7Meat cuts and by-products: Beef:62 percent as beef cuts24 percent for hamburger15 percent as by-productsPork:65 percent of the total is consumed as processed meat such as ham, bacon and sausage.The meat-packing industry provides by-products like cosmetics, glues and gelatins.USDA photo/Ken Hammond
8History of The Meat Industry Early butchers began killing and cutting animals for other people outside of their own familyMeat preservation began with the packing of meat in a salt solution in wooden barrels
9History of The Meat Industry Animals were driven “on the hoof” until refrigeration was inventedHuge meat packing plants developed in the Midwest and began processing meat and shipping it
10History of The Meat Industry As cities grew, small meat shops began to open to the publicAnimals were driven to the railroad “on the hoof” and taken to larger cities to be butchered
11History of The Meat Industry Meat plants were rebuilt and/or automatedIt became more economical to ship frozen meat products than the live animal
12Overview of the Beef Industry Approximately 1.3 billion total cattle in the world35 million of these are beef cows in the U.S.
13Segments of the Beef Cattle Industry Seedstock/Purebred BreedersCow/Calf OperationYearling/Stocker OperationFeedlotsMeat Packaging/ProcessingWholesalersRetailersConsumers
14How meat is sold:Traditionally sold as sides, quarters or wholesale cutsNow mostly sold as boxed beefSome large packers now prepare consumer-ready meat in vacuum packages ready for the supermarket shelf.USDA photo
15Beef Cattle Breeds Angus (black and red) Charolais Hereford Limousin SimmentalBrahmanSalersTexas LonghornShorthornBelted GallowayHolstein and other dairy breeds???> 250 beef cattle breeds
16Meat InspectionThe mandatory evaluation of the health status of meat animals and the wholesomeness of the meat obtained from them
17Government surveillance: Purposes of inspection:Prevents harmful additives and ingredientsExcludes sick and diseased animalsEliminates misleading labeling and packagingProhibits contaminated and unwholesome meatsFederal meat inspection is administered by the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) as part of USDA.States may inspect meat only for use within that state.
18Federal InspectionExceptions to federal inspection of meat to be sold are farmers and custom/local butchers, however, they fall under state inspection guidelines
19CutabilityThe amount of saleable retail cuts that can be obtained from a carcass
20Dressing Percentage (Hot carcass weight/live weight)X100 average=62.5% Ratio of the dressed carcass weight to the weight of the live animal(Hot carcass weight/live weight)X100average=62.5%
21Wholesome Meat Act of 1967All meat must be inspected before sale
22Humane Slaughter ActAll animals must be immobilized prior to shackling and bleeding
23Slaughtering practices: Humane Slaughter Act (1960) requires animals to be rendered completely unconscious before slaughter.Carcasses are chilled for 24 to 48 hours before grading and processing.Brains, kidneys, tail, sweetbreads, and the tongue are by-products.Sold separately as “offal”Important source of incomeUSDA photo
24ImmobilizationRendering an animal unconscious (brain dead), but the heart is still beating---technically the animal is still alive
25Methods of Immobilization Mechanical (gun, steel rod gun, captive bolt gun)Electrical shockChemical (carbon dioxide)
26KillingThe bleeding of an animal until the heart stops beating (Exsanguination)
27Kosher SlaughteringButchering according to religious beliefs (Jewish Religion)Kosher is exempt from the Humane Slaughter Act (Immobilization)
36Grading is voluntary …Establishes and maintains uniform trading standardsAids in setting the value of various cuts of meatCarcasses are graded by quality and yield.Quality grades for beef: prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, cutter and cannerYield: proportion of usable meat to bone and fatMicrosoft photo
52-Wholesale Level – Product has been distributed to a warehouse or distribution center, where it is NOT under the direct control of the producing company (level between the manufacturer and the retailer) -Retail Level – Product has been received by retailers for sale to household consumers - Consumer Level – The product has been sold directly to household consumers (mail order)
53Calling all Consumers! Recall Release! Recall Release uses a standard format to provide the public with pertinent, descriptive product informationRelease is sent to media outlets, public health officials, subscribers, posted on the FSIS website and Twitter.
