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Food Safety For Food Co-ops Cindy Brison, MS, RD UNL Extension in Douglas and Sarpy Counties.

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Presentation on theme: "Food Safety For Food Co-ops Cindy Brison, MS, RD UNL Extension in Douglas and Sarpy Counties."— Presentation transcript:

1 Food Safety For Food Co-ops Cindy Brison, MS, RD UNL Extension in Douglas and Sarpy Counties

2 Reviewed By: George Hanssen, Food Division Administrator for The Nebraska Department of Agriculture Jere Ferrazzo, Supervisor of the Food and Drink Section for the Douglas County Department of Health Nancy Urbanec, Extension Associate, UNL Extension in Douglas and Sarpy Counties

3 Food Borne Illness A disease transmitted to people by food Caused by microorganisms Foods that allow microorganisms to grow are called – POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS

4 Potentially Hazardous "Potentially hazardous food" means a food that is natural or synthetic and that requires temperature control because it is in a form capable of supporting: – The rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms

5 "Potentially Hazardous Food" Includes an animal food (a food of animal origin) that is raw or heat-treated; a food of plant origin that is heat-treated or consists of raw seed sprouts; cut melons; and garlic-in- oil mixtures that are not modified in a way that results in mixtures that do not support growth

6 Foods That Cause Food Borne Illness Meat, poultry, pork,fish, tofu, dairy products and eggs Things that are re-hydrated – Beans, rice, oatmeal Anything grown in the ground or on the ground – Potatoes, beets, carrots, onions, lettuce, garlic, celery, mushrooms, melons, tomatoes, herbs, sprouts

7 Statistics Tomatoes and melons have caused more incidences of salmonella in the last two years than eggs and poultry

8 Almonds and Salmonella All almonds are now pasteurized (September 2007)—even those labeled raw—with gas, heat, steam or chemicals – Also blanching and oil roasting Only 5% of all almonds in the US are consumed raw California produces 100% of the US’s almonds and 80% of the worlds almonds

9 USDA Nutritional Database How do roasted almonds compare nutritionally with natural almonds? What about blanched vs. natural almonds? To learn more about a specific almond form, visit the USDA Nutrient Database and search under the term "almond." You can choose the form you are interested in at h/. h/

10 Fermented Foods Bacteria can still grow in acidic environments if handled inappropriately – Example—improperly canned pickles

11 Garlic—Handle With Care Garlic and oil mixtures may grow botulism bacteria When making garlic in oil mixtures: – Make a small amount – Keep it in the refrigerator when not in use – Discard after one week

12 Ways Foods Become Unsafe Cross-contamination Time-temperature abuse Poor personal hygiene Improper cleaning and sanitizing

13 Cross-contamination Letting raw foods drip on ready to eat foods Touching ready to eat foods with your hands Accidentally storing chemicals near food items

14 Time-Temperature Abuse Danger zone---41°-135° Four hours Bacteria doubles every twenty minutes Grows the best at room temperatures Continues to grow in the refrigerator and freezer

15 Eggs and Safe Handling Hard boiled eggs are still potentially hazardous and must be stored at 41° or lower Eggs are porous, and should not be washed, as chemicals can be absorbed

16 Eggs To warm up eggs for a recipe: – Run under warm water for a few minutes to bring it to room temperature – Do not let it sit out on the counter

17 Poor Personal Hygiene Dirty uniforms Poor hand washing Smoking and eating around food Not taking off aprons before using the bathroom Not keeping hair covered

18 Improper Cleaning and Sanitizing Not using the correct chemicals Not mixing the chemicals correctly Not washing, rinsing and air drying food contact surfaces between use

19 Who Is More Likely to Get Sick Anyone eating raw or undercooked foods Anyone with reduced immunities – Small children – The elderly – Anyone sick—colds, on medications, cancer – Pregnant women – Alcoholics, anorexics, transplant patients

20 How to Prevent Food Borne Illness Http://

21 Personal Hygiene Clean Clothes Shower daily Short nails No polish Band-aids and gloves for cuts Minimal jewelry

22 Don’t work when you are ill Do not eat, drink or smoke while handling food Wear gloves when handling ready to eat foods – Use non-latex gloves to prevent allergic reactions – This does not replace hand washing

23 Hand Washing Hot water (at least 100° F) Soap (not bar soap) Friction for at least 20 seconds Rinse Dry with disposable towels Turn off water and open bathroom door with towel Dispose of towel


25 When to Wash Your Hands Before preparing or eating food After going to the bathroom After changing diapers or cleaning up a child who has gone to the bathroom Before and after tending to someone who is sick After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing After handling an animal or animal waste After handling garbage Before and after treating a cut or wound

26 Sanitizing Gels Use after hand washing Recommended for use if soap and water is not present Over use of antibacterial gels may cause anti-biotic resistance

27 Food Service Regulations When dealing with food—hand washing with soap and water is the best for killing certain types of bacteria

28 Lotion Lotion is not recommended after hand washing in food service Can leave a moist environment for bacterial growth

29 Transportation and Delivery

30 Temperature Danger Zone 41° to 135° Bacteria grows best at room temperature Keep potentially hazardous foods hot or cold 4 hours is the limit


32 Delivery Vehicle Refrigeration is the best Using coolers with ice and gel packs Dry ice for frozen items Vehicle must be clean and sanitary Items that the food is stored in must be cleaned and sanitized – Coolers – Crates – Containers

33 Food delivery person must practice good hand washing practices Delivery vehicle cleaned out frequently Dollies and other transportation items must be cleaned also No cross contamination of perishable versus fresh

