4An Overview Regulatory & Education The Pennsylvania Department of Agricultures Role in the Process:Regulatory & Education
5The Bureau has four divisions: Food Safety Milk Sanitation THE PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BUREAU OF FOOD SAFETY & LABSThe Bureau has four divisions:Food SafetyMilk SanitationLaboratory ServicesEggs, Fruits & Vegetables.
6THE PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Approximately 29,740 public eating and drinking place facilities are licensed and require yearly inspections under Act 369, Public Eating & Drinking Places.An additional 2500 re-inspections are conducted yearly on non-compliant facilities.370 Organized camps licensed by the PA2,842 schools are inspected by Food Sanitarians, and are required under USDA regulations to have two inspections per year; resulting in 5,684 inspections required yearly.300 Summer Food Service Sites (for children) through the PA DOE are inspected yearly.
7THE PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BUREAU OF FOOD SAFETY & LABS Quarterly inspections of the 98 certified shellfish facilities – 396 yearly - are conducted to allow for interstate shipment.Approximately 4500 frozen dessert licenses are issued and Food Sanitarians conduct inspections on an “as needed” basis when firms have non-compliant microbiological counts and has averaged 1500 per year in recent years.Food Sanitarians investigate food vehicle accidents related to food, and average 100 per year. Emergency situations, such as floods, fires, or water potability, are investigated and average 500 inspections yearly.In calendar year 2007, the Division ordered 200 closures of food facilities, and had food disposals of over 1,400,000 lbs of food valued at nearly $900,000.The Division performs investigative inspections of food safety consumer complaints and all reported potential food-borne illnesses averaging approximately 1250 yearly.
8Schools Include High Risk Population Currently, percent of the population is in a high-risk category (i.e., young, older, pregnant, immune-compromised)Young children and infants are at a higher risk for food-borne illness and disease because their immune systems have not fully developed to protect them from harmful bacteria and viruses.
9But we’ve ALWAYS done it this way! We’ve never made anyone sick!
10Food Borne Illnesses EACH YEAR IN THE UNITED STATES: 76 Million Foodborne Illnesses325,000 Hospitalizations5,000 Deaths
12Food Facility Inspection Report PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 2301 N CAMERON ST HARRISBURG, PA Phone: (717)No. of Risk Factor/Intervention Violations 1Date 01/08/2008No. of Repeat Risk Factor/Intervention Violations Time In 09:00 AMOverall Compliance Status INTime Out 10:30 PMFood FacilityAddress 29 COMFORT INN LNCity/State MILL HALL, PAZip CodeTelephone (570)Registration # R038280OwnerPurpose of Inspection RegularLicense Type Permanent E&DRisk Category High
13PDA INSPECTION REPORTRisk factors are improper practices or procedures identified as the most prevalent contributing factors of food-borne illness or injury. Public Health Interventions are control measures to prevent food-borne illness or injury. (first 27 items)
14PDA INSPECTION REPORTFOODBORNE ILLNESS RISK FACTORS AND PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTIONSIN=in compliance OUT=not in compliance N/O=not observed N/A=not applicable COS=corrected on-site during inspection R=repeat violation
15PDA INSPECTION REPORT Demonstration of Knowledge Certification by accredited program, compliance with Code, or correct responsesEmployee HealthManagement awareness; policy presentProper use of reporting; restriction & exclusionGood Hygienic PracticesProper eating, tasting, drinking, or tobacco useNo discharge from eyes, nose, and mouth
16PDA INSPECTION REPORT Preventing Contamination by Hazards Hands clean & properly washedNo bare hand contact with RTE foods or approved alternate method properly followedAdequate hand-washing facilities supplied & accessible
17PDA INSPECTION REPORT Approved Source Food obtained from approved sourceFood received at proper temperatureFood in good condition, safe, & unadulteratedRequired records available: shell-stock tags, parasite destruction
19PDA INSPECTION REPORTPotentially Hazardous Food Time/Temperature Proper cooking time & temperatureProper reheating procedures for hot holdingProper cooling time & temperatureProper hot holding temperatureProper cold holding temperatureProper date marking & dispositionTime as a public health control; procedures & record
20PDA INSPECTION REPORT Consumer Advisory Consumer advisory provided for raw or undercooked foodsHighly Susceptible PopulationPasteurized foods used; prohibited foods not offeredChemicalFood additives: approved & properly usedToxic substances properly identified, stored & usedConformance with Approved ProcedureCompliance with variance, specialized process, & HACCP plan
21PDA INSPECTION REPORT GOOD RETAIL PRACTICES Good Retail Practices are preventative measures to control the addition of pathogens, chemicals, and physical objects into foods.
