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Safety & Sanitation Notes. Personal Hygiene u Physical care and maintenance –keep hands clean at all times (hot, soapy water) –Handle food only as required.

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Presentation on theme: "Safety & Sanitation Notes. Personal Hygiene u Physical care and maintenance –keep hands clean at all times (hot, soapy water) –Handle food only as required."— Presentation transcript:

1 Safety & Sanitation Notes

2 Personal Hygiene u Physical care and maintenance –keep hands clean at all times (hot, soapy water) –Handle food only as required –Never work with open cuts or sores –Don’t cough,spit or sneeze near food –Control hair –Keep utensils and appliances clean

3 Basic Safety: at the Grocery Store u Watch the “sell by” or “used by” dates u Be sure the package is as it should be (no holes, temp., etc…) u Keep meats in separate plastic bags u Select perishable foods last

4 Basic Safety:Home Storage u Put perishable foods away promptly u Place meats in the coldest part of the refrigerator (lowest shelf) u Space items so air can circulate in the refrigerator or freezer

5 Basic Safety: Meat Storage Timeline u Uncooked Meats u Beef steaks, Roasts and Deli meats –3 to 5 Days u Ground meat, poultry and fish –1 to 2 days

6 Basic Safety:Freezing & Defrosting u Rewrap or over-wrap meat with freezer bags or freezer paper u Thawing food needs to be done in the refrigerator (place in a dish to prevent juices form dripping onto other foods) u For quick thawing use the microwave, but use immediately u Do NOT defrost on the kitchen counter or in warm water

7 Basic Safety: Food Preparation u Keep everything that touches food CLEAN! u Keep juices from raw meat from coming into contact with other foods u Use separate cutting boards for raw meats and cooked or ready to eat foods u Sanitize and rinse off surfaces u Wash all produce (veggies & fruits)

8 Basic Safety: Food Preparation u Marinating: use a non-metallic container (acids used will cause a chemical reaction leaching metal into the food) u Be careful not to re-contaminate cooked meat with sauces or a brush used with raw meats u Do not use a marinade which has been in contact with raw meat without first bringing it to a boil for at least one minute

9 Basic Safety: Cooking u Ground Meat 160* F u Ground Poultry 165* F (Juices should run clear) u Use a meat thermometer, don’t let it touch bone or fat for an accurate reading u Internal temperature for doneness: t Medium Rare 150* t Medium 160* t Well Done 170*

10 Transporting food u Precautions to follow: –Keep containers clean and tightly sealed –Use containers designed to maintain proper temperature (cold food=40* or below & hot food=above 140*) –Don’t let food sit out for more than 2 hours –Protect displayed food and discard leftover displayed food

11 Temperatures- Fahrenheit u 250* - Canning u 212* - Boiling u 165* - Most bacteria is destroyed u 140* - top of danger zone u 40* - bottom of danger zone u 32* - Refrigerator (32-38*) u 0* - Freezer


13 Controlling Bacteria u Temperature control –growth stops completely at 0* F –bacteria grows slowly below 40* F –growth is minimal at 140* F –bacteria is destroyed at 165* F or above –growth is most rapid between 40* and 140*

14 Sanitation &Bacteria

15 Sanitation u Bacteria –single-celled microorganisms that live in soil, water, organic matter or the bodies of plants and animals and receive their nourishment by supplying their own food, absorbing organic matter, or obtaining food from their host, which they usually injure.

16 Bacteria Continued…. u Eating food contaminated with bacteria = food poisoning or food borne illness u Causes extreme illness and death (extreme cases) u Bacteria can’t move by themselves - needs a vehicle like your hands u Rapid growth in favorable environment: warm temp., moist area, available food supply

17 Causes of Food Poisoning u Yeast contamination –common in high acidic foods (orange juice & tomato mixtures) u Bacterial growth –common in low acidic foods (meats) u Mold –Breads

18 Destroying Bacteria u Chemical agents –Germicides t carbolic acid, iodine, chlorine, formaldehyde –Disinfectant - used to kill disease-producing organisms only (409, bleach, Lysol) –Antiseptic - milder and used to treat a wound and inhibit growth of disease organisms (Neosporin) –Preservative - chemical used in food to retard the growth of bacteria that causes spoilage - extended shelf life (in lunch meat)

19 Food-Borne Diseases u Botulism –Bacteria spores that are always around in soil & water –Grows best in anaerobic conditions (low oxygen) –Common in improperly canned foods t Low acid vegetables (beans, carrots, peas) –Symptoms develop in 12-48 hours –The poison attacks the nervous system –Causes double vision, trouble swallowing & breathing without treatment it can cause death

20 Food-Borne Diseases u Salmonella –Cycles through the environment via the intestinal tracts of animals & humans –Commonly found in raw or undercooked foods –Caused by contaminated red meat, poultry & eggs or cross-contamination –Causes illness 8-48 hours after contact lasting up to 8 days –Thorough cooking kills salmonella

21 Food-Borne Diseases u Staphylococcus (Staph) –A organism that is the leading cause of food poisoning –Lives in our noses and on skin –Grows rapidly at warm temp. producing a toxin –Causes nausea, vomiting & diarrhea 2-6 hours after eating contaminated food –Lasts 1-2 days

22 Food-Borne Diseases u Perfringens –Present in the environment (soil, intestines & sewage) –Anaerobic (little to no oxygen) –Causes diarrhea & gas pains 8-24 hours later –“Cafeteria Germ” because it strikes food served in quantity and left for long periods of time.

23 Food-Borne Diseases u E. coli –Transmitted by inadvertent contact with fecal matter during processing of animal foods or improper food handling. –Prevent by t Cooking meat to proper temperatures t Consuming pasteurized milk and juices t Washing fruits and vegetables t Washing hands

24 Food-Borne Diseases u Trichinosis –disease affecting animals, contracted often to humans through infected pork (can be destroyed by heating meat to 150*)

25 Food-Borne Diseases u Listeria or Listeriosis –Can be found in raw & cooked meat, poultry, seafood, salads & sandwiches. –Frequent food carriers include unpasteurized dairy products (soft cheeses), meat pates and processed meats. –Prevention: avoid unpasteurized milk products & cook meats to proper temperature. Also follow proper sanitation procedures. –The bacteria can grow slowly at refrigerator temp. so reheat leftovers thoroughly

26 Review Items for Test 65 Questions: T/F, Multi. Choice, Matching u Basic Safety Guidelines –Read through notes & study guide –EX: Putting out a grease fire u Thermometer temperatures & effects on bacteria u Refrigerator Temperatures for raw beef, poultry and fish (holding time) u Food-born diseases from notes and worksheet –Types, time they last, effects & prevention u Danger Zone and 2 hour rule u Cross contamination

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