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2 Chapter 1 An Overview Chapter 2 The Inspection Chapter 3 Food Borne Illness: Causes and Prevention Chapter 4 Safe Purchasing, Storage, Preparation and Service Chapter 5 Good Practice Chapter 6: Conclusions


4 An Overview The Pennsylvania Department of Agricultures Role in the Process: Regulatory & Education

5 THE PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BUREAU OF FOOD SAFETY & LABS The Bureau has four divisions:  Food Safety  Milk Sanitation  Laboratory Services  Eggs, Fruits & Vegetables.

6 THE PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Approximately 29,740 public eating and drinking place facilities are licensed and require yearly inspections under Act 369, Public Eating & Drinking Places. An additional 2500 re-inspections are conducted yearly on non-compliant facilities. 370 Organized camps licensed by the PA 2,842 schools are inspected by Food Sanitarians, and are required under USDA regulations to have two inspections per year; resulting in 5,684 inspections required yearly. 300 Summer Food Service Sites (for children) through the PA DOE are inspected yearly.

7 THE PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BUREAU OF FOOD SAFETY & LABS Quarterly inspections of the 98 certified shellfish facilities – 396 yearly - are conducted to allow for interstate shipment. Approximately 4500 frozen dessert licenses are issued and Food Sanitarians conduct inspections on an “as needed” basis when firms have non-compliant microbiological counts and has averaged 1500 per year in recent years. Food Sanitarians investigate food vehicle accidents related to food, and average 100 per year. Emergency situations, such as floods, fires, or water potability, are investigated and average 500 inspections yearly. In calendar year 2007, the Division ordered 200 closures of food facilities, and had food disposals of over 1,400,000 lbs of food valued at nearly $900,000. The Division performs investigative inspections of food safety consumer complaints and all reported potential food-borne illnesses averaging approximately 1250 yearly.

8 Schools Include High Risk Population Currently, percent of the population is in a high-risk category (i.e., young, older, pregnant, immune-compromised) Young children and infants are at a higher risk for food-borne illness and disease because their immune systems have not fully developed to protect them from harmful bacteria and viruses.

9 We’ve never made anyone sick! But we’ve ALWAYS done it this way!

10 Food Borne Illnesses EACH YEAR IN THE UNITED STATES: 7 6 Million Foodborne Illnesses 3 25,000 Hospitalizations 5,000 Deaths


12 Food Facility Inspection Report PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 2301 N CAMERON ST HARRISBURG, PA Phone: (717) No. of Risk Factor/Intervention Violations 1Date 01/08/20 08 No. of Repeat Risk Factor/Intervention Violations 0 Time In 09:00 AM Overall Compliance Status IN Time Out 10:30 PM Food FacilityAddress 29 COMFORT INN LN City/State MILL HALL, PA Zip Code Telephone (570) Registration # R OwnerPurpose of Inspection Regular License Type Permanent E&D Risk Category High

13 PDA INSPECTION REPORT Risk factors are improper practices or procedures identified as the most prevalent contributing factors of food-borne illness or injury. Public Health Interventions are control measures to prevent food-borne illness or injury. (first 27 items)

14 PDA INSPECTION REPORT FOODBORNE ILLNESS RISK FACTORS AND PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTIONS IN=in compliance OUT=not in compliance N/O=not observed N/A=not applicable COS=corrected on-site during inspection R=repeat violation

15 PDA INSPECTION REPORT Demonstration of Knowledge Certification by accredited program, compliance with Code, or correct responses Employee Health Management awareness; policy present Proper use of reporting; restriction & exclusion Good Hygienic Practices Proper eating, tasting, drinking, or tobacco use No discharge from eyes, nose, and mouth

16 PDA INSPECTION REPORT Preventing Contamination by Hazards  Hands clean & properly washed  No bare hand contact with RTE foods or approved alternate method properly followed  Adequate hand-washing facilities supplied & accessible

17 PDA INSPECTION REPORT Approved Source  Food obtained from approved source  Food received at proper temperature  Food in good condition, safe, & unadulterated  Required records available: shell-stock tags, parasite destruction

18 PDA INSPECTION REPORT Protection From Contamination Food separated & protected Food-contact surfaces: cleaned & sanitized Proper disposition of returned, previously served, reconditioned, & unsafe food

19 PDA INSPECTION REPORT Potentially Hazardous Food Time/Temperature Proper cooking time & temperature  Proper reheating procedures for hot holding  Proper cooling time & temperature  Proper hot holding temperature  Proper cold holding temperature  Proper date marking & disposition  Time as a public health control; procedures & record

20 PDA INSPECTION REPORT Consumer Advisory Consumer advisory provided for raw or undercooked foods Highly Susceptible Population Pasteurized foods used; prohibited foods not offered Chemical Food additives: approved & properly used Toxic substances properly identified, stored & used Conformance with Approved Procedure Compliance with variance, specialized process, & HACCP plan

21 PDA INSPECTION REPORT GOOD RETAIL PRACTICES Good Retail Practices are preventative measures to control the addition of pathogens, chemicals, and physical objects into foods.

