Apples, hard fruits: minutes DO NOT overcook - destroys pectin, color and flavor. (Go over information on slide)

22 Extracting Juice 5. Dampen the jelly bag with water and strain the juice through damp jelly bag. Can use fruit press before straining. Cover jelly bag and bowl while dripping to prevent contamination. When making your own juice, it is important to dampen the jelly bag with water before you pour your juice into it. If you don’t, the dry cloth will absorb some of your juice so the yield will be lower.

23 Extracting Juice Special situation
To make jelly from fresh grape juice: Refrigerate juice overnight, then Strain through 2 layers damp cheesecloth. Remove tartrate crystals that have formed. One of the popular juices that people prepare themselves is grape juice. When preparing your own grape juice from fresh grapes, remember to refrigerate the juice overnight. Grape juice can have crystals, called tartrate crystals, that form in it. Refrigerating the juice allows these crystals to form and settle to the bottom so that the crystal-free juice can be decanted. This will eliminate the problem of crystals forming in the jelly.

24 Jelly - No Added Pectin 1. Bring extracted juice to boil (6 cups maximum). 2. Add sugar immediately; stir until dissolved. If no recipe is available, try 3/4 cup sugar per 1 cup of juice. To make jelly without the addition of a commercial pectin product: (Go over information on slide)

25 Jelly - No Added Pectin 3. Cook rapidly. Long cooking destroys pectin. 4. Test for doneness. (Go over information on slide)

26 Tests For Doneness with no added pectin
1. Temperature Cook to 220oF or 8oF above boiling point of water. Test thermometer for accuracy with boiling water prior to cooking jelly. When you make jellied products without added pectin, how do you know when it is done? One test is temperature. (Go over information on slide) When testing thermometers, the temperature of boiling water should be close to 212° F at (or slightly above) sea level. Close to 1,000 feet in altitude, it will be 210° F. At 3,000 ft above sea level, it will be closer to 206.5° F. If you are unsure about your altitude, you can usually find your altitude at your local planning commission or zoning office, on a webpage about your town or city. Once you know your boiling point and test your thermometer for accuracy, add 8°F to find the jellying point for jellies made with sugar and no added pectin. (Instructor note: Boiling temperature is affected by altitude and local barometric pressure.)

27 Tests For Doneness with no added pectin
2. Sheet Test (Spoon Test) Dip cold metal spoon into boiling jelly. Hold spoon out of steam. Drops should “sheet” together. Another test that can be used is the sheet test. (Go over information on slide) What we mean by “sheet” is that the two drops, as you see in this diagram, flow together to become one big drop that drips off the spoon in a sheet.

28 Tests For Doneness with no added pectin
3. Refrigerator/Freezer Test Place small amount on plate. Place in freezer for a few minutes. Check for gel. A third way to test for doneness is the refrigerator/freezer test. When you think the product has cooked long enough, place a small amount on a plate and put it in the freezer. After it has been in the freezer for a few minutes, check to see if it has formed a gel. If it has, it is ready. If not, you need to continue cooking.

29 With Added Pectin… There is no testing for doneness.
Just follow the package directions for adding the pectin and for boiling the product. When you use a commercially prepared pectin product, you do not have to test for doneness. You just follow the directions on the package insert for adding the pectin and for boiling the product.

30 For jams and preserves without added pectin and for butters and marmalades:
Doneness can be determined by Temperature The refrigerator/freezer test

31 Preparing Jars Best to use half-pint or pint jars.
Two options for “full-sugar” jams and jellies that are pectin-set: Pre-sterilize jars and process 5 minutes in BWC. Use clean, hot jars and process for 10 minutes in BWC. Be sure to have your jars prepared and ready because it is important to fill the jars quickly when your product is ready. It is best to use half-pint or pint jars for jellies, jams, preserves, marmalades and butters. For full sugar recipes, you have two options. You can pre-sterilize the jars before you add your product, and then you just process your final product for 5 minutes in a boiling water canner. The second option is NOT to pre-sterilize the jars, but instead to put your product in clean, hot jars and then process for 10 minutes in a boiling water canner.

32 Preparing Jars To pre-sterilize jars:
Wash jars in hot, soapy water and rinse. Cover jars with water, bring to a boil and boil 10 minutes. The boiling water canner works well. Keep the jars in the hot water until ready to fill. If altitude>1,000 ft: add 1 min. of boiling time for each 1,000 ft. (Go over information on slide)

33 Preparing Lids Follow manufacturer’s directions -- they vary.
Most: Cover with water, bring to simmer only, keep warm until ready to use. To prepare the lids for the jars, follow the directions on your lid package. The directions vary from one brand to another. However, for most brands, you cover the lids with water and bring it just to a simmer. Then, keep the lids warm until you are ready to use them. This softens and prepares the sealing compound.

