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Meat Science. What is Meat Science? The study of the entire meat industry from the production of the animal to the preparation of the final product to.

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Presentation on theme: "Meat Science. What is Meat Science? The study of the entire meat industry from the production of the animal to the preparation of the final product to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Meat Science

2 What is Meat Science? The study of the entire meat industry from the production of the animal to the preparation of the final product to the marketing of the product The study of the entire meat industry from the production of the animal to the preparation of the final product to the marketing of the product

3 Types of Meat Beef Beef Lamb Lamb Rabbit Rabbit Poultry Poultry Pork Pork Veal Veal Venison Venison Sea Food Sea Food Wild Game Wild Game Ostrich Ostrich Emu Emu

4 Why is Meat Important? High quality protein High quality protein Iron Iron Vitamin B Vitamin B Vitamin A Vitamin A

5 Meat is Composed of Muscle Tissue Muscle Tissue Nerve Tissue Nerve Tissue Fat Tissue Fat Tissue Blood Vessels Blood Vessels Cartilage Cartilage Tendons Tendons Bone Bone Organ Tissue Organ Tissue

6 Edible By-Products Brain Brain Cheek Meat, Ears, Snout Cheek Meat, Ears, Snout Pig’s Feet, Knuckles Pig’s Feet, Knuckles Head Meat Head Meat Heart Heart Intestines Intestines Kidney Kidney Lips Lips Tripe Tripe Tongue Tongue Liver Liver Lungs Lungs Spleen Spleen Pancreas Pancreas Stomach Stomach Sweetbreads (Thymus) Sweetbreads (Thymus) Tail/Oxtail Tail/Oxtail Tallow Tallow Testicles Testicles

7 Meat cuts and by-products: Beef: Beef: –62 percent as beef cuts –24 percent for hamburger –15 percent as by-products Pork: Pork: –65 percent of the total is consumed as processed meat such as ham, bacon and sausage. The meat-packing industry provides by- products like cosmetics, glues and gelatins. The meat-packing industry provides by- products like cosmetics, glues and gelatins. USDA photo/Ken Hammond

8 History of The Meat Industry Early butchers began killing and cutting animals for other people outside of their own family Early butchers began killing and cutting animals for other people outside of their own family Meat preservation began with the packing of meat in a salt solution in wooden barrels Meat preservation began with the packing of meat in a salt solution in wooden barrels

9 History of The Meat Industry Animals were driven “on the hoof” until refrigeration was invented Animals were driven “on the hoof” until refrigeration was invented Huge meat packing plants developed in the Midwest and began processing meat and shipping it Huge meat packing plants developed in the Midwest and began processing meat and shipping it

10 History of The Meat Industry As cities grew, small meat shops began to open to the public As cities grew, small meat shops began to open to the public Animals were driven to the railroad “on the hoof” and taken to larger cities to be butchered Animals were driven to the railroad “on the hoof” and taken to larger cities to be butchered

11 History of The Meat Industry Meat plants were rebuilt and/or automated Meat plants were rebuilt and/or automated It became more economical to ship frozen meat products than the live animal It became more economical to ship frozen meat products than the live animal

12 Overview of the Beef Industry Approximately 1.3 billion total cattle in the world Approximately 1.3 billion total cattle in the world 35 million of these are beef cows in the U.S. 35 million of these are beef cows in the U.S.

13 Segments of the Beef Cattle Industry Seedstock/Purebred Breeders Seedstock/Purebred Breeders Cow/Calf Operation Cow/Calf Operation Yearling/Stocker Operation Yearling/Stocker Operation Feedlots Feedlots Meat Packaging/Processing Meat Packaging/Processing Wholesalers Wholesalers Retailers Retailers Consumers Consumers

14 How meat is sold: Traditionally sold as sides, quarters or wholesale cuts Traditionally sold as sides, quarters or wholesale cuts Now mostly sold as boxed beef Now mostly sold as boxed beef Some large packers now prepare consumer-ready meat in vacuum packages ready for the supermarket shelf. Some large packers now prepare consumer-ready meat in vacuum packages ready for the supermarket shelf. USDA photo

