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© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-1 Module 10 Site Survey and Installation.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-1 Module 10 Site Survey and Installation."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-1 Module 10 Site Survey and Installation

2 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-2 Overview This module will cover the actual WLAN site survey and installation. Topics covered in this module include the importance of infrastructure awareness, and creating an accurate network map as an initial step in conducting a site survey. Mounting and installation concerns will also be covered. Although determining the appropriate coverage area involves trial and error, experience and proper network maps can greatly assist the survey engineer. Finally, the student will learn how to document the entire process by creating a site survey report or by appropriately responding to Request for Proposals (RFPs).

3 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-3 Learning Objectives Identify potential difficulties that may arise while designing a wireless LAN due to the current configuration of the wired LAN. Make suggestions on how to make changes to the wired LAN configuration to accommodate a wireless LAN. Make suggestion on how to reconfigure wired LAN infrastructure equipment to support a wireless LAN. Identify potential design problems associated with network cabling. Identify facts and potential problems with mounting antennas and access points.

4 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-4 Learning Objectives Identify facts on splitter and connectors. Recommend the proper equipment for plenum spaces. Identify what should be included in a site survey document. Define characteristics of RF propagation. Identify proper placements of access points. Identify access points limitations.

5 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-5 Key terms Fire Wall Riser Service Loop NEMA RFP

6 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-6 LAN Infrastructure Awareness

7 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-7 LAN Infrastructure IT personnel already overworked and not looking to increase workload Customer expects a professional, detailed, all inclusive site survey A good site survey and report will lead to future business for your company

8 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-8 LAN Infrastructure (cont.) Get to know the customer’s network Know topologies Have an IT representative walk you through the facility and show you the network

9 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-9 LAN Infrastructure - Media Know the types and the limitations Copper vs. Fiber Access points provide copper connections only Transceivers

10 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-10 Operating Systems, Protocols, and Drivers Operating Systems used on Clients Protocol need for the wireless LAN Not all O/S have supporting drivers

11 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-11 Switches Ability for each port to be seen as a “virtual” LAN Not “just fancy hubs”

12 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-12 Switches (cont.) Designed for stationary users See mobile devices as wandering from VLAN to VLAN Accommodate Cisco Aironet Access Points Switch VLAN 1 VLAN 2

13 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-13 Switches (cont.) VLAN 1 VLAN 2 VLAN 3 STOP Host Switch Data

14 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-14 Switches (cont.) Group devices on a single VLANs Host Switch Data

15 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-15 Switches (cont.) VLAN Host Switch Data

16 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-16 VLAN 100 VLAN 102 VLAN 101 VLAN 102 Switches (cont.) Use VLANs to propagate across access points Access points handle up to 16 VLANs Use a router to span across VLANs

17 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-17 Routers Present considerations similar to switches Stop broadcast packets Must be configured for IP Helper Address in order to pass DHCP packets May indicate Remote host May require static route Need for support of Proxy Mobile IP

18 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-18 Other Considerations DHCP addresses for mobile users on VLANs Application “least common denominator” VLAN 1 Host

19 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-19 Proxy Mobile IP Laptop AP AP Before Roam Client is in the subnet of AP. All traffic directly connecting to client. After Roam Client IP address does not change. Since AP is in a different subnet all traffic must go through router for directions. Home Agent / Foreign Agent

20 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-20 Site Survey Make customer aware of potential problems Be proactive instead of reactive Your chance to help the customer Reputations win further business

21 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-21 Site Survey

22 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-22 RF Propagation Radio waves are reflected just like light waves Can reduce the reflected waves by using directional antennas

23 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-23 RF Propagation (cont.) Waves out of phase will create a “null” or dead spot Use diversity antennas to help overcome nulls When using a single antenna, change the antenna location to overcome the null Nulls

24 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-24 RF Propagation (cont.) If the RF wave is unable to pass through an object, it may suffer from Diffraction Diffraction creates RF “shadows” Shadow

25 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-25 Preparation Prior to arrival Ensure your equipment is operational Configure equipment (if possible) Determine if manlift is needed Who will provide the lift? Make sure batteries are fully charged

26 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-26 Site Survey

27 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-27 Site Survey (cont.)

28 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-28 Channel Selection AP1 Channel 1 AP 4 Channel 1 AP 6 Channel 11 AP 5 Channel 6 AP 3 Channel 11 AP 2 Channel 6

29 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-29 Data Rates Surveyed at 2 Mbps Surveyed at 5.5 Mbps

30 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-30 Antenna Choice, Power Level, & Cell Size

31 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-31 Site Survey Problems Process of trial and error Experience = more trial, less error Talk with other engineers Site surveys can be puzzles More than one solution

32 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-32 Site Survey Problems (cont.) Frustration and laziness are your enemies Take a break May be necessary to start survey over Always design the WLAN properly Do not try and “force” your original plan to work

33 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-33 Site Survey

34 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-34 Freezers Freezer 0 o FFreezer -5 o FFreezer -20 o F Perishable Goods 36 o F

35 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-35 Antenna Splitters Freezer WRONG! OK 2.4 GHz Technology

36 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-36 Multi-floor Survey AP 1 AP 2 AP 4 AP 3

37 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-37 Site Survey Trauma Room No coverage

38 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-38 Interference Coverage cell seems small in comparison with previously surveyed access points Coverage from access point seems to be intermittent Mount antennas in open areas for best RF propagation Look for objects that may interfere with RF signal May need to use Spectrum Analyzer to find interference

39 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-39 Interference (cont.) Cardboard Wood Paper Electrical Transformers Microwave Ovens Fluorescent Lighting Firewalls

40 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-40 Mounting and Installation

