2Tools and Equipment A thorough knowledge of equipment is essential. All kitchen personnel need to be orientated on the proper usage, cleaning, and safety of all equipment.Modern cooking and food processing equipment has an extraordinary capacity to burn, cut, smash, mangle, and amputate parts of the tender human body.Never use a piece of equipment until you are thoroughly familiar with its operation and all its features.You must learn how to know when a machine is not operating correctly.
3Tools and Equipment Not All Models Are Alike It is important to study the operating manual supplied with each item or to be taught by someone who already knows that item well and has operated it.
4Tools and Equipment Cleaning Cleaning is part of the operating procedure!Thorough, regular cleaning of ALL equipment is essential.Most large equipment can be partially disassembled for cleaning.Operating manuals should describe these procedures in detail.
5Tools and Equipment Cleaning Look for equipment models that have been tested and certified by recognized agencies that certify products and write standards.
6Tools and Equipment Conserve Energy Know the preheating time for all your cooking equipment so you don’t need to turn it on before necessary.Plan production so equipment that requires a lot of energy is not on for long periods when not in use.
7Your Hands Are Your Best Tools Tools and EquipmentYour Hands Are Your Best ToolsMachines are intended to be laborsaving devices.The usefulness of specialized processing equipment depends on the volume of food it handles.It takes less time for certain preparations to complete by hand, versus setting up, using, breaking down, and cleaning equipment.This is why it is important to develop good manual skills.
8Cooking Equipment Rangetops The range is still the most important piece of cooking equipment in the kitchen.Many of its functions have been taken over by other tools such as steamers, steam kettles, tilting skillets, and ovens.
9Cooking Equipment Rangetops Open Elements Either electric coils or gas flames.Fastest to heat and can be turned off after short use.Cooktop space is limited to one pot per burner.
10Cooking Equipment Rangetops Flattop or Hot Top (lightweight) Burners covered with steel plate.More cook space is available.Top supports moderately heavy weights.
11Cooking Equipment Rangetops Heavy-duty Flattop Burners covered with heavy cast steel.Top supports many heavy pots.Requires longer preheating.Ring-top range is a type of flat top that has removable rings.Allows access to more intense heat from the flames below.
12Cooking Equipment Rangetops Induction Cooktop Top of an induction unit does not become hot.Works by magnetically agitating the molecules in steel or iron cookware.Aluminum pots and pans sandwiched between layers of stainless steel will also work.Much less energy is used.No open flame; kitchen stays cooler.Only pots, pans and their contents become hot.
13Cooking Equipment Ovens & Rangetops The oven and the rangetop are the two workhorses of the traditional kitchen.They are often found in the same unit.
14Cooking Equipment Ovens Enclosed spaces in which food is heated, usually by hot air.Or, by microwaves or infrared radiation.Used for roasting and baking.Foods can also be simmered, stewed, braised, or poached in the oven.This helps to free up the rangetop and the chef’s attention for other tasks.
15Cooking Equipment Ovens Ovens for high volume or specialty use: Conveyor oven: carries foods through the oven on a steel conveyor belt.Holding oven or warmer: designed to hold foods at serving temperatures for extended periods without drying out or overcooking.Roll-in oven: high-volume oven with large doors into which one can roll carts loaded with trays of food.
16Cooking Equipment Ovens Conventional Ovens Operate simply by heating air in an enclosed space.Most common ovens are part of the range unit.Separate oven units or ovens as part of a broiler unit are also available.
17Cooking Equipment Ovens Stack Ovens Consist of individual shelves or decks arranged one above the other.Pans are placed directly on the oven deck.Temperatures are adjustable for each deck.
18Cooking Equipment Ovens Convection Ovens Contain fans that circulate the air and distribute the heat rapidly throughout the interior.Foods cook more quickly at lower temperatures due to the forced air.Shelves can be placed closer together than in conventional ovens without blocking the heat flow.
19Cooking Equipment Ovens Revolving Ovens Slow-Cook-and-Hold Ovens Large chambers containing many shelves or trays on an attachment like a Ferris wheel.Also called reel ovens.Slow-Cook-and-Hold OvensMore sophisticated features.Computerized electronic controls.Special probes that sense when a roast is done and tell the oven to switch from cooking temperature to holding temperature.
20Cooking Equipment Ovens Combination Steamer Ovens Also called a combi oven.Can be operated in three modes:as a convection ovenas a convection steameras a high-humidity oven
21Cooking Equipment Ovens Barbecue or Smoke Ovens Are like conventional ovens.Produces wood smoke, which surrounds the food.Adds flavor while it bakes or roasts.Special woods such as hickory, mesquite, or fruitwoods such as apple or cherry must be added.
22Cooking Equipment Ovens Infrared or Reconstituting Ovens Contain quartz tubes or plates that generate intense infrared heat.Used primarily for reconstituting frozen foods.These ovens bring large quantities of foods to serving temperature in a short time.
23Cooking Equipment Ovens Woodburning Ovens Ancient ovens were made of heavy masonry, brick, or clay.Heated by building a wood fire inside them.Woodburning ovens have once again come into fairly wide use.
24Cooking Equipment Ovens Microwave Ovens Special tubes generate microwave radiation.Create heat inside the food.
25Broilers and Salamanders Cooking EquipmentBroilers and SalamandersSometimes called overhead broilers.Generate heat from above.Food items are placed on a grate beneath the heat source.