15 Beef Cattle Breeds Angus (black and red) Angus (black and red) Charolais Charolais Hereford Hereford Limousin Limousin Simmental Simmental Brahman Brahman Salers Salers Texas Longhorn Texas Longhorn Shorthorn Shorthorn Belted Galloway Belted Galloway Holstein and other dairy breeds??? Holstein and other dairy breeds??? > 250 beef cattle breeds > 250 beef cattle breeds

16 Meat Inspection The mandatory evaluation of the health status of meat animals and the wholesomeness of the meat obtained from them The mandatory evaluation of the health status of meat animals and the wholesomeness of the meat obtained from them

17 Government surveillance: Purposes of inspection: Purposes of inspection: –Prevents harmful additives and ingredients –Excludes sick and diseased animals –Eliminates misleading labeling and packaging –Prohibits contaminated and unwholesome meats Federal meat inspection is administered by the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) as part of USDA. Federal meat inspection is administered by the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) as part of USDA. States may inspect meat only for use within that state. States may inspect meat only for use within that state.

18 Federal Inspection Exceptions to federal inspection of meat to be sold are farmers and custom/local butchers, however, they fall under state inspection guidelines Exceptions to federal inspection of meat to be sold are farmers and custom/local butchers, however, they fall under state inspection guidelines

19 Cutability The amount of saleable retail cuts that can be obtained from a carcass The amount of saleable retail cuts that can be obtained from a carcass

20 Dressing Percentage Ratio of the dressed carcass weight to the weight of the live animal Ratio of the dressed carcass weight to the weight of the live animal (Hot carcass weight/live weight)X100 (Hot carcass weight/live weight)X100 average=62.5% average=62.5%

21 Wholesome Meat Act of 1967 All meat must be inspected before sale All meat must be inspected before sale

22 Humane Slaughter Act All animals must be immobilized prior to shackling and bleeding All animals must be immobilized prior to shackling and bleeding

23 Slaughtering practices: Humane Slaughter Act (1960) requires animals to be rendered completely unconscious before slaughter. Humane Slaughter Act (1960) requires animals to be rendered completely unconscious before slaughter. Carcasses are chilled for 24 to 48 hours before grading and processing. Carcasses are chilled for 24 to 48 hours before grading and processing. Brains, kidneys, tail, sweetbreads, and the tongue are by-products. Brains, kidneys, tail, sweetbreads, and the tongue are by-products. –Sold separately as “offal” –Important source of income USDA photo

24 Immobilization Rendering an animal unconscious (brain dead), but the heart is still beating--- technically the animal is still alive Rendering an animal unconscious (brain dead), but the heart is still beating--- technically the animal is still alive

25 Methods of Immobilization Mechanical (gun, steel rod gun, captive bolt gun) Mechanical (gun, steel rod gun, captive bolt gun) Electrical shock Electrical shock Chemical (carbon dioxide) Chemical (carbon dioxide)

26 Killing The bleeding of an animal until the heart stops beating (Exsanguination) The bleeding of an animal until the heart stops beating (Exsanguination)

27 Kosher Slaughtering Butchering according to religious beliefs (Jewish Religion) Butchering according to religious beliefs (Jewish Religion) Kosher is exempt from the Humane Slaughter Act (Immobilization) Kosher is exempt from the Humane Slaughter Act (Immobilization)

28 9 Components of Meat Inspection/Facilities Inspection Sanitation Sanitation Ante-Mortem inspection Ante-Mortem inspection Post-Mortem inspection Post-Mortem inspection Product inspection Product inspection Lab analysis Lab analysis

29 9 Components of Meat Inspection/Facilities Inspection Control and Restriction of condemned material Control and Restriction of condemned material Marking and Labeling Marking and Labeling Pest Control Pest Control Sewage and Waste Disposal Sewage and Waste Disposal

30 Rigor Mortis The “stiffness of death” – the stiffening of muscles in a dead animal due to the lack of energy in the muscle The “stiffness of death” – the stiffening of muscles in a dead animal due to the lack of energy in the muscle Occurs about 6-12 hours after death Occurs about 6-12 hours after death

