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Laura Coronado Laney College1 Chapter 13 Assuring a Safe Food Supply: From Farm to Fork.

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Presentation on theme: "Laura Coronado Laney College1 Chapter 13 Assuring a Safe Food Supply: From Farm to Fork."— Presentation transcript:

1 Laura Coronado Laney College1 Chapter 13 Assuring a Safe Food Supply: From Farm to Fork

2 What Is Foodborne Illness? “Diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food” More than 250 have been identified 76 billion cases a year – Often mistaken for the 24-hour flu Caused by a variety of pathogens –Bacteria, viruses, fungi, mold, and parasites Laura Coronado Laney College2

3 Foodborne Illness More common than you think Major cause of diarrhea No real long-term health threat to the average healthy person May be serious for very young, very old, people with long-term illness Usually results from unsafe food handling in the HOME Laura Coronado Laney College3

4 From Farm to Fork: All Steps Must Assure Food Safety Laura Coronado Laney College4

5 Cross-Contamination From one contaminated source to clean source Unclean hands to food Must observe sanitary food-handling practices Expect same practices when eating out Laura Coronado Laney College5

6 The American Food Supply: A Return to a Local Approach Laura Coronado Laney College6

7 Causes of Foodborne Illness Most caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites Less reported: –Marine biotoxins – Molds and fungi (poisonous mushrooms) –“Mad cow” disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)) Persistent organic pollutants –Dioxins – industrial byproducts and waste burning –PCBs, lead, and mercury Laura Coronado Laney College7

8 The Top Eight Risk Factors That Contribute to Foodborne Illness Improper cooling of foods Time between preparing and serving Infected persons touching food Not cooking food properly Not keeping hot foods hot Improper reheating of foods Contaminated raw foods Cross-contaminating raw and cooked foods Laura Coronado Laney College8

9 Bacteria Many different types of bacteria can enter our food supply. Most are harmless or are destroyed in cooking or by stomach acid. Some (e.g., E. coli) can cause illness. Wash raw fruits and vegetables with water –Dry with fresh towel Wash all utensils Laura Coronado Laney College9

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12 Viruses Can reproduce only by invading and taking over cells. –Hepatitis A virus causes infectious hepatitis It is usually transmitted via fecal matter. May also be transmitted by raw and lightly cooked shellfish from polluted waters, vegetables irrigated or washed with polluted water, and foods infected by handlers. Laura Coronado Laney College12

13 Norovirus Laura Coronado Laney College13

14 Fish Metal Methyl mercury from industrial pollution that works its way up the food chain, so larger fish like swordfish and tuna have greater amounts Especially harmful to fetus No more than 7 oz. of fish (swordfish, tuna, shark) per week Ciguatoxin also from large fish Laura Coronado Laney College14

15 Mercury Pollution Cycle Laura Coronado Laney College15

16 Why are so many foods making us sick? New pathogens Changing eating habits Increase in mass food production and transport Global food supply Growing number of highly susceptible people (elderly) Laura Coronado Laney College16

17 Factors That Contribute to Foodborne Illness Laura Coronado Laney College17

18 Prevention Techniques from the Government Collaboration –FDA, USDA, EPA, CDC Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point System (HACCP) –Establishes guidelines to promote food safety at every step of food production Laura Coronado Laney College18

19 Figure 13.2 The Seven Principles of HACCP Laura Coronado Laney College19

20 Food Safety at the Farm Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) –Preharvest practices in the field Good Handling Practices (GHPs) –Postharvest, packing, shipping To control soil and water management, crop and animal production, storage, processing, and waste disposal Laura Coronado Laney College20

21 Agribusiness: Feeding a Growing Nation, or a Corporate Bad Guy? What is agribusiness? –Agricultural industry: any business involved in food production They say it is necessary to meet food needs of a growing population –Critics use the term negatively and in opposition to family farming They say it is only for profit, leads to lower nutrient quality, and uses contaminants Laura Coronado Laney College21

22 Common Food-Processing Techniques Pasteurization –Brings item to a temperature just below boiling point to maintain taste but still kill harmful bacteria –Extends shelf life Ultrapasteurization –Uses higher temperatures and longer processing time –Lasts longer Ultra-High Temperature (UHT) –Raises temperature even higher; rapidly cools item and aseptically packages it, such as boxed milk Laura Coronado Laney College22

23 Common Food-Processing Techniques Irradiation –Approved for red meat, poultry, spices, fruits, vegetables, fresh shell eggs, juices, and shellfish –FDA requires that irradiated foods be labeled with the statement “treated with radiation” or “treated by irradiation” and the symbol for irradiation called the radura. Laura Coronado Laney College23

24 Common Food-Processing Techniques Canning –Uses high temperature –Seals jars air tight –Can last for two years Laura Coronado Laney College24

25 Common Food-Processing Techniques Nitrates and nitrites are salts Cured and smoked products Gives ham, hot dogs, lunchmeats pinkish color Made into nitrosamines when exposed to heat –Shown to cause cancer –Manufacturers must add antioxidants to offset Laura Coronado Laney College25

26 The Role of the Restaurant Industry More than 3,000 state and local agencies regulate food service. –Food Code –A model for conduct from the FDA Many go beyond by taking responsibility for how food is grown and how the animals used are treated. Laura Coronado Laney College26