22PDA INSPECTION REPORT Safe Food and Water Pasteurized eggs used where required Water & ice from approved source Variance obtained for specialized processing methods
23PDA INSPECTION REPORT Food Temperature Control Proper cooling methods used; adequate equipment for temperature control Plant food properly cooked for hot holding Approved thawing methods used Thermometer provided & accurate
24PDA INSPECTION REPORT Food Identification Food properly labeled; original container
25PDA INSPECTION REPORT Prevention of Food Contamination Insects, rodents & animals not present; no unauthorized persons Contamination prevented during food preparation, storage & display Personal cleanliness Wiping cloths: properly used & stored Washing fruit & vegetables
26PDA INSPECTION REPORT Proper Use of Utensils In-use utensils: properly stored Utensils, equipment & linens: properly stored, dried & handled Single-use & single-service articles: properly stored & used Gloves used properly
27PDA INSPECTION REPORT Utensils, Equipment and Vending Food & non-food contact surfaces cleanable, properly designed, constructed, & used Ware-washing facilities: installed, maintained, & used; test strips Non-food contact surfaces clean
28PDA INSPECTION REPORT Physical Facilities Hot & cold water available; adequate pressure Plumbing installed; proper backflow devices Sewage & waste water properly disposed Toilet facilities: properly constructed, supplied, & cleaned Garbage & refuse properly disposed; facilities maintained Physical facilities installed, maintained, & clean Adequate ventilation & lighting; designated areas used
29FOOD-BORNE ILLNESS Causes and Prevention Chapter 3FOOD-BORNE ILLNESSCauses and Prevention
30Foodborne Illness: Causes Hazards: harmful substances that when found in food can cause foodborne illnessChemicalPhysicalBiological
31Chemical Hazards Detergents Sanitizers Chemical Pesticides Naturally occurring fish or plants toxinsMedications
32Chemical Hazards Original containers Label and storage of chemicals Usage of pesticidesToxinsDo not use wild mushroomsPurchase fish & seafood fromapproved vendors
33Physical Hazards Pests Glass Plastic Physical Toothpick Metal False fingernailsJewelryHair
34Figure 2.1 Biological Hazards PathogensSpoilage OrganismsFungiParasitesVirusesBacteriaFoodborneIllnessUnpleasant smell and tasteMicroorganisms
35How Do They Get There?FoundonrawfoodsAddedduringhandlingand
39Bacteria require nutrients to grow oodBacteria require nutrients to growProteinsCarbohydrates
40Figure 2.3 Bacterial Growth 1 bacterium20 minutes=2 bacteria40 minutes4 bacteria4 hours4096 bacteria8 hours17 million bacteria12 hours68 billion bacteriaIf the temperature is right, 1 bacteria may become 68 billion bacteria within 12 hours
55CHAPTER 4:Safe Purchasing, Storage, Preparationand Service
56Receiving FoodLiquid, frozen and dry eggs and egg products shall only be pasteurized.Food packages should be in good condition (not ripped or open) and should protect the food so that it is not exposed to potential contaminants.All food received into the kitchen should have the receiving temperature recorded on log sheets with date and time before storing.All foods received should be visually checked for package integrity, insect and rodent activity before placement into storage.
