Presentation on theme: "India-US HFC workshop: February 18, New Delhi WELCOME By - Alex Pachai & Kishor Patil Technical Options for Commercial Refrigeration / Transport Refrigeration."— Presentation transcript:
India-US HFC workshop: February 18, New Delhi WELCOME By - Alex Pachai & Kishor Patil Technical Options for Commercial Refrigeration / Transport Refrigeration / Large Chillers GWP-driven policy pressure on HFCs,Potential transition options & challenges, Expected transition timeline and viability
“High” and “Low” GWP are relative terms and dependant on: Application (mobile or stationary) Average leak rate from the equipment Recovery rate at the end of life 95% of global HFC use is currently between 700 and 4000 GWP TEAP Proposed (May 2010) to classify GWPs by considering “Use Patterns” GWPClassification GWP<30Ultra-low-GWP GWP < 100Very low-GWP GWP < 300Low-GWP GWP < 1000Moderate-GWP GWP < 3000High-GWP GWP < 10,000Very High GWP GWP < 10,000Ultra-High GWP 150 GWP 300 – 800 GWP THE ACCEPTABLE LEVEL OF GWP WILL DEPEND ON EQUIPMENT TYPE, APPLICATION, AND RECOVERY Result: Different acceptable levels of GWP
Johnson Controls3 Equipment manufactures will only consider options that will result in safe and affordable application. ASHRAE Standard 34: Adoption of the “2L” designation for refrigerants with low flammability in 2010. Equipment Room Safety and electrical codes (ASHRAE Standard 15, UL1995, etc.) must now be modified to ensure safe use. Example: Recent EPA ruling allowing propane and isobutane in residential refrigerators and freezers: Maximum charge amount Specific applications Prescribed safety code compliance Result: The process of adapting safety codes will pace the adoption of many flammable and natural refrigerant options. This will require industry and government cooperation. THE ROLE OF SAFETY CODES ON REFRIGERANT OPTIONS D
Next Generation Low GWP Refrigerants: Natural Refrigerants: (NH3, CO2, Hydrocarbons, etc.) Properties and characteristics have not changed: Flammability Toxicity High Working Pressure Low Efficiency Our ability to engineer solutions has improved since the early 1900s---Primarily Refrigeration and mobile AC applications. Low GWP Man-Made Refrigerants: HFO-1234yf: Leading candidate to replace R-134a in mobile/ automotive applications Low GWP (4), no Toxicity, slightly flammable. May eventually have application in stationary HVAC equipment but will require significant engineering and safety code changes to make practical. HFO-1234ze: Properties are good for Foam Blowing, not for HVAC applications. HFO/HFC/? Blends: Better Performance at the cost of higher GWP Significant technical and legislative challenges
Johnson Controls5 Safety: Toxicity Flammability Pressure Sustainability: No ODP (What does this mean?) Balance of low GWP and energy efficiency. 95% of total Global Warming impact is from energy use, while only 5% from GWP. We must achieve balance for the environment. Economic Cost and application fit: Adoption is dependant on affordability & fit with application requirements New challenges For The Adoption Of Replacements We cannot limit options with a single refrigerant policy. Instead, we will need to choose the best long-term refrigerant for each application. D
When do “natural” refrigerants make sense in Chillers? Natural Refrigerants remain excellent solutions in some very specific chiller applications: Ammonia Hydrocarbons Water (Li-Br Absorption and Vapor Compression) Energy Efficiency of resulting Systems must remain at HFC levels: Industrial Refrigeration: Ammonia Used in 95% of Applications Hydrocarbons have very high efficiency and very low GWP System Cost and safety thresholds can be a Barrier to Adoption: Remote locations, secondary loops and safety mitigation Safety Measures or material compatibility can result in higher costs Hydrocarbon Ammonia
When do HFO and HFCs make sense in Chillers? Because of the requirements of safety, efficiency and cost, chemical refrigerants will likely remain an option: HFOs HFCs Blends of HFOs & HFCs Equipment Size and application will dictate types used: Large Commercial Air-Conditioning Applications Commercial Roof-top Equipment Refrigeration Applications in Populated Areas/Buildings Most Economical Solution: Technology and material compatibility already exist Viable solution for conversion/retrofit of existing equipment
When do “flammable” refrigerants make sense in Chillers? Several of the most efficient and lowest GWP refrigerants have some level of flammability. Its use in chillers is dependant upon: Charge Amount Relative Level of Flammability (flame speed, energy of combustion) Location of Equipment (Indoor/Outdoor) Cost of required safety measures Precedence exists for use in certain applications: Industrial Refrigeration and Process Cooling Will require Code and Standard Changes for Com/Res AC Duty: Classification under ASHRAE Standard 34 (January 2010) Safety Code Changes: ASHRAE Standard 15, UL 1995, etc. HFO 1234yf? Hydrocarbon R-32?