34 Filling Jars 1. Skim foam (quickly). 2. Use a ladle and jar filler to fill hot, pre-sterilized half-pint jars with boiling product. 3. Leave headspace of 1/4”. 4. Wipe jar rims (top surface) with clean, dampened paper towel. 5. Remove pre-treated lids from warm water and place on jars. 6. Tighten ring bands over lids until “fingertip” tight. 6. Process - to prevent mold growth. When your product is done, quickly remove the foam from the surface of the product using a metal spoon. Do not take so long that the product begins to gel. Using a ladle and a jar filler, ladle the boiling product into hot, pre-sterilized jars. If you choose not to boil your jars ahead of time to sterilize them, then you will have to process the product longer, as you will see when we get to that step. Leave ¼ inch headspace between the top of the product and the underside of the lid. Use a clean, dampened paper towel to wipe the rim (top surface) of the jar. Remove the pre-treated lids from the warm water and place them on the jars. Tighten the ring bands over the lids only until they are “fingertip” tight. Be careful not to overtighten them and cut through the warm sealing gasket. Now the jars are ready to process. (Instructor note: Remember that jars do not have to be pre-sterilized. If not, however, they should washed and kept hot for filling. The process time is then 10 minutes instead of 5 minutes.) (Go over information on slide)

35 Processing Jars Carefully place jars on rack in canner filled w/ hot (simmering) water. Use a jar lifter and keep the jars straight up. Do not tilt them. Water should be 1 to 2 inches above the tops of the jars when all jars are in the canner. Place the lid on the canner. Bring water to a full boil; boil for 5 min. if jars are pre-sterilized; 10 minutes if not. At end, turn off heat. Remove lid from canner, turning away from your face to avoid steam burns. Wait 5 minutes before removing jars from canner. Using the jar lifter, remove jars to protected surface. Use the jar lifter to place the jars on the rack in the canner. Keep the jars straight up. Do not tilt them. After all the jars are in the canner, the water should be 1 to 2 inches over the tops of the jars. Place the lid on the canner. Bring the water to a full boil; boil for 5 min. if jars are pre-sterilized; 10 minutes if not. At the end of the processing time, carefully remove the lid from the canner by opening it away from your face to avoid steam that can burn you. Let the jars sit in the canner for another 5 minutes. At the end of the 5 minute waiting period, use the jar lifter to carefully lift the jars straight up and out of the canner. Place them on a kitchen towel or wire rack away from drafts to cool. Do not sit the jars directly on a cool surface or this could cause the jars to break. Be careful not to tip the jars.

36 Processing Jars Cool away from drafts for at least 12 hours.
DO NOT DISTURB or move for at least 12 hours or gel may break. NOTE: USDA and University of Georgia DO NOT recommend inverting jars. (Go over information on slide) Some older methods for sealing the jars recommended inverting the jars. We use the 5 minute boiling water process instead. The 5 minute process helps to eliminate any mold or yeast spores that may get into the product during filling and also gives a tighter seal than inversion.

37 Storage To avoid breaking gel, do not move for 12 hours.
Check seal. If a vacuum seal has formed, prepare the jars for storage.** Remove ring bands. Gently wash the lid and threads of the jars, rinse and dry. Label the jars with the product name and date. Store without ring bands in cool, dry, dark place. Short storage time is best for best quality. ** Store unsealed jars in the refrigerator. (Go over information on slide) The recommended storage time for most home-canned products is up to one year for best quality. Most homemade jams and jellies that use a tested recipe, and have been processed in a canner for the recommended time, should retain best quality and flavor for that period of time. If kept for long periods of time, however, changes in color, flavor, texture and nutrient content of home-canned jams and jellies will occur.

38 I want to make freezer jam. What do I do?
Newer pectins Simpler instructions Less sugar than some others, OR, no sugar Some people think it tastes more like fresh fruit. Some people like to make freezer jams because they think it tastes more like fresh fruit. There are newer pectin products on the market made for freezer jams. They are simple to use, and call for less sugar than a regular recipe or no sugar.

39 Storing Freezer Jam DO NOT store at room temp - will mold and/or ferment. Freezer storage best for color and flavor retention. Do not place in freezer until gel forms. Must be stored in refrigerator or freezer. May be stored refrigerator up to 3 weeks; in freezer, up to 1 year. Refrigerate after opening and use within a few days-few weeks. If you make a freezer jam, follow these guidelines for storing the product. (Go over information on slide)

40 Nothing takes you back to warm, sunny days of summer and fall like the sweet taste of homemade jams, jellies, preserves and butters. Try your hand at preserving some today. You can find many recipes in So Easy To Preserve or on our website at Questions?

41 Credits Disclaimer: Trade and brand names are used only for information. The Cooperative Extension, University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences and College of Family & Consumer Sciences, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture do not guarantee nor warrant published standards on any product mentioned; neither does the use of a trade or brand name imply approval of any product to the exclusion of others which may also be suitable. Document Use: Permission is granted to reproduce these materials in whole or in part for educational purposes only (not for profit beyond the cost of reproduction) provided the author and the University of Georgia receive acknowledgment and this notice is included: Reprinted (or Adapted) with permission of the University of Georgia. Harrison, J.A. and Andress, E.L Jams, Jellies, Preserves and Butters (slides). Athens, GA: The University of Georgia, Cooperative Extension.

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