57Receiving FoodRefrigerated, potentially hazardous food (PHF) should be at 41F or below when arriving at the kitchen.If food is received from that main cafeteria and transported to a satellite school, PHF that is cooked and served hot to students should be 135F or above when arriving at the satellite schools.Food that is labeled frozen and shipped frozen by a food processing plant should be frozen when it arrives at the kitchen.When PHF arrives, check that the food does not show signs of previous temperature abuse (keeping food out of proper temperature for a period of time).
58All food contact surfaces must be washed, rinsed and sanitized. A Clean KitchenAll food contact surfaces must be washed, rinsed and sanitized.Wash: Wash dishes, utensils, cookware, cutting boards, appliances, equipment, and cooking surfaces with hot, soapy water to remove visible soil.
59A Clean Kitchen Rinse: Thoroughly rinse off soap and film. Sanitize: Utilize an approved sanitizer, mixed according to manufacturer direction and using the appropriate water temperature, to sanitize all equipment. Chlorine, Quaternary Ammonia, and Iodine are all approve food contact sanitizers. (See Sanitizing Equipment)Drying: Air dry only. Do not wipe dry. Do not stack or wet net dishes.
60Refrigeration KEEP COLD FOODS AT 41F or BELOW! Immediately cool hot food leftovers at or below 41F. Place food in shallow containers or divide food into smaller containers to quickly cool foods. Covers are not necessary while cooling. Once cooled to 41F or below, then cover or wrap the product.Store raw food products below cooked foods or foods that will not be cooked. Cover foods to help protect from cross-contamination.
61FreezersFreezers must be maintained such that foods remain in a frozen state.Frozen food should be placed in freezer storage immediately after delivery and inspected if not being used that day. If the food is to be used or prepared that day, food should be kept frozen or refrigerated—not held at room temperature.Place an easily visible thermometer in the freezer to record temperatures.Remove food from freezer storage in quantities that can be used immediately.
62Dry StorageDry storage areas should be well ventilated, well lit, clean and protected from pests and excessive heat and moisture.60F to 70F is adequate for dry storage, however, 50F is ideal (with ideal humidity level of 50 % – 60 %).Practice FIFO rotation of foods in storage.
64Schools Include High Risk Population If you are a school who serves children age 6 or below, you are serving a highly susceptible population of children. These are children who are more likely then the general population to acquire a food-borne illness. As such there are a few strict food safety rules that you must adhere to.You may not use time (4 hr rule) in lieu of temperature for control of food. In other words, all food requiring temperature control must be kept about 135F or below 41F at all times.Shell eggs may not be utilized. Only pasteurized egg may be used. Shell egg may be used if combined as an ingredient in another food, such as, cake, baked goods, etc…Un-pasteurized juice may not be served.Undercooked or raw animal derived foods may not be served. Example: ice cream made with raw egg, eggnog, sunny side up eggs, egg fortified beverages.Raw seed sprouts may not be served.
65Changing Trends in the Food System In the past….ProducedProcessedSoldEaten
66Today’s Trends in the Food System Sold & EatenProducedProcessed
67Prevent Cross-contamination Separate raw andRTE foodsUse only food-gradecontainers to store,transport, or hold foodClean and sanitize allequipmentDestroy pathogens toprevent cross-contamination
68Prevention Tips: Prevent cross-contamination of Microorganisms to food contact surfacesSeparate raw & cooked or RTE foodsKeep all equipment & utensilsclean & sanitizedAssure good personal hygiene:Proper hand washingStorage of personal belongingsNO EATING in preparation areas
69§ 46.261. Preventing contamination from food employees' hands. (a) Hand washing required. Food employees shall wash their hands as specified in § (relating to cleanliness of hands and exposed portions of arms). (b) Hand contact with ready-to-eat food. Except when washing fruits and vegetables as specified in § (relating to washing raw fruits and vegetables) or when approved in accordance with subsection (d), food employees may not contact exposed, ready-to-eat food with their bare hands, and shall use suitable utensils such as deli tissue, spatulas, tongs, single-use gloves or dispensing equipment. (c) Hand contact with food that is not ready-to-eat food. Food employees shall minimize bare hand and arm contact with exposed food that is not in a ready-to-eat form.