Fluid Development Timeline Blend of Existing FluidsNew Fluid Year - Screen candidates via modeling - Stability/compatibility testing - Select preferred blend - Request regulatory approvals (ASHRAE, SNAP) - Secure source of supply - Commercialize - Customer/field testing - In house system testing - Put supply chain in place - Product literature/stewardship 5 3 4 2 1 - Define fluid requirements - Identify new compounds - Synthesize small samples - Acute toxicity screen and stability - Make larger samples - Continue acute toxicity testing, flammability, compatibility - Continue subchronic toxicity testing, in house system testing, environmental testing - Make larger samples, develop mfr route - Customer/field testing - Construction of pilot facility - Construction of first small commercial facility and larger scale facilities - Request regulatory approvals, registrations (ASHRAE, SNAP, REACH) - Review/upgrade building codes/standards 6-10 - Product literature/stewardship - Put supply chain in place 0 Timing is approximate: Failures such as poor toxicity results can restart the process c
H Equipment Development Timeline New equipment Year 5 3 4 2 1 - Discussions with producers on desired new fluid attributes - System modeling with early candidates for all applications - System testing (performance, reliability) when new fluid is available - Various product launches (some solutions may be available early) - Review/upgrade building codes/standards 6-13 - Parts development & infrastructure creation - Product development & commercialization roll-out 0 Timing is approximate: Resource availability constrains quicker approach - Materials compatibility testing - On-going research into not-in-kind technologies (decades away) - Solution selection (timing & choice varies by application) - Service training & infrastructure development - Factory retooling & manufacturing machinery lead times
Bottom Line Innovation takes time Developing refrigerants, testing toxicity, environmental impact evaluation etc. is one side of the story which takes time and the options are decreasing (6 to 10 years). Developing refrigeration systems, performance testing and selection of components cannot always be done in parallel (additional 3 to 10 years) Once the products are developed: How do we gain acceptance in the market place? Is the safety regulation in place? Will the regulation be policed/enforced? Is the education of service technicians in place? Low hanging fruit: Regular service and leak checks are essential to prevent direct emissions (saving cost on refrigerants for top-up) Regular service can help keeping up the efficiency of equipment saving power
India-US HFC workshop: February 18, New Delhi Commercial/Transport/Industrial Refrigeration Segmentation characteristics Potential transition options & challenges
Transport and commercial refrigeration Different applications drive potentially solutions: Stationary low temperature refrigeration – Ice Cream Freezer / Cold Rooms / Vertical Deep Freezers ( Below –10 Deg C ) Stationary medium temperature cooling – Cold Rooms / Beverage Coolers / Display Cases ( Typically +2 - 0 Deg C ) Transport refrigeration – Trailers / Trucks ( - 15 Deg C To +10 Deg C ) Marine refrigeration ( -30 Deg C To + 2 Deg C ) Bus/rail HVAC –( Comfort Cooling + 18 Deg C Air Temp ) What are the characteristics of each?
Stationary low temperature refrigeration Dedicated designs allow for customized solutions Today, HFC-404A delivers high capacity with good energy efficiency Some potential fluorocarbon alternatives are emerging, although no clear solutions identified yet Large charge size limits use of flammable refrigerants CO2 is a potentially viable replacement candidate Sub-critical operation with “cascade” design Maintain energy efficiency at higher cost Environmental improvement with some cost add
Stationary medium temperature cooling Dedicated designs allow for customized solutions Today, HFC-134a delivers strong energy efficiency with medium capacity Potential fluorocarbon alternatives are emerging, although with mild flammability considerations Large charge size limits use of flammable refrigerants CO2 has more challenges at higher operating conditions Sub-critical operation with “cascade” design is not fully viable Important to identify efficient and safe fluorocarbon alternative CO2 solution is less certain due to efficiency
Transport refrigeration – Trailers, Trucks Designs must cover broad operating range from low termp to medium temp to heating applications Cascade systems (sub-critical operation) are not practical due to frequent off-time which requires worse-case component designs Therefore, CO2 solution reduces efficiency even with cost add for most geographies…efficiency maintenance possible in colder climates Today, HFC-404A delivers high capacity with good energy efficiency Some potential fluorocarbon alternatives are emerging, although no clear solutions identified yet Flammable solutions challenging but could be possible in limited applications, given lack of current viable solutions Some possible alternatives although none are the clear winner
Marine refrigeration Designs must cover broad operating range from low termp to medium temp to heating applications Cascade systems (sub-critical operation) are not practical due to frequent off-time which requires worse-case component designs Therefore, CO2 solution reduces efficiency even with cost add Today, HFC-404A delivers high capacity with good energy efficiency Some potential fluorocarbon alternatives are emerging, although no clear solutions identified yet Flammable, toxic solutions are not viable given the inability to adequately ventilate emissions within closed shipboard conditions Efficient and safe alternatives are not yet known
Bus/rail HVAC Dedicated designs feasible due to narrower operating range Today, HFC-407C delivers high capacity with good energy efficiency Some potential fluorocarbon alternatives are emerging, although no clear solutions identified yet CO2 and HFO-1234yf less feasible compared with auto application since bus/rail requires higher cooling loads compared to auto cooling demand Efficient and safe alternatives are not yet known
Low GWP offerings do exist today While the market has not fully moved to low GWP solutions, offerings are being introduced where conditions allow: Cascade CO2 stationary refrigeration systems are becoming common in Europe and New Zealand Some CO2 transport refrigeration systems are being offered in Europe trailer and marine applications Ammonia refrigeration systems have been and continue to be prevalent in industrial refrigeration and food preservation applications Why the slow ramp-up?
Factors limiting more rapid adoption CO2 systems like cool climates Two-stage cascade systems can minimize negative impact on efficiency in warmer climates, although with some cost increase Single stage systems can operate at sub-critical levels, with good energy efficiency, although only in cooler climates Large charge ammonia systems have code limitations when operating in high people density applications Transport refrigeration systems are primarily limited to single stage systems given their significant off-times (as opposed to stationary refrigeration systems), which limits their energy efficient use in warmer climates More complex systems requires a mature service infrastructure to maintain optimum on-going operation Yet, we have some success to build from
Summary Commercial and transport refrigeration covers a wide range of differing applications One solution does not fit all CO2 appears a viable solution in stationary, low temp applications New solutions needed for full effective coverage of this broad segment Time needed to identify new solutions for entire segment