26Cooking Equipment Grills Same cooking operations as broilers. Heat source (gas, electricity, or charcoal) is below the grid that holds the food.Charcoal taste is created by smoke from meat fats that drip into the heat source.
27Cooking Equipment Griddles Flat, smooth, heated surfaces on which food is cooked directly.Available as separate units or as part of a rangetop.
28Cooking Equipment Rotisseries Cooks meats and other foods by turning them slowly in front of electric or gas-powered heating elements.Especially suitable for chicken and other poultry.Can be used to cook any meat or other food.Drip pans catch juices, which can be used for basting or making gravy.
29Cooking Equipment Deep Fat Fryers Cooks foods in hot fat Standard Deep FryersPowered by either gas or electricity.Thermostatic controls maintain fat at preset temperatures.
30Cooking Equipment Deep Fat Fryers Automatic Fryers Pressure Fryers Remove food from the fat automatically after a preset time.Pressure FryersCovered fry kettles that fry foods under pressure.Foods cook faster.
31Cooking Equipment Tilting Skillets Also known as: Can be used as: Tilting brazier and tilting fry pan.Has a tilting mechanism that enables liquids to be poured out of it.Can be used as:a griddlefry panbrazierstewpotstockpotsteamerbain-marie or steam table
32Steam-Jacketed Kettles Cooking EquipmentSteam-Jacketed KettlesHeated not just on the bottom but on the sides as well.Heats much more quickly .Has more uniform and controllable heat than pots on the range.
33Steam-Jacketed Kettles Cooking EquipmentSteam-Jacketed KettlesTilt or Trunnion Kettles can be tilted for emptying.Non-tilt kettles are emptied by a spigot and drain on the bottom.Heat is controlled by regulating the steam flow or by adjusting the thermostat.
34Cooking Equipment Steam Cookers Ideal for cooking foods rapidly and with minimum loss of nutrients and flavor.Pressure Steamers: cooks foods under a pressure of:15 pounds per square inch (1.05 kg/cm) in high-pressure steamers4-6 pounds per square inch ( kg/cm) in low-pressure steamersDoor cannot be opened until the pressure returns to zero
35Cooking Equipment Steam Cookers Pressure-less Steamers or Convection SteamersThis type does not operate under pressure.Jets of steam are directed at the food.This speeds the heat transfer.Door can be opened any time during cooking.
36Processing Equipment Mixers Bench Type Mixers Floor Mixers Range in capacity from 5 to 20 quarts.Floor MixersAvailable as large as 140 quarts.Adaptor rings enable several bowl sizes to be used on one machine.Most mixers have three operating speeds.
37Processing Equipment Mixers Agitator Attachments The paddle is a flat blade used for general mixing.The wire whip is used for such tasks as beating.The dough arm is used for mixing and kneading yeast dough.
38Processing Equipment Food Chopper Also known as the Buffalo Chopper Used for general food chopping.Variety of attachments makes it a versatile tool.
39Attachments for Mixers and Food Choppers Processing EquipmentAttachments for Mixers and Food ChoppersFood GrinderUsed mostly for grinding meats.Other moist foods may be ground also.Food is forced through a feed tube into a screw.This pushes the food through holes in a plate.At this point it is cut by a rotating blade.The size of the plate’s holes regulates the fineness of the grind.
40Attachments for Mixers and Food Choppers Processing EquipmentAttachments for Mixers and Food ChoppersSlicer/ShredderConsists of a hopper and a lever that feeds the food onto a rotating disk or plate.The plate cuts or shreds the food and into a receiving container.Slicing plate may be adjusted to cut various thicknesses.
41Attachments for Mixers and Food Choppers Processing EquipmentAttachments for Mixers and Food ChoppersDicerAttachment forces foods through a grid-type blade that cuts them into perfect dice.Blades of different sizes may be used.
42Processing Equipment Slicer Slices foods more evenly and uniformly than can be done by hand.Blades set at an angle.Slices fall away from these blades.
43Processing Equipment Food Processer Used to chop or purée foods. To mix or emulsify.They can also slice, shred, and julienne foods.
44Processing Equipment Blender Used to mix, purée, and emulsify liquids. Also used to prepare certain drinks.
45Processing Equipment Sous Vide Equipment Chamber vacuum packer: machine pulls the air from a specially designed plastic bag containing food item and seals the bag.
46Processing Equipment Sous Vide Equipment Immersion Circulator Has a heating element, a pump that constantly circulates the water, and a temperature control.It is used to heat the water in a hot-water bath to a steady temperature within a fraction of a degree.
47Holding and Storage Equipment Steam TableDesigned to hold foods above 135°F (57°C) in order to prevent the growth of bacteria that can cause disease.
48Holding and Storage Equipment Cold Food Storage EquipmentThe refrigerator (known in the trade as the cooler or the box) guards against spoilage and bacterial growth by keeping foods cold, usually, below 41°F (5°C).The walk-in is a room-size refrigerator with built-in shelves on the walls.The reach-in is a standard upright refrigerator that does not have freezer unit.
49Holding and Storage Equipment Cold Food Storage EquipmentThe freezer stores foods purchased in frozen form; used to hold foods for longer times.The walk-in is a room-size freezer with built-in shelves on the walls.The reach-in is a standard upright freezer.