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Meat Science.

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Presentation on theme: "Meat Science."— Presentation transcript:

1 Meat Science

2 What is Meat Science? The study of the entire meat industry from the production of the animal to the preparation of the final product to the marketing of the product

3 Types of Meat Beef Lamb Rabbit Poultry Pork Veal Venison Sea Food
Wild Game Ostrich Emu

4 Why is Meat Important? High quality protein Iron Vitamin B Vitamin A

5 Meat is Composed of Muscle Tissue Nerve Tissue Fat Tissue
Blood Vessels Cartilage Tendons Bone Organ Tissue

6 Edible By-Products Brain Cheek Meat, Ears, Snout Pig’s Feet, Knuckles
Head Meat Heart Intestines Kidney Lips Tripe Tongue Liver Lungs Spleen Pancreas Stomach Sweetbreads (Thymus) Tail/Oxtail Tallow Testicles

7 Meat cuts and by-products:
Beef: 62 percent as beef cuts 24 percent for hamburger 15 percent as by-products Pork: 65 percent of the total is consumed as processed meat such as ham, bacon and sausage. The meat-packing industry provides by-products like cosmetics, glues and gelatins. USDA photo/Ken Hammond

8 History of The Meat Industry
Early butchers began killing and cutting animals for other people outside of their own family Meat preservation began with the packing of meat in a salt solution in wooden barrels

9 History of The Meat Industry
Animals were driven “on the hoof” until refrigeration was invented Huge meat packing plants developed in the Midwest and began processing meat and shipping it

10 History of The Meat Industry
As cities grew, small meat shops began to open to the public Animals were driven to the railroad “on the hoof” and taken to larger cities to be butchered

11 History of The Meat Industry
Meat plants were rebuilt and/or automated It became more economical to ship frozen meat products than the live animal

12 Overview of the Beef Industry
Approximately 1.3 billion total cattle in the world 35 million of these are beef cows in the U.S.

13 Segments of the Beef Cattle Industry
Seedstock/Purebred Breeders Cow/Calf Operation Yearling/Stocker Operation Feedlots Meat Packaging/Processing Wholesalers Retailers Consumers

14 How meat is sold: Traditionally sold as sides, quarters or wholesale cuts Now mostly sold as boxed beef Some large packers now prepare consumer-ready meat in vacuum packages ready for the supermarket shelf. USDA photo

15 Beef Cattle Breeds Angus (black and red) Charolais Hereford Limousin
Simmental Brahman Salers Texas Longhorn Shorthorn Belted Galloway Holstein and other dairy breeds??? > 250 beef cattle breeds

16 Meat Inspection The mandatory evaluation of the health status of meat animals and the wholesomeness of the meat obtained from them

17 Government surveillance:
Purposes of inspection: Prevents harmful additives and ingredients Excludes sick and diseased animals Eliminates misleading labeling and packaging Prohibits contaminated and unwholesome meats Federal meat inspection is administered by the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) as part of USDA. States may inspect meat only for use within that state.

18 Federal Inspection Exceptions to federal inspection of meat to be sold are farmers and custom/local butchers, however, they fall under state inspection guidelines

19 Cutability The amount of saleable retail cuts that can be obtained from a carcass

20 Dressing Percentage (Hot carcass weight/live weight)X100 average=62.5%
Ratio of the dressed carcass weight to the weight of the live animal (Hot carcass weight/live weight)X100 average=62.5%

21 Wholesome Meat Act of 1967 All meat must be inspected before sale

22 Humane Slaughter Act All animals must be immobilized prior to shackling and bleeding

23 Slaughtering practices:
Humane Slaughter Act (1960) requires animals to be rendered completely unconscious before slaughter. Carcasses are chilled for 24 to 48 hours before grading and processing. Brains, kidneys, tail, sweetbreads, and the tongue are by-products. Sold separately as “offal” Important source of income USDA photo

24 Immobilization Rendering an animal unconscious (brain dead), but the heart is still beating---technically the animal is still alive

25 Methods of Immobilization
Mechanical (gun, steel rod gun, captive bolt gun) Electrical shock Chemical (carbon dioxide)

26 Killing The bleeding of an animal until the heart stops beating (Exsanguination)

27 Kosher Slaughtering Butchering according to religious beliefs (Jewish Religion) Kosher is exempt from the Humane Slaughter Act (Immobilization)

28 9 Components of Meat Inspection/Facilities Inspection
Sanitation Ante-Mortem inspection Post-Mortem inspection Product inspection Lab analysis

29 9 Components of Meat Inspection/Facilities Inspection
Control and Restriction of condemned material Marking and Labeling Pest Control Sewage and Waste Disposal

30 Rigor Mortis The “stiffness of death” – the stiffening of muscles in a dead animal due to the lack of energy in the muscle Occurs about 6-12 hours after death

31 Rigor Mortis Energy is needed in muscle in order for the muscle fibers to relax When an animal is killed there is no way for energy to be produced because there is no more oxygen entering the body