31 Rigor Mortis Energy is needed in muscle in order for the muscle fibers to relax Energy is needed in muscle in order for the muscle fibers to relax When an animal is killed there is no way for energy to be produced because there is no more oxygen entering the body When an animal is killed there is no way for energy to be produced because there is no more oxygen entering the body

32 Rigor Mortis Rigor mortis can be thought of as an irreversible muscle contraction Rigor mortis can be thought of as an irreversible muscle contraction Pre-slaughter death, rigor mortis, rate of carcass cooling affect muscle change after death Pre-slaughter death, rigor mortis, rate of carcass cooling affect muscle change after death

33 Carcass Grading Types of Fat include: Types of Fat include:  Subcutaneous – fat found directly under the skin  Intermuscular – fat found between muscles  Intramuscular – fat found in the muscles (marbling)

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36 Grading is voluntary … Establishes and maintains uniform trading standards Establishes and maintains uniform trading standards Aids in setting the value of various cuts of meat Aids in setting the value of various cuts of meat Carcasses are graded by quality and yield. Carcasses are graded by quality and yield. –Quality grades for beef: prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, cutter and canner –Yield: proportion of usable meat to bone and fat Microsoft photo

37 Carcass Grading Quality Quality Yield Yield

38 Quality Grading Degree of Marbling Degree of Marbling  AbundantPrime  ModestChoice  SlightSelect  TracesStandard

39 Degree of Marbling

40 Quality Grading Maturity Maturity  Bone development  Button formation (ossification)  Whiter and flatter rib bones  A (youngest) E (oldest)

41 Appearance of Ribs A- Narrow and oval A- Narrow and oval B- Slightly wide and slightly flat B- Slightly wide and slightly flat C- Slightly wide and moderately C- Slightly wide and moderatelyflat D- Moderately wide and flat D- Moderately wide and flat E- Wide and flat E- Wide and flat

42 Maturity cont’d. A B C D E 9-30 months 9-30 months months months months months months months > 96 months > 96 months

43 Bone Maturity

44 Yield Grading Indicates the carcass cutability Indicates the carcass cutability  Fat thickness between the 12 th and 13 th ribs  Rib Eye Area  % kidney, pelvic, and heart fat  1 (> muscling) ( muscling) (< muscling)

45 12 th -13 th Rib Fat

46 Ribeye Area

47 Ribeye area 10 dots=1 sq. in 10 dots=1 sq. in

48 Lamb Carcass Processing https://www.dropbox.com/s/143gvs77c2cr ug8/American%20Lamb%20- %20Fabricating%20for%20Value%20vide o.mov https://www.dropbox.com/s/143gvs77c2cr ug8/American%20Lamb%20- %20Fabricating%20for%20Value%20vide o.mov https://www.dropbox.com/s/143gvs77c2cr ug8/American%20Lamb%20- %20Fabricating%20for%20Value%20vide o.mov https://www.dropbox.com/s/143gvs77c2cr ug8/American%20Lamb%20- %20Fabricating%20for%20Value%20vide o.mov

49 Video on Jungle https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2pp aJwQ9UM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2pp aJwQ9UM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2pp aJwQ9UM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2pp aJwQ9UM Meatpacking jungle – christy Meatpacking jungle – christy

50 Why a recall? Pathogens - E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef - Lm or Salmonella in RTE foods Undeclared allergens Undeclared allergens Extraneous materials/chemical contaminants/residues Extraneous materials/chemical contaminants/residues Operating w/o inspection presence Operating w/o inspection presence

51 Examples?...

52 -Wholesale Level – Product has been distributed to a warehouse or distribution center, where it is NOT under the direct control of the producing company (level between the manufacturer and the retailer) -Retail Level – Product has been received by retailers for sale to household consumers - Consumer Level – The product has been sold directly to household consumers (mail order)

53 Calling all Consumers! Recall Release! Recall Release! –Recall Release uses a standard format to provide the public with pertinent, descriptive product information – Release is sent to media outlets, public health officials, subscribers, posted on the FSIS website and Twitter.