54Recalled Beef Sold in Mass. Whole Foods June 12, 2014 – Boston.com
55The US Department of Agriculture says that Fruitland American Meat, a Jackson, Mo. beef company, is recalling more than 4,000 pounds of beef due to a potential risk for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as mad cow disease.Not all beef is at risk. The bone-in “Rain Crow Ranch Ribeye” and quartered beef carcasses bearing establishment number EST inside the USDA mark of inspection are currently being recalled.
56Thursday morning the USDA announced that a Whole Foods distribution center in Connecticut that serves stores in New England received the potentially tainted beef.Not all beef is at risk. The bone-in “Rain Crow Ranch Ribeye” and quartered beef carcasses bearing establishment number EST inside the USDA mark of inspection are currently being recalled.
57These are branches of the cow’s central nervous system along the spine These are branches of the cow’s central nervous system along the spine. If the cow was infected with BSE, this is the area where the infected tissues would be located. Regulations require that they be removed from cattle more than 30 months old. It appears that procedure was not followed for the beef in question.The USDA has classified this recall as a low health risk, but a Class II recall: “This is a health hazard situation where there is a remote probability of adverse health consequences from the use of the product,” -USDAThe bone-in ribeyes roasts, according to the USDA, were distributed to two restaurants:
58Answer these questions… Group of Consumer, USDA, Whole FoodsWho is at fault?Time frame?Consequences?Safety in Future for product
59Do Now:Log on to the computer and find one meat product that includes packaging and answer these questions:What were they trying to sell?How did they reach the demographics?What kind is their niche market?
60Do-NowWrite down your favorite meat commercial and why?
61https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BafkFntxgPw go meat https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2WNdYL8N4zk Jack Linkhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KwaU0YNG3Vo Whole Foods
62Who, What, Where, When, How? What is each commercial marketing? What were they trying to sell?Who was the audience each was trying to reach?How did they reach the demographics?What was the Whole Foods commercial trying to emphasize?
63AMS Agricultural Marketing Services Administers programs that facilitate the efficient, fair marketing.ensure the quality and availability of wholesome food for consumers across the country.
69Labels Must include: Name Ingredients Handling Sell by date ManufacturerNutritional informationweight
70Grass Feed“Grass-fed. Grass-fed animals receive a majority of their nutrients from grass throughout their life, while organic animals’ pasture diet may be supplemented with grain. Also USDA regulated, the grass-fed label does not limit the use of antibiotics, hormones, or pesticides. Meat products may be labeled as grass-fed organic.”-AMS
71Organic“Organic is a labeling term that indicates that the food or other agricultural product has been produced through approved methods. These methods integrate cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity. Synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, irradiation, and genetic engineering may not be used.”
72NaturalAs required by USDA, meat, poultry, and egg products labeled as “natural” must be minimally processed and contain no artificial ingredients. However, the natural label does not include any standards regarding farm practices and only applies to processing of meat and egg products. There are no standards or regulations for the labeling of natural food products if they do not contain meat or eggs.