27 The Future of Food Safety Cloning? The FDA says cloned animals are no different from uncloned animals. How do you feel about consuming products from cloned animals and why? Laura Coronado Laney College27

28 Consumers: the Last Line of Defense Laura Coronado Laney College28

29 How to Prevent Foodborne Illness Start at the grocery store Prepare foods with care Store with care Reheat with care Fight “BAC” Laura Coronado Laney College29

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31 Clean Wash hands with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds before and after handling fresh fruits and vegetables. Clean all surfaces and utensils with hot water and soap, including cutting boards, counter tops, peelers, and knives that touch fresh fruits or vegetables before and after food preparation. Laura Coronado Laney College31

32 Clean Rinse fresh fruits and vegetables under running tap water, including those with skins and rinds that are not eaten. Packaged fruits and vegetables labeled “ ready-to-eat, ” “ washed, ” or “ triple washed ” need not be washed. Rub firm-skin fruits and vegetables under running tap water or scrub with a clean vegetable brush while rinsing with running tap water. Laura Coronado Laney College32

33 Separate When shopping—both in your cart and in bags at checkout—be sure fresh fruits and vegetables are separated from household chemicals and raw foods such as meat, poultry, and seafood. Keep fresh fruits and vegetables separate from raw meat, poultry, or seafood in your refrigerator. Laura Coronado Laney College33

34 Separate Avoid cross-contamination Do not use the same cutting board without cleaning with hot water and soap before and after preparing fresh fruits and vegetables Do not use wood cutting boards Laura Coronado Laney College34

35 Chill or Cook Refrigerate all cut, peeled, or cooked fresh fruits and vegetables within two hours. Cook or throw away fruits or vegetables that have touched raw meat, poultry, seafood, or their juices. Laura Coronado Laney College35

36 How to Avoid Microbes at the Store Buy frozen foods, meats, and other perishables last. Don’t buy cold foods that don’t feel cold. Put meats in separate bags. Don’t buy any items that are dented, bulging, leaking, etc. Avoid anything that looks or smells strange. Laura Coronado Laney College36

37 How to Avoid Microbes at the Store Examine fruits and vegetables closely. Avoid any that are brown or slimy. Check expiration dates on labels and packaging closely. If you have a long drive to make following your purchases, make the grocery store your last stop before returning home. In addition, consider bringing a cooler for cold items. Laura Coronado Laney College37

38 Read Labels “Sell by” dates tell the store how long to display a food product. It is best to buy the item before the “sell by” date but it does not necessarily refer to the safety of the product. “Use by” is placed on a package voluntarily by the manufacturer and suggests when the product will start to lose peak quality. “Best before” refers to the relationship between the shelf life and quality of the product. It suggests that for ideal quality the product should be consumed prior to the date indicated. It does not refer to food safety. Laura Coronado Laney College38

39 Check Check to be sure that the fresh fruits and vegetables you buy are not bruised or damaged. Check that fresh cut fruits and vegetables such as packaged salads and precut melons are refrigerated at the store before buying. Do not buy fresh cut items that are not refrigerated. Laura Coronado Laney College39

40 Avoid Microbes at Home Wash hands thoroughly Keep counters, cutting boards, equipment clean and sanitized Prepare raw meat separately Thaw foods in refrigerator or cold running water or microwave Avoid coughing and sneezing over food Clean and wash fruits/vegetables thoroughly Laura Coronado Laney College40

41 Avoid Microbes at Home Keep refrigerator and freezer temperatures at safe range –40°F for the refrigerator –0°F for the freezer –Keep a thermometer in them Store food properly Don’t overstock Use FIFO—first in, first out NO dairy on door Meat on bottom shelf Even frozen foods have a limit Laura Coronado Laney College41

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44 Temperature Danger Zone Laura Coronado Laney College44

45 How to Avoid Microbes When Cooking Wash hands Avoid cross- contamination Follow defrost guidelines Thoroughly cook meat, fish, poultry, eggs –See ideal temperatures/use thermometer Cook stuffing separately Eat food right away Store “leftovers” within two hours Serve cooked meat on clean plates Avoid partially cooking food for picnics Laura Coronado Laney College45

46 Reminder for Food at a Picnic, Party, or Buffet Cook meat to a proper temperature: 160°F internal temperature –Do not rely on color Avoid the danger zone! Laura Coronado Laney College46

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48 Serving Food The USDA offers the following guidelines for serving food: Hot food should be held at 140°F or warmer. Cold food should be held at 40°F or colder. When serving food at a buffet, keep food hot with chafing dishes, slow cookers, and warming trays. Keep food cold by nesting dishes in bowls of ice, or use small serving trays and replace them often. Perishable food (before serving and while eating) should not be left out more than two hours at room temperature (one hour when the temperature is above 90°F). Laura Coronado Laney College48

49 Leftovers Discard any food left out at room temperature for more than two hours (1 hour if the temperature was above 90°F). Place food into shallow containers and immediately put in the refrigerator or freezer for rapid cooling. Don’t forget to label and date leftovers. Use cooked leftovers within four days. Heat leftovers to proper temperatures. Reheat leftovers to 165°F. Laura Coronado Laney College49

50 Cleaning Up Food safety is not over yet: Ensure dishwasher is getting hot enough Wipe down all surfaces with bleach Wash and replace all sponges and towels often Laura Coronado Laney College50


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