22 PDA INSPECTION REPORT Safe Food and Water Pasteurized eggs used where required Water & ice from approved source Variance obtained for specialized processing methods

23 PDA INSPECTION REPORT Food Temperature Control Proper cooling methods used; adequate equipment for temperature control Plant food properly cooked for hot holding Approved thawing methods used Thermometer provided & accurate

24 PDA INSPECTION REPORT Food Identification Food properly labeled; original container

25 PDA INSPECTION REPORT Prevention of Food Contamination Insects, rodents & animals not present; no unauthorized persons Contamination prevented during food preparation, storage & display Personal cleanliness Wiping cloths: properly used & stored Washing fruit & vegetables

26 PDA INSPECTION REPORT Proper Use of Utensils In-use utensils: properly stored Utensils, equipment & linens: properly stored, dried & handled Single-use & single-service articles: properly stored & used Gloves used properly

27 PDA INSPECTION REPORT Utensils, Equipment and Vending Food & non-food contact surfaces cleanable, properly designed, constructed, & used Ware-washing facilities: installed, maintained, & used; test strips Non-food contact surfaces clean

28 PDA INSPECTION REPORT Physical Facilities Hot & cold water available; adequate pressure Plumbing installed; proper backflow devices Sewage & waste water properly disposed Toilet facilities: properly constructed, supplied, & cleaned Garbage & refuse properly disposed; facilities maintained Physical facilities installed, maintained, & clean Adequate ventilation & lighting; designated areas used

29 Chapter 3 FOOD-BORNE ILLNESS Causes and Prevention

30 Foodborne Illness: Causes Hazards: harmful substances that when found in food can cause foodborne illness BiologicalChemicalPhysical

31 Chemical Hazards Chemical Detergents Sanitizers Pesticides Naturally occurring fish or plants toxins Medications

32 Chemical Hazards Original containers Label and storage of chemicals Usage of pesticides Toxins 1.Do not use wild mushrooms 2.Purchase fish & seafood from approved vendors

33 Physical Hazards Physical Pests Glass Plastic Toothpick Metal False fingernails Jewelry Hair

34 Figure 2.1 Biological Hazards Pathogens Spoilage Organisms Fungi Parasites Viruses Bacteria Foodborne Illness Unpleasant smell and taste Microorganisms

35 How Do They Get There? Added during handling and Found on raw foods

36 Biological Hazards Biological Bacteria Viruses Parasites Fungi

37 BACTERIA Bacterial Spores Bacterial Toxins

38 Foodborne Pathogens SeeSmellTaste

39 ood Proteins Carbohydrates Bacteria require nutrients to grow

40 Figure 2.3 Bacterial Growth If the temperature is right, 1 bacteria may become 68 billion bacteria within 12 hours 1 bacterium 20 minutes = 2 bacteria 40 minutes = 4 bacteria 4 hours = 4096 bacteria 8 hours = 17 million bacteria 12 hours = 68 billion bacteria

41 cidity Neutral Alkaline | | |-- pH 0 pH 7 pH 14 Lemons/ Limes Mayonnaise Raw chicken Egg yolks Ham Acidic PHFs > 4.6

42 ime It takes both for bacteria to grow: 0 minutes = 1 bacterial cell 20 minutes = 2 bacterial cells 40 minutes = 4 bacterial cells 12 hours = > 68 billion cells time & temperature

43 emperature = above 41  F to below 135  F Bacteria grow best in the TDZ Keep food out of the TDZ “Temperature Danger Zone”

44 oisture Bacteria need to grow moisture

45 xygen Bacteria have different requirements for growth Some need oxygen to grow Some grow only when oxygen is absent Some can grow with or without oxygen

46 Stop Bacterial Growth Time and Temperature CONTROL

47 Viruses Need a living host

48 Parasites Need a living host

49 Parasites

50 Microorganisms & Illness Generally, as the number of microorganisms increase, the likelihood of illness increases No m/o’s Thousands of m/o’s Millions of m/o’s