70§ 46.305. Gloves: use limitations. (a) Single-use gloves. Single-use gloves shall be used for only one task (such as working with ready-to-eat food or with raw animal-derived food), used for no other purpose and discarded when damaged or soiled, or when interruptions occur in the operation.
71Practice Good Personal Hygiene Wash hands:before preparing foodafter using the restroomafter eating or smokingafter touching hair, face, or bodyafter coughing or blowing noseafter handling garbage, cleaning, orclearing tablesbefore beginning each new task
72§ 46.132. Duty of food employees to wash. Food employees shall clean their hands and exposed portions of their arms as specified in § (relating to cleanliness of hands and exposed portions of arms) as follows: Immediately before engaging in food preparation activitiessuch as working with exposed food, working with cleanequipment and utensils, and working with unwrapped single-service and single-use articles. After touching bare human body parts other than clean handsand clean, exposed portions of arms. After using the rest room. Except as specified in § 46.151(a)(2) (relating to foodcontamination prevention), after coughing, sneezing, using ahandkerchief or disposable tissue, using tobacco, eating ordrinking.
73 After handling soiled equipment or utensils. During food preparation, as often asnecessary to remove soil and contaminationand to prevent cross contamination whenchanging tasks. When switching between working with rawfood and working with ready-to-eat food. Before donning gloves for working withfood. After engaging in other activities thatcontaminate the hands.
74§ Jewelry. Food employees may not wear jewelry (including medical information jewelry) on their arms and hands while preparing food. This prohibition does not apply to a plain ring such as a wedding band.
75§ Hair restraints. (a) General requirement. Employees shall wear hair restraints such as hats, hair coverings or nets, beard restraints and clothing that covers body hair, that are effectively designed and worn to keep their hair from contacting exposed food; clean equipment, utensils and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles.
76Safety Through the Flow of Food PurchasingStoragePreparationHoldingCoolingReheatingService
78Thawing Thaw food in the refrigerator at 41F or less Thaw in a microwave oven, only if the foodwill be cooked immediately afterwardThaw food as a part of the cooking process
79Cold Holding Foods should be chilled prior to placing in cold holding equipment such as ice traysor refrigerated displaysCold holding temperatures should betaken at least every 2 hrs
80Hot Holding Consider cooling foods and then reheating when needed Monitor temps every 2 hrs with a calibratedthermometerUse holding equipment such as slow cookers,steam tables, and hot holding carts only for holdingfood and not for cooking or reheatingCover foods and regularly stir to maintain a safetemperature
81Cooling Methods 1. Divide food into shallow pans no more than two inches deepSeparate food into smalleror thinner portionsStir food in a container placedin an ice bathStir food with ice-filled wands
82Cooling NEVER place large quantities of hot food in the refrigerator or freezercool at room temperature
83Service Wash hands before serving food Do not touch RTE foods with bare handsAvoid cross-contamination by assigningspecific duties to each staffAvoid touching surfaces thatwill come into contact with foodUse gloves appropriately
84Clean vs Sanitary CLEAN = SANITARY = Free of visible soil Free from harmful levels of foodborne pathogens
85With a Commercial Dishwasher Follow the manufacturer’s instructionsIf it is a high temp machine, final rinse must reach 1800F – Is the booster on?If it is a low temp machine, is the chlorine on the final rinse 50 ppm? – Do you have test strips to check it?
86Storage of Cleaning Supplies Store all cleaning an sanitizing suppliesaway from food storage & prep areasKeep all chemicals in original containersor clearly marked containers
87Pest Control It is easier to prevent pests from entering a kitchen than to remove them once they arethere
88Trash Tips Provide enough containers to hold the amount of trash expectedUse trash bags in all containersUse lids on all trash containersEmpty oftenKeep it away from food areasfor insect controlClean and sanitize regularlyKeep it from leaking
90The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture Web Site A wealth of information!
91Bureau of Food Safety and Laboratory Services .PA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTUREBureau of Food Safety and Laboratory Services2301 NORTH CAMERON STREETHARRISBURG PA, 17110For further information call1/2008