41 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-41 WLAN Design Considerations Access points have to be connected to the network Should be familiar with: Network components Media Topology Need to have some knowledge

42 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-42 Plenum A compartment or chamber to which one or more air ducts are connected Forms part of the air distribution system Cat 5 cable available in plenum and non-plenum Non-plenum sheath is PVC and gives off toxic fumes when melted

43 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-43 Plenum (cont.) Cat 5 available Plenum Non-Plenum Plenum areas Egg crate ceiling tiles No insulation Firewalls Non-plenum areas use ducting in plenum for air return

44 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-44 Plenum (cont.) No chance for toxic fumes to get inside the ducting Non-plenum areas Ductwork Lack of firewalls Insulation

45 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-45 Firewalls Easily identified Act as barriers to contain fires Hinders 2.4 GHz signal Stops 5 GHz signal

46 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-46 Firewalls (cont.) Some firewalls may have doors Fire doors can hamper the RF signal as well Survey with doors closed Automatic Fire Doors

47 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-47 Risers Sometimes referred to as “wiring closets” Used for wiring between floors Stacked on top of each other Riser walls are firewalls If a riser is plenum-rated, only install plenum rated equipment

48 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0— Series Access Point Mounting Mounting holes Mounting solutions Concrete Drywall I-Beam Ceiling Secure the access points

49 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-49 Mounting on a Horizontal or Vertical Surface

50 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-50 Mounting on a Suspended Ceiling

51 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-51 Attaching and Securing the Access Point to the Mounting Bracket

52 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0— Series AP: Variety of Mounting Configurations Wall Mount Desktop Stand Hang on Cube Wall Ceiling Mount

53 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-53 Access Point Mounting (cont.) Do not cover access point lights Mount “upside-down” so Ethernet indicator lights can be seen from the floor Label access points

54 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-54 Antenna Mounting Some antennas not shipped with mounting brackets Modify brackets Fit your needs Can be used with a variety of antennas Ceiling Mount Mast Mount Patch

55 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-55 Antenna Mounting (cont.) Solid and secure Do not hang antennas by their cable Cable can break or become damaged Antenna can sway and provide a “moving cell”

56 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-56 Antenna Mounting (cont.) Sometimes antennas are mounted in unusual ways Specify in your report exactly how the antenna is to be mounted

57 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-57 NEMA Enclosures Protect equipment in harsh environments NEMA - National Electronics Manufacturers Association Rating system - NEMA

58 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-58 NEMA Enclosures (cont.) NEMA type 2, 4, 4x most commonly used for WLAN equipment Can be purchased through local hardware distributors Do not come equipped for WLAN equipment

59 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-59 NEMA Enclosures (cont.) Mounting plate with standoffs Bulkhead Extender External Antenna Connector Electrical Workbox

60 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-60 NEMA Enclosures (cont.) Pre-fabricated NEMA enclosures are available with all of the necessary connections Special NEMA enclosures are available with solar panels or temperature control Make sure NEMA enclosures are mounted securely to avoid injury or damaged equipment

61 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-61 Antenna Extension Cables Antenna and access point location Cisco offers LMR 400 style cables –20 and 50 ft. –Total loss of 1.3 and 3.4 dB respectively LMR 600 style cables –100 and 150 ft. –Total loss of 4.4 and 6.6 dB respectively

62 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-62 Antenna Extension Cables (cont.) Consider loss for cables and connectors Use Cat 5 cable to locate access point as close to antenna as possible Can buy custom length cables from third party companies

63 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-63 RP-TNC Connectors RP-TNC connectors available from Cisco RG-58 should not be used for extension cables N-style extension cables Jumpers As much as 3.5 dBi loss

64 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-64 Splitters Understand losses attributable to splitters Most use N-style connectors RP-TNC splitters are available Splitter attaches to access point and antennas using extension cable jumpers Jumpers are LMR 400 cables

65 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-65 Splitters (cont.) Each antenna connected to the splitter suffers 4 dBi loss Doubles Number of antennas Not the coverage area

66 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-66 Documentation

67 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-67 Site Survey Report Is the deliverable Customer needs detailed information All information gathered during the site survey should be included in the report Site Survey Report

68 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-68 Site Survey Report (cont.) Be as specific as possible You are the surveyor; you may not be the installer Report is protection for you and your customer Date your report

69 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-69 Site Survey Report (cont.) Be very specific when describing locations Use objects and facility markers Do not use object or markers that may be temporary

70 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-70 Site Survey Report (cont.) Antenna orientation Not all installers familiar with the equipment The more directional an antenna, the more important the orientation description

71 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-71 Site Survey Report (cont.) Describe the facility Discuss tools used and survey methods Mention settings used for survey Describe and diagram access point coverage Mark areas that are covered as well as those not needing coverage Have customer sign and return a copy of the report

72 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-72 Site Survey Report (cont.) Proper access point, antenna, and power mounting Proposed cabling runs System components Future expansion Site survey objective

73 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-73 Site Survey Report (cont.) Parts List Access points Antennas Accessories and network components Diagrams Photographs

74 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-74 Site Survey Report (cont.) List contacts Name Company Address Phone & Fax List contacts for all companies involved

75 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—10-75 Summary Identify potential difficulties that may arise while designing a wireless LAN due to the current configuration of the wired LAN. Make suggestions on how to make changes to the wired LAN configuration to accommodate a wireless LAN. Make suggestion on how to reconfigure wired LAN infrastructure equipment to support a wireless LAN. Identify potential design problems associated with network cabling. Identify facts and potential problems with mounting antennas and access points. Identify facts on splitter and connectors. Recommend the proper equipment for plenum spaces. Identify what should be included in a site survey document. Identify proper placements of access points.

76 76 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


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