32 Rigor Mortis Rigor mortis can be thought of as an irreversible muscle contraction Pre-slaughter death, rigor mortis, rate of carcass cooling affect muscle change after death

33 Carcass Grading Types of Fat include:
Subcutaneous – fat found directly under the skin Intermuscular – fat found between muscles Intramuscular – fat found in the muscles (marbling)



36 Grading is voluntary … Establishes and maintains uniform trading standards Aids in setting the value of various cuts of meat Carcasses are graded by quality and yield. Quality grades for beef: prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, cutter and canner Yield: proportion of usable meat to bone and fat Microsoft photo

37 Carcass Grading Quality Yield

38 Quality Grading Degree of Marbling Abundant Prime Modest Choice
Slight Select Traces Standard

39 Degree of Marbling

40 Quality Grading Maturity Bone development
Button formation (ossification) Whiter and flatter rib bones A (youngest) E (oldest)

41 Appearance of Ribs A- Narrow and oval
B- Slightly wide and slightly flat C- Slightly wide and moderately flat D- Moderately wide and flat E- Wide and flat

42 A B C D E Maturity cont’d. 9-30 months 30-42 months 42-72 months

43 Bone Maturity Also has a 0-100 scale
Average this with the lean maturity, however cannot come back if bone takes you to CDE

44 Yield Grading Indicates the carcass cutability
Fat thickness between the 12th and 13th ribs Rib Eye Area % kidney, pelvic, and heart fat 1 (> muscling) (< muscling)

45 12th-13th Rib Fat

46 Ribeye Area

47 Ribeye area 10 dots=1 sq. in Average is about 12.5 inches

48 Lamb Carcass Processing

49 Video on Jungle
Meatpacking jungle – christy

50 Why a recall? Pathogens - E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef
- Lm or Salmonella in RTE foods • Undeclared allergens • Extraneous materials/chemical contaminants/residues • Operating w/o inspection presence

51 Examples? . . .

52 -Wholesale Level – Product has been distributed to a warehouse or distribution center, where it is NOT under the direct control of the producing company (level between the manufacturer and the retailer) -Retail Level – Product has been received by retailers for sale to household consumers - Consumer Level – The product has been sold directly to household consumers (mail order)

53 Calling all Consumers! Recall Release!
Recall Release uses a standard format to provide the public with pertinent, descriptive product information Release is sent to media outlets, public health officials, subscribers, posted on the FSIS website and Twitter.

54 Recalled Beef Sold in Mass. Whole Foods
June 12, 2014 –

55 The US Department of Agriculture says that Fruitland American Meat, a Jackson, Mo. beef company, is recalling more than 4,000 pounds of beef due to a potential risk for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as mad cow disease. Not all beef is at risk. The bone-in “Rain Crow Ranch Ribeye” and quartered beef carcasses bearing establishment number EST inside the USDA mark of inspection are currently being recalled.

56 Thursday morning the USDA announced that a Whole Foods distribution center in Connecticut that serves stores in New England received the potentially tainted beef. Not all beef is at risk. The bone-in “Rain Crow Ranch Ribeye” and quartered beef carcasses bearing establishment number EST inside the USDA mark of inspection are currently being recalled.

57 These are branches of the cow’s central nervous system along the spine
These are branches of the cow’s central nervous system along the spine. If the cow was infected with BSE, this is the area where the infected tissues would be located. Regulations require that they be removed from cattle more than 30 months old. It appears that procedure was not followed for the beef in question. The USDA has classified this recall as a low health risk, but a Class II recall: “This is a health hazard situation where there is a remote probability of adverse health consequences from the use of the product,” -USDA The bone-in ribeyes roasts, according to the USDA, were distributed to two restaurants:

58 Answer these questions…
Group of Consumer, USDA, Whole Foods Who is at fault? Time frame? Consequences? Safety in Future for product

59 Do Now: Log on to the computer and find one meat product that includes packaging and answer these questions: What were they trying to sell? How did they reach the demographics? What kind is their niche market?

60 Do-Now Write down your favorite meat commercial and why?

61 go meat Jack Link Whole Foods

62 Who, What, Where, When, How? What is each commercial marketing?
What were they trying to sell? Who was the audience each was trying to reach? How did they reach the demographics? What was the Whole Foods commercial trying to emphasize?

63 AMS Agricultural Marketing Services
Administers programs that facilitate the efficient, fair marketing. ensure the quality and availability of wholesome food for consumers across the country.


65 Organic




69 Labels Must include: Name Ingredients Handling Sell by date
Manufacturer Nutritional information weight

70 Grass Feed “Grass-fed. Grass-fed animals receive a majority of their nutrients from grass throughout their life, while organic animals’ pasture diet may be supplemented with grain. Also USDA regulated, the grass-fed label does not limit the use of antibiotics, hormones, or pesticides. Meat products may be labeled as grass-fed organic.”-AMS

71 Organic “Organic is a labeling term that indicates that the food or other agricultural product has been produced through approved methods. These methods integrate cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity. Synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, irradiation, and genetic engineering may not be used.”