51 Susceptible People No m/o’s m/o’s As few as microorganisms can make some people ill or very sick

52 How long does it take? Depending on the type of foodborne illness, symptoms may occur within ½ hour to 50 days after ingesting the food Infection Intoxication Toxin-mediated infection

53 Conditions That Lead to Foodborne Illness Time-temperature abuse Cross-contamination Poor personal hygiene

54 Fungi Mold & Yeast

55 CHAPTER 4: Safe Purchasing, Storage, Preparation and Service

56 Receiving Food Liquid, frozen and dry eggs and egg products shall only be pasteurized. Food packages should be in good condition (not ripped or open) and should protect the food so that it is not exposed to potential contaminants. All food received into the kitchen should have the receiving temperature recorded on log sheets with date and time before storing. All foods received should be visually checked for package integrity, insect and rodent activity before placement into storage.

57 Receiving Food Refrigerated, potentially hazardous food (PHF) should be at 41  F or below when arriving at the kitchen. If food is received from that main cafeteria and transported to a satellite school, PHF that is cooked and served hot to students should be 135  F or above when arriving at the satellite schools. Food that is labeled frozen and shipped frozen by a food processing plant should be frozen when it arrives at the kitchen. When PHF arrives, check that the food does not show signs of previous temperature abuse (keeping food out of proper temperature for a period of time).

58 A Clean Kitchen All food contact surfaces must be washed, rinsed and sanitized. Wash: Wash dishes, utensils, cookware, cutting boards, appliances, equipment, and cooking surfaces with hot, soapy water to remove visible soil.

59 A Clean Kitchen Rinse: Thoroughly rinse off soap and film. Sanitize: Utilize an approved sanitizer, mixed according to manufacturer direction and using the appropriate water temperature, to sanitize all equipment. Chlorine, Quaternary Ammonia, and Iodine are all approve food contact sanitizers. (See Sanitizing Equipment) Drying: Air dry only. Do not wipe dry. Do not stack or wet net dishes.

60 Refrigeration KEEP COLD FOODS AT 41  F or BELOW! Immediately cool hot food leftovers at or below 41  F. Place food in shallow containers or divide food into smaller containers to quickly cool foods. Covers are not necessary while cooling. Once cooled to 41  F or below, then cover or wrap the product. Store raw food products below cooked foods or foods that will not be cooked. Cover foods to help protect from cross-contamination.

61 Freezers Freezers must be maintained such that foods remain in a frozen state. Frozen food should be placed in freezer storage immediately after delivery and inspected if not being used that day. If the food is to be used or prepared that day, food should be kept frozen or refrigerated— not held at room temperature. Place an easily visible thermometer in the freezer to record temperatures. Remove food from freezer storage in quantities that can be used immediately.

62 Dry Storage Dry storage areas should be well ventilated, well lit, clean and protected from pests and excessive heat and moisture. 60  F to 70  F is adequate for dry storage, however, 50  F is ideal (with ideal humidity level of 50 % – 60 %). Practice FIFO rotation of foods in storage.

63 CHAPTER 5: Good Practice

64 Schools Include High Risk Population  If you are a school who serves children age 6 or below, you are serving a highly susceptible population of children. These are children who are more likely then the general population to acquire a food-borne illness. As such there are a few strict food safety rules that you must adhere to.  You may not use time (4 hr rule) in lieu of temperature for control of food. In other words, all food requiring temperature control must be kept about 135  F or below 41  F at all times.  Shell eggs may not be utilized. Only pasteurized egg may be used. Shell egg may be used if combined as an ingredient in another food, such as, cake, baked goods, etc…  Un-pasteurized juice may not be served.  Undercooked or raw animal derived foods may not be served. Example: ice cream made with raw egg, eggnog, sunny side up eggs, egg fortified beverages.  Raw seed sprouts may not be served.

65 Changing Trends in the Food System In the past…. Produced Processed Sold Eaten

66 Today’s Trends in the Food System Produced Processed Sold & Eaten

67 Prevent Cross-contamination Separate raw and RTE foods Use only food-grade containers to store, transport, or hold food Clean and sanitize all equipment Destroy pathogens to prevent cross- contamination

68 Prevention Tips: Prevent cross-contamination of Microorganisms to food contact surfaces 1.Separate raw & cooked or RTE foods 2.Keep all equipment & utensils clean & sanitized Assure good personal hygiene: 1.Proper hand washing 2. Storage of personal belongings 3. NO EATING in preparation areas

69 (a) Hand washing required. Food employees shall wash their hands as specified in § (relating to cleanliness of hands and exposed portions of arms). (b) Hand contact with ready-to-eat food. Except when washing fruits and vegetables as specified in § (relating to washing raw fruits and vegetables) or when approved in accordance with subsection (d), food employees may not contact exposed, ready-to-eat food with their bare hands, and shall use suitable utensils such as deli tissue, spatulas, tongs, single-use gloves or dispensing equipment. (c) Hand contact with food that is not ready-to-eat food. Food employees shall minimize bare hand and arm contact with exposed food that is not in a ready-to-eat form. § Preventing contamination from food employees' hands.