54 Recalled Beef Sold in Mass. Whole Foods June 12, 2014 – Boston.com

55 The US Department of Agriculture says that Fruitland American Meat, a Jackson, Mo. beef company, is recalling more than 4,000 pounds of beef due to a potential risk for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as mad cow disease. The US Department of Agriculture says that Fruitland American Meat, a Jackson, Mo. beef company, is recalling more than 4,000 pounds of beef due to a potential risk for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as mad cow disease.is recalling more than 4,000 pounds of beef due is recalling more than 4,000 pounds of beef due Not all beef is at risk. The bone-in “Rain Crow Ranch Ribeye” and quartered beef carcasses bearing establishment number EST inside the USDA mark of inspection are currently being recalled. Not all beef is at risk. The bone-in “Rain Crow Ranch Ribeye” and quartered beef carcasses bearing establishment number EST inside the USDA mark of inspection are currently being recalled.

56 Thursday morning the USDA announced that a Whole Foods distribution center in Connecticut that serves stores in New England received the potentially tainted beef. Thursday morning the USDA announced that a Whole Foods distribution center in Connecticut that serves stores in New England received the potentially tainted beef. Not all beef is at risk. The bone-in “Rain Crow Ranch Ribeye” and quartered beef carcasses bearing establishment number EST inside the USDA mark of inspection are currently being recalled. Not all beef is at risk. The bone-in “Rain Crow Ranch Ribeye” and quartered beef carcasses bearing establishment number EST inside the USDA mark of inspection are currently being recalled.

57 These are branches of the cow’s central nervous system along the spine. If the cow was infected with BSE, this is the area where the infected tissues would be located. Regulations require that they be removed from cattle more than 30 months old. It appears that procedure was not followed for the beef in question. These are branches of the cow’s central nervous system along the spine. If the cow was infected with BSE, this is the area where the infected tissues would be located. Regulations require that they be removed from cattle more than 30 months old. It appears that procedure was not followed for the beef in question. The USDA has classified this recall as a low health risk, but a Class II recall: “This is a health hazard situation where there is a remote probability of adverse health consequences from the use of the product,” -USDA The USDA has classified this recall as a low health risk, but a Class II recall: “This is a health hazard situation where there is a remote probability of adverse health consequences from the use of the product,” -USDA The bone-in ribeyes roasts, according to the USDA, were distributed to two restaurants: The bone-in ribeyes roasts, according to the USDA, were distributed to two restaurants:

58 Answer these questions… Group of Consumer, USDA, Whole Foods Group of Consumer, USDA, Whole Foods Who is at fault? Who is at fault? Time frame? Time frame? Consequences? Consequences? Safety in Future for product Safety in Future for product

59 Do Now: Log on to the computer and find one meat product that includes packaging and answer these questions: Log on to the computer and find one meat product that includes packaging and answer these questions: –What were they trying to sell? –How did they reach the demographics? –What kind is their niche market?

60 Do-Now Write down your favorite meat commercial and why? Write down your favorite meat commercial and why?

61 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BafkF ntxgPw go meat https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BafkF ntxgPw go meat https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BafkF ntxgPw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BafkF ntxgPw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2WN dYL8N4zk Jack Link https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2WN dYL8N4zk Jack Link https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2WN dYL8N4zk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2WN dYL8N4zk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KwaU 0YNG3Vo Whole Foods https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KwaU 0YNG3Vo Whole Foods https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KwaU 0YNG3Vo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KwaU 0YNG3Vo

62 Who, What, Where, When, How? What is each commercial marketing? What is each commercial marketing? What were they trying to sell? What were they trying to sell? Who was the audience each was trying to reach? Who was the audience each was trying to reach? How did they reach the demographics? How did they reach the demographics? What was the Whole Foods commercial trying to emphasize? What was the Whole Foods commercial trying to emphasize?

63 AMS Agricultural Marketing Services Agricultural Marketing Services Administers programs that facilitate the efficient, fair marketing. Administers programs that facilitate the efficient, fair marketing. ensure the quality and availability of wholesome food for consumers across the country. ensure the quality and availability of wholesome food for consumers across the country.