72 Natural As required by USDA, meat, poultry, and egg products labeled as “natural” must be minimally processed and contain no artificial ingredients. However, the natural label does not include any standards regarding farm practices and only applies to processing of meat and egg products. There are no standards or regulations for the labeling of natural food products if they do not contain meat or eggs.

73 Components to labeling
Name of cut Weight Date Cooking assistance Grade or brand Nutrients Retailer Safe food handling instructions

74 Appearance of Meat Depends On
Water Mixes with and binds to the protein in meat Free water found on the surface of meat (allows bacteria to grow)

75 Appearance of Meat Depends On
Color Type of meat and amount of light in contact with the meat Reflecting of light from the meat package

76 Appearance of Meat Depends On
Pigments Hemoglobin = red pigment found in blood Myoglobin = pigment found in muscle The iron in myoglobin combines with oxygen to change the color of meat

77 Appearance of Meat Depends On
Pigments cont’d. The different kinds of meats have different iron levels, which is why they are different colors Color change usually occurs from purple – to red – to brown

78 Appearance of Meat Depends On
Texture How the meat feels (cooking affects this) Ratio of Meat:Fat The amount of fat in meat changes how a piece of meat looks

79 Meat Tenderness Tenderness is the biting or chewing of meat
Tenderness is heavily influenced by many factors

80 What Affects Meat Tenderness
Age Cut Tenderizers Water content processing Type of meat Rigor Mortis Cooking style Marbling Packaging

81 Variations in tenderness:
Genetics is a big factor. Species and age – younger animals are more tender Feeding – indirect effect, grain-fed animals are younger at slaughter weight Muscle variations – amount of connective tissue affects tenderness Suspension of carcass

82 Variations in tenderness (cont.):
Electrical stimulation improves tenderness. Chilling rate – rapid cooling toughens meat Aging – beef is aged for 7 to 10 days Quality grade – age plays a big factor here Mechanical – grinding or cubing increases tenderness

83 Variations in tenderness (cont.):
Chemical – salt or enzymes increase tenderness Marinades – may include salt, acid, enzymes, alcohol, oil to soften collagen, increase water uptake and break down connective tissues Freezing and thawing Cooking method Carving against the grain improves tenderness

84 Types of Cookery Heat from the cooking process denatures (breaks down) the protein in meat Dry Heat Cooking – cooking meat with hot, dry air—includes broil, grill, stir fry, roast, fry

85 Types of Cookery Moist Heat Cooking – cooking meat in a closed container with added water—includes cooking in water and pot roasts Microwave Cooking – rapid cooking of meat by using electromagnetic waves

86 Microorganisms Found In Meat
Bacteria Yeast Mold These microorganisms can grow from 40 to 115 degrees F.

87 Microorganisms Found In Meat
“Life begins at 40” Most bacteria are killed at around 120 degrees F. Pasteurization occurs at degrees F.

88 Microorganisms Found In Meat
Microorganisms have many factors affecting their growth pH of meat Water content Temperature Oxygen Type and quality of packaging Nitrates Initial # of bacteria in the meat

89 Common Sources of Meat Contamination
Knife Animal hide Intestinal tract Employees (hands, clothing, health) Machines Facilities Seasonings Packaging Storage areas

90 Characteristics of Spoiled Meat
Color Odor – sweet or sickening Flavor - rancid Texture – sticky or tacky – liquid coating Date of packaging Freezer burn

91 How to Prevent Spoilage
Use proper sanitation Store at right temperatures Keep packages sealed Cook thoroughly Follow all directions

92 Types of Meat Storage Refrigeration Chill carcasses after killing
The lower the chilling temperature without freezing, the more shelf life is increased Chilling tries to slow down bacteria growth

93 Types of Meat Storage Freezing
Used for long term storage (recommended 6 mo. – 1 yr.) Freeze quickly after slaughtering Commercial -10 to 20 degrees F. Home -10 to 0 degrees F. Watch out for freezer burn!!!

94 Types of Meat Storage Curing
Adding ingredients to extend the shelf life/preserve the food Ingredients include salt, nitrite/nitrate, sugar, water, spices Cured meat examples include ham, bacon, dried beef, bologna, beef jerky

95 Types of Meat Storage Dehydration
The nearly complete removal of water from foods under controlled conditions The removal of water decreases spoilage and bulkiness and increases the convenience of the food

96 Types of Meat Storage Vacuum Packaging
Storing food by compressing all of the air out of the food source Tends to make the meat look purple, which may turn consumers off

97 Types of Meat Storage Controlled Atmosphere Packaging
Similar to vacuum packaging, but tries to control the gasses inside the meat package so bright red color remains

98 Types of Meat Storage Irradiation
Uses different kinds of radiant energy to destroy living organisms that would normally spoil food Takes the place of chemicals being applied to the food No radiation is left in or on the food!

99 Meat Packaging The goal of meat packaging is to keep the meat fresh and decrease the chance of spoilage, change in color, or leaking of water/juices while still making it appealing to the consumer

100 Types of Packaging Materials
Saran wrap Foam trays Freezer paper Aluminum foil Vacuum bags

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