70 (a) Single-use gloves. Single-use gloves shall be used for only one task (such as working with ready-to-eat food or with raw animal-derived food), used for no other purpose and discarded when damaged or soiled, or when interruptions occur in the operation. § Gloves: use limitations.

71 Practice Good Personal Hygiene Wash hands: before preparing food after using the restroom after eating or smoking after touching hair, face, or body after coughing or blowing nose after handling garbage, cleaning, or clearing tables before beginning each new task

72 Food employees shall clean their hands and exposed portions of their arms as specified in § (relating to cleanliness of hands and exposed portions of arms) as follows: Immediately before engaging in food preparation activities such as working with exposed food, working with clean equipment and utensils, and working with unwrapped single- service and single-use articles. After touching bare human body parts other than clean hands and clean, exposed portions of arms. After using the rest room. Except as specified in § (a)(2) (relating to food contamination prevention), after coughing, sneezing, using a handkerchief or disposable tissue, using tobacco, eating or drinking. § Duty of food employees to wash.

73 After handling soiled equipment or utensils. During food preparation, as often as necessary to remove soil and contamination and to prevent cross contamination when changing tasks. When switching between working with raw food and working with ready-to-eat food. Before donning gloves for working with food. After engaging in other activities that contaminate the hands.

74 Food employees may not wear jewelry (including medical information jewelry) on their arms and hands while preparing food. This prohibition does not apply to a plain ring such as a wedding band. § Jewelry.

75 (a) General requirement. Employees shall wear hair restraints such as hats, hair coverings or nets, beard restraints and clothing that covers body hair, that are effectively designed and worn to keep their hair from contacting exposed food; clean equipment, utensils and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles. § Hair restraints.

76 Safety Through the Flow of Food Purchasing Storage Preparation Holding Cooling Reheating Service

77 Figure 4.1: Thermometers TypesCalibrationUse

78 Thawing Thaw food in the refrigerator at 41  F or less Thaw in a microwave oven, only if the food will be cooked immediately afterward Thaw food as a part of the cooking process

79 Cold Holding Foods should be chilled prior to placing in cold holding equipment such as ice trays or refrigerated displays Cold holding temperatures should be taken at least every 2 hrs

80 Hot Holding Consider cooling foods and then reheating when needed Monitor temps every 2 hrs with a calibrated thermometer Use holding equipment such as slow cookers, steam tables, and hot holding carts only for holding food and not for cooking or reheating Cover foods and regularly stir to maintain a safe temperature

81 Cooling Methods 1. Divide food into shallow pans no more than two inches deep 2.Separate food into smaller or thinner portions 3.Stir food in a container placed in an ice bath 4.Stir food with ice-filled wands

82 Cooling NEVER place large quantities of hot food in the refrigerator or freezer NEVER cool at room temperature

83 Service Wash hands before serving food Do not touch RTE foods with bare hands Avoid cross-contamination by assigning specific duties to each staff Avoid touching surfaces that will come into contact with food Use gloves appropriately

84 Clean vs Sanitary Free from harmful levels of foodborne pathogens CLEAN = SANITARY = Free of visible soil

85 With a Commercial Dishwasher Follow the manufacturer’s instructions If it is a high temp machine, final rinse must reach F – Is the booster on? If it is a low temp machine, is the chlorine on the final rinse 50 ppm? – Do you have test strips to check it?

86 Storage of Cleaning Supplies Store all cleaning an sanitizing supplies away from food storage & prep areas Keep all chemicals in original containers or clearly marked containers

87 Pest Control It is easier to prevent pests from entering a kitchen than to remove them once they are there

88 Trash Tips Provide enough containers to hold the amount of trash expected Use trash bags in all containers Use lids on all trash containers Empty often Keep it away from food areas for insect control Clean and sanitize regularly Keep it from leaking

89 CHAPTER 6: Conclusions

90 The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture Web Site A wealth of information!

91 . PA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Bureau of Food Safety and Laboratory Services 2301 NORTH CAMERON STREET HARRISBURG PA, For further information call /2008


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