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65 Organic

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69 Labels Must include: Must include:  Name  Ingredients  Handling  Sell by date  Manufacturer  Nutritional information  weight

70 Grass Feed “Grass-fed. Grass-fed animals receive a majority of their nutrients from grass throughout their life, while organic animals’ pasture diet may be supplemented with grain. Also USDA regulated, the grass-fed label does not limit the use of antibiotics, hormones, or pesticides. Meat products may be labeled as grass-fed organic.”-AMS “Grass-fed. Grass-fed animals receive a majority of their nutrients from grass throughout their life, while organic animals’ pasture diet may be supplemented with grain. Also USDA regulated, the grass-fed label does not limit the use of antibiotics, hormones, or pesticides. Meat products may be labeled as grass-fed organic.”-AMS

71 Organic “Organic is a labeling term that indicates that the food or other agricultural product has been produced through approved methods. These methods integrate cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity. Synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, irradiation, and genetic engineering may not be used.” “Organic is a labeling term that indicates that the food or other agricultural product has been produced through approved methods. These methods integrate cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity. Synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, irradiation, and genetic engineering may not be used.”

72 Natural As required by USDA, meat, poultry, and egg products labeled as “natural” must be minimally processed and contain no artificial ingredients. However, the natural label does not include any standards regarding farm practices and only applies to processing of meat and egg products. There are no standards or regulations for the labeling of natural food products if they do not contain meat or eggs. As required by USDA, meat, poultry, and egg products labeled as “natural” must be minimally processed and contain no artificial ingredients. However, the natural label does not include any standards regarding farm practices and only applies to processing of meat and egg products. There are no standards or regulations for the labeling of natural food products if they do not contain meat or eggs.

73 Components to labeling Name of cut Name of cut Weight Weight Date Date Cooking assistance Cooking assistance Grade or brand Grade or brand Nutrients Nutrients Retailer Retailer Safe food handling instructions Safe food handling instructions

74 Appearance of Meat Depends On Water Water  Mixes with and binds to the protein in meat  Free water found on the surface of meat (allows bacteria to grow)

75 Appearance of Meat Depends On Color Color  Type of meat and amount of light in contact with the meat  Reflecting of light from the meat package

76 Appearance of Meat Depends On Pigments Pigments  Hemoglobin = red pigment found in blood  Myoglobin = pigment found in muscle  The iron in myoglobin combines with oxygen to change the color of meat

77 Appearance of Meat Depends On Pigments cont’d. Pigments cont’d.  The different kinds of meats have different iron levels, which is why they are different colors  Color change usually occurs from purple – to red – to brown

78 Appearance of Meat Depends On Texture Texture  How the meat feels (cooking affects this) Ratio of Meat:Fat Ratio of Meat:Fat  The amount of fat in meat changes how a piece of meat looks

79 Meat Tenderness Tenderness is the biting or chewing of meat Tenderness is the biting or chewing of meat Tenderness is heavily influenced by many factors Tenderness is heavily influenced by many factors

80 What Affects Meat Tenderness Age Age Cut Cut Tenderizers Tenderizers Water content Water content processing processing Type of meat Type of meat Rigor Mortis Rigor Mortis Cooking style Cooking style Marbling Marbling Packaging Packaging

81 Variations in tenderness: Genetics is a big factor. Genetics is a big factor. Species and age – younger animals are more tender Species and age – younger animals are more tender Feeding – indirect effect, grain-fed animals are younger at slaughter weight Feeding – indirect effect, grain-fed animals are younger at slaughter weight Muscle variations – amount of connective tissue affects tenderness Muscle variations – amount of connective tissue affects tenderness Suspension of carcass Suspension of carcass

82 Variations in tenderness (cont.): Electrical stimulation improves tenderness. Electrical stimulation improves tenderness. Chilling rate – rapid cooling toughens meat Chilling rate – rapid cooling toughens meat Aging – beef is aged for 7 to 10 days Aging – beef is aged for 7 to 10 days Quality grade – age plays a big factor here Quality grade – age plays a big factor here Mechanical – grinding or cubing increases tenderness Mechanical – grinding or cubing increases tenderness

