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EDU 153 Granberry Summer 2012 Food Safety

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1 EDU 153 Granberry Summer 2012 Food Safety
4/12/2017 Chapter 19 Food Safety

2 Today more than ever, food safety and sanitation are emerging as important issues for child care providers. Why? Children under 5 years old are especially susceptible to food borne illness, which can cause serious side effects, even death Children in diapers present special sanitation and health problems. For instance, illness originally caused by food borne bacteria can easily be spread by diapered children with diarrhea.

3 Food-Borne Illness Food-borne illnesses are a significant threat to public health. Approximately 80 million cases, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths are reported annually. Children, older adults, pregnant women, and persons with weakened immune systems are at highest risk.

4 Food-Borne Illness (continued)
The majority of food-borne illnesses are caused by campylobacter, salmonella, and E. coli 0157:H7 bacteria. Illness can be caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi (Table 19-1). Most cause gastrointestinal symptoms, such as severe diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, as well as headache and low-grade fever. Problems can often be prevented by adhering to proper cooking and storage recommendations. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

5 Foods Most Commonly Involved
By rank order: Seafood Eggs Beef (including ground, jerky) Fresh produce such as melons, berries, onions, cilantro Poultry Unpasteurized dairy products Wild game Unpasteurized juices ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

6 Why Is There More Food-Borne Illness Today?
The number of imported foods is increasing. Food production is more centralized. Demand for processed foods has increased. People are eating out more often. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

7 Prevention of Food-Borne Illness
More than 85 percent of cases can be prevented through careful attention to: Personal hygiene Proper handling and storage of food Following proper cooking practices ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

8 Prevention of Food-Borne Illness (continued)
Personal health and hygiene Negative tuberculin test (TB) Health examination (check for hepatitis) No gum chewing Remove jewelry Proper hand washing (for children too!) (Figure 19-4) ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

9 Prevention of Food-Borne Illness (continued)
Proper handling and storage of food Inspect meats and raw produce Avoid breaks in packaging Pay attention to “Use by” dates Refrigerate quickly Check refrigerator and freezer temperatures ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

10 Prevention of Food-Borne Illness (continued)
Proper handling and storage of food (continued) Only use pasteurized products. Wash off ends of cans. Sanitize food preparation areas and prevent cross-contamination (Figures 19-5 and 19-6). ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

11 Prevention of Food-Borne Illness (continued)
Following proper cooking practices Defrosting foods in the refrigerator, under cool water, or in the microwave Cooking to proper temperatures (Figure 19-9) Cooling foods quickly Transporting and serving safely ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

12 Safe Food Handling, Storage & Preparation
Click on this link to watch the latest video, on food safety, Clean, Separate, Cook & Chill, from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA): ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

13 Prevention of Food-Borne Illness (continued)
An important step in preventing food-borne illnesses is knowing about the organisms that cause sickness and preventive measures. Review the information about food-borne pathogens− how they are spread and how they can be controlled− in Table 19-1. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

14 Organisms which cause illness
Staphylococcus aureus Clostridium botulinum Salmonella Campylobacter For some of these organisms it is the live bacteria that cause illness, but for others the illness is caused by the bacterial toxins remaining in food after the bacteria have been destroyed. There are a variety of organisms, including bacteria viruses parasites, and molds which grow well on foods and cause illness. Currently the most common causes of food poisoning appear to be salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Cxlostridium botulinum, and campylobacter

15 Conditions for Bacterial Growth
Nutrients (especially protein) Darkness Moisture Temperatures between 40°F and 140°F ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

16 Additional Protective Measures
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) A step-by-step system for preventing or reducing potential contamination of food at key points Food irradiation involves exposing foods briefly to ionizing gamma rays, which destroy harmful bacteria ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

17 Additional Protective Measures (continued)
Ultrahigh temperatures (UHT) are used to sterilize foods (often milk, soups) before they are packaged in sterilized containers. These products can be stored without refrigeration for up to six months. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

18 Additional Food Safety Hazards
Foods can also become contaminated from: Chemicals, such as pesticides, cleaning products, and metals Physical items, such as dirt, insects, hair, plastic, rodent droppings, and/or glass ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

19 Handwashing One of the most important practices to assure personal cleanliness for all persons who will handle food in a child care setting. This includes the children, who must wash their hands thoroughly with soap and water before and after touching food and after going to the bathroom

20 Food Purchasing Be sure that suppliers of food and beverages meet local, state and federal codes Be sure that meats and poultry you purchase have been inspected and passed for wholesomeness by federal; or state inspectors. Use only pasteurized milk and milk products. Do not use home-canned foods or food from dented, rusted, or bulging cans or cans without labels.

21 Food Storage Store all perishable foods at termperatures that will prevent spoilage (refrigerator temperature, 45oF. or lower; freezer temperature, 0oF. or lower). Place thermometers in the warmest part of the refrigerator and freezer (near the door) and check them daily. Always examine food when it arrives to make sure it is not spoiled, dirty, or infested with insects.

22 Food Storage (continued)
Store unrefrigerated foods in clean, rodent and insect proof, covered metal, glass, or hard plastic containers Store containers of food above the floor on racks or other clean slotted surfaces that permit air circulation. Keep storerooms dry and cool. Store all food items separately from non-food items. Use an inventory system: The first food stored is the first food used. This will insure that stored food is rotated. Inspect food daily for spoilage.

23 Food preparation and storage
Wash all raw fruits and vegetables before use. Wash tops of cans before opening. Thaw frozen foods in the refrigerator. Do not thaw frozen foods by allowing them to stand at room temperature. Use a thermometer to check internal temperatures of certain foods to be sure they have been cooked properly

24 Food preparation and storage
Prevent the growth of bacteria by maintaining all potentially hazardous foods at temperatures lower than 45o F and higher than 140o F. during transportation and while holding until service. Bacteria grow most rapidly between 45o and 140oF. Cover or completely wrap foods during transportation. Never reuse a spoon that has been used even once for tasting.

25 Handwashing!!! In addition to protection from foodborne illness, special attention to personal cleanliness procedures reduces the spread of upper respiratory diseases (colds, sore throats, etc.) and gastrointestinal illnesses that are so very common among young children in group care programs.

26 EDU 153 Granberry Summer 2012 4/12/2017 Sanitizing .2819(c) A solution of 100 ppm chlorine or equivalent methods approved by the Department shall be used for sanitizing. A suitable testing method or kit shall be available and used daily to insure compliance with the minimum prescribed strength. These solutions shall be used from separate and properly labeled, hand pump spray bottles.

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