73Components to labeling Name of cutWeightDateCooking assistanceGrade or brandNutrientsRetailerSafe food handling instructions
74Appearance of Meat Depends On WaterMixes with and binds to the protein in meatFree water found on the surface of meat (allows bacteria to grow)
75Appearance of Meat Depends On ColorType of meat and amount of light in contact with the meatReflecting of light from the meat package
76Appearance of Meat Depends On PigmentsHemoglobin = red pigment found in bloodMyoglobin = pigment found in muscleThe iron in myoglobin combines with oxygen to change the color of meat
77Appearance of Meat Depends On Pigments cont’d.The different kinds of meats have different iron levels, which is why they are different colorsColor change usually occurs from purple – to red – to brown
78Appearance of Meat Depends On TextureHow the meat feels (cooking affects this)Ratio of Meat:FatThe amount of fat in meat changes how a piece of meat looks
79Meat Tenderness Tenderness is the biting or chewing of meat Tenderness is heavily influenced by many factors
80What Affects Meat Tenderness AgeCutTenderizersWater contentprocessingType of meatRigor MortisCooking styleMarblingPackaging
81Variations in tenderness: Genetics is a big factor.Species and age – younger animals are more tenderFeeding – indirect effect, grain-fed animals are younger at slaughter weightMuscle variations – amount of connective tissue affects tendernessSuspension of carcass
82Variations in tenderness (cont.): Electrical stimulation improves tenderness.Chilling rate – rapid cooling toughens meatAging – beef is aged for 7 to 10 daysQuality grade – age plays a big factor hereMechanical – grinding or cubing increases tenderness
83Variations in tenderness (cont.): Chemical – salt or enzymes increase tendernessMarinades – may include salt, acid, enzymes, alcohol, oil to soften collagen, increase water uptake and break down connective tissuesFreezing and thawingCooking methodCarving against the grain improves tenderness
84Types of CookeryHeat from the cooking process denatures (breaks down) the protein in meatDry Heat Cooking – cooking meat with hot, dry air—includes broil, grill, stir fry, roast, fry
85Types of CookeryMoist Heat Cooking – cooking meat in a closed container with added water—includes cooking in water and pot roastsMicrowave Cooking – rapid cooking of meat by using electromagnetic waves
86Microorganisms Found In Meat BacteriaYeastMoldThese microorganisms can grow from 40 to 115 degrees F.
87Microorganisms Found In Meat “Life begins at 40”Most bacteria are killed at around 120 degrees F.Pasteurization occurs at degrees F.
88Microorganisms Found In Meat Microorganisms have many factors affecting their growthpH of meatWater contentTemperatureOxygenType and quality of packagingNitratesInitial # of bacteria in the meat
89Common Sources of Meat Contamination KnifeAnimal hideIntestinal tractEmployees (hands, clothing, health)MachinesFacilitiesSeasoningsPackagingStorage areas
90Characteristics of Spoiled Meat ColorOdor – sweet or sickeningFlavor - rancidTexture – sticky or tacky – liquid coatingDate of packagingFreezer burn
91How to Prevent Spoilage Use proper sanitationStore at right temperaturesKeep packages sealedCook thoroughlyFollow all directions
92Types of Meat Storage Refrigeration Chill carcasses after killing The lower the chilling temperature without freezing, the more shelf life is increasedChilling tries to slow down bacteria growth
93Types of Meat Storage Freezing Used for long term storage (recommended 6 mo. – 1 yr.)Freeze quickly after slaughteringCommercial -10 to 20 degrees F.Home -10 to 0 degrees F.Watch out for freezer burn!!!
94Types of Meat Storage Curing Adding ingredients to extend the shelf life/preserve the foodIngredients include salt, nitrite/nitrate, sugar, water, spicesCured meat examples include ham, bacon, dried beef, bologna, beef jerky
95Types of Meat Storage Dehydration The nearly complete removal of water from foods under controlled conditionsThe removal of water decreases spoilage and bulkiness and increases the convenience of the food
96Types of Meat Storage Vacuum Packaging Storing food by compressing all of the air out of the food sourceTends to make the meat look purple, which may turn consumers off
97Types of Meat Storage Controlled Atmosphere Packaging Similar to vacuum packaging, but tries to control the gasses inside the meat package so bright red color remains
98Types of Meat Storage Irradiation Uses different kinds of radiant energy to destroy living organisms that would normally spoil foodTakes the place of chemicals being applied to the foodNo radiation is left in or on the food!
99Meat PackagingThe goal of meat packaging is to keep the meat fresh and decrease the chance of spoilage, change in color, or leaking of water/juices while still making it appealing to the consumer
100Types of Packaging Materials Saran wrapFoam traysFreezer paperAluminum foilVacuum bags