83 Variations in tenderness (cont.): Chemical – salt or enzymes increase tenderness Chemical – salt or enzymes increase tenderness Marinades – may include salt, acid, enzymes, alcohol, oil to soften collagen, increase water uptake and break down connective tissues Marinades – may include salt, acid, enzymes, alcohol, oil to soften collagen, increase water uptake and break down connective tissues Freezing and thawing Freezing and thawing Cooking method Cooking method Carving against the grain improves tenderness Carving against the grain improves tenderness

84 Types of Cookery Heat from the cooking process denatures (breaks down) the protein in meat Heat from the cooking process denatures (breaks down) the protein in meat  Dry Heat Cooking – cooking meat with hot, dry air—includes broil, grill, stir fry, roast, fry

85 Types of Cookery  Moist Heat Cooking – cooking meat in a closed container with added water—includes cooking in water and pot roasts  Microwave Cooking – rapid cooking of meat by using electromagnetic waves

86 Microorganisms Found In Meat Bacteria Bacteria Yeast Yeast Mold Mold  These microorganisms can grow from 40 to 115 degrees F.

87 Microorganisms Found In Meat “Life begins at 40” “Life begins at 40” Most bacteria are killed at around 120 degrees F. Most bacteria are killed at around 120 degrees F. Pasteurization occurs at degrees F. Pasteurization occurs at degrees F.

88 Microorganisms Found In Meat Microorganisms have many factors affecting their growth Microorganisms have many factors affecting their growth  pH of meat  Water content  Temperature  Oxygen  Type and quality of packaging  Nitrates  Initial # of bacteria in the meat

89 Common Sources of Meat Contamination Knife Knife Animal hide Animal hide Intestinal tract Intestinal tract Employees (hands, clothing, health) Employees (hands, clothing, health) Machines Machines Facilities Facilities Seasonings Seasonings Packaging Packaging Storage areas Storage areas

90 Characteristics of Spoiled Meat Color Color Odor – sweet or sickening Odor – sweet or sickening Flavor - rancid Flavor - rancid Texture – sticky or tacky – liquid coating Texture – sticky or tacky – liquid coating Date of packaging Date of packaging Freezer burn Freezer burn

91 How to Prevent Spoilage Use proper sanitation Use proper sanitation Store at right temperatures Store at right temperatures Keep packages sealed Keep packages sealed Cook thoroughly Cook thoroughly Follow all directions Follow all directions

92 Types of Meat Storage Refrigeration Refrigeration  Chill carcasses after killing  The lower the chilling temperature without freezing, the more shelf life is increased  Chilling tries to slow down bacteria growth

93 Types of Meat Storage Freezing Freezing  Used for long term storage (recommended 6 mo. – 1 yr.)  Freeze quickly after slaughtering  Commercial -10 to 20 degrees F.  Home -10 to 0 degrees F.  Watch out for freezer burn!!!

94 Types of Meat Storage Curing Curing  Adding ingredients to extend the shelf life/preserve the food  Ingredients include salt, nitrite/nitrate, sugar, water, spices  Cured meat examples include ham, bacon, dried beef, bologna, beef jerky

95 Types of Meat Storage Dehydration Dehydration  The nearly complete removal of water from foods under controlled conditions  The removal of water decreases spoilage and bulkiness and increases the convenience of the food

96 Types of Meat Storage Vacuum Packaging Vacuum Packaging  Storing food by compressing all of the air out of the food source  Tends to make the meat look purple, which may turn consumers off

97 Types of Meat Storage Controlled Atmosphere Packaging Controlled Atmosphere Packaging  Similar to vacuum packaging, but tries to control the gasses inside the meat package so bright red color remains

98 Types of Meat Storage Irradiation Irradiation  Uses different kinds of radiant energy to destroy living organisms that would normally spoil food  Takes the place of chemicals being applied to the food  No radiation is left in or on the food!

99 Meat Packaging The goal of meat packaging is to keep the meat fresh and decrease the chance of spoilage, change in color, or leaking of water/juices while still making it appealing to the consumer The goal of meat packaging is to keep the meat fresh and decrease the chance of spoilage, change in color, or leaking of water/juices while still making it appealing to the consumer

100 Types of Packaging Materials Saran wrap Saran wrap Foam trays Foam trays Freezer paper Freezer paper Aluminum foil Aluminum foil Vacuum bags Vacuum bags


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