34 Sanitizing Delivery Equipment Coolers should be washed, rinsed, and sanitized between each use Use a solution of 1 tablespoon of unscented bleach to 1 gallon of water in a spray bottle Allow it to sit for two minutes before wiping with a disposable towel Solution needs to be checked with test strips – Possibly re-mix every four hours while in constant use

35 Peroxide and Vinegar Cannot be used as a food service sanitizer – Cannot be tested for strength – Does not have a test strip – Per the Nebraska Department of Health – Produces another type of acid if mixed that is not totally safe

36 Delivery Trucks Should be kept between 50°-70° if all perishable foods are kept in coolers/freezers If the truck is refrigerated—then below 41°

37 Transportation Items that are frozen must stay at 0° or lower Items that are cold must stay at 41° or lower Fresh fruits and vegetables must be handled appropriately, as should dry goods

38 Delivery Equipment Must be able to hold the appropriate temperature for the entire length of trip Ice, dry ice, gel packs, and freezer packs are all appropriate Sanitize reusable frozen items between uses Best practice—keep a thermometer in the cooler More ice when temperatures are warmer

39 Delivering Produce Items like squash, onions, potatoes and garlic are considered shelf stable until cut or cooked, and can be delivered in non- refrigerated containers Sliced melons and tomatoes must be kept at 41° or lower

40 Receiving

41 All frozen items should be received frozen at 0° All cold items should be received at 41° or lower – Eggs and shellfish can be received at 45°

42 Receiving and Storing Items should be unpacked and stored as soon as possible Time in the temperature danger zone is cumulative Do not accept any foods that have been time-temperature abused

43 Reject Food Items If: The packaging is broken They leak Cans are swollen There are large ice crystals on the box There are signs of pests Dry goods are wet or damaged Food is expired

44 Receiving Fresh Meat Beef, lamb, and pork Bright in color Cold or frozen Firm and springs back when touched No sour odors No off colors

45 Receiving Fresh Meat Meat must be processed in a USDA or state approved facility and properly labeled for sale to the public

46 Receiving Fresh Poultry Cold fresh poultry should be packed on crushed, self-draining ice Frozen No discolorations or dark wing tips Firm and springs back when touched Not sticky No unpleasant odor

47 Receiving Fresh Fish Fresh on crushed, self- draining ice Frozen Bright red gills, shiny skin, bulging eyes Flesh springs back when you touch it Mild ocean or seaweed odor— not fishy

48 Receiving Fresh Shell Eggs Cold Clean, unbroken shells Not dirty, cracked, or smelly Clean “farm fresh eggs” with a clean cloth and fresh water Sometime a brush can be used to clean any adhering soils

49 Receiving Dairy Products Cold or frozen Typical flavor Uniform color, texture, smell No mold, nothing expired

50 Storage

51 Make sure that you have enough room to store all food items Do not overload refrigerators and freezers for good air circulation Refrigerators should maintain 41° or lower Freezers should maintain 0° or lower Check temperatures of delivered foods with a thermometer

52 Storage Make sure storage areas are clean and sanitized—frequently—based on use – Once a month deliveries will not mean the store room needs to be cleaned daily Everything must be stored at least 6 inches off of the floor Monitor for pests FIFO

53 Cold Storage Store ready to eat on the top shelf of the refrigerator Steaks, chops, roasts and fish on the next shelf Ground meat on the next shelf Poultry and ground poultry on the bottom Based on cooking temperatures


55 Cooking Temperatures All steaks, roasts and fish must be cooked to 145° Ground meat/fish cooked to 155° Brined and injected meats cooked to 155°° Poultry and ground poultry cooked to 165° Anything cooked in a microwave cooked to 165° Leftovers cooked to 165°

56 Prepared Food Stored for 24 Hours Must be labeled and dated Must be covered Must be disposed of within 7 days

57 Dry Storage and Ethylene Gas Ethylene gas is naturally produced by some fruits and vegetables Aides in the ripening process Keep produce intact and unwashed until ready to use it Never refrigerate potatoes, onions, winter squash or garlic—and store separately

58 Refrigerate These Gas Releasers Apples Apricots Cantaloupe Figs Honeydew

59 Do Not Refrigerate These Gas Releasers Avocados Bananas, unripe Nectarines Peaches Pears Plums Tomatoes

60 Keep These Away From Gas Releasers Bananas, ripe Broccoli Brussels sprouts Cabbage Carrots Cauliflower Cucumbers Eggplant Lettuce and other leafy greens Parsley Peas Peppers Squash Sweet potatoes Watermelon

61 Jerky Jerky must be processed in a USDA inspected plant to be sold legally to the public (customers) in the United States

62 Thermometer Use

63 Thermometers Must be washed, rinsed and sanitized between uses Must be accurate to +/- 2° Can be used for either hot or cold foods No glass thermometers used in food service Must have thermometers in the coldest and warmest spots in the refrigerator/freezer


65 Calibrating Thermometers Place thermometer in an ice slush past the dimple Wait for it to stop Adjust thermometer to 32° while leaving it in the water Calibrate thermometer after dropping it Never run through a dishwasher

66 Using a Thermometer Always place it in the thickest part of a food item Must go past the dimple Measure thin foods sideways Measure packaged foods by placing the thermometer between packages

67 From the blog "The Ice Man Cometh--Spring Edition" Storing Shelf Stable Items Fresh Produce can be stored on a clean shelf or a bin – Fruits, vegetables, trail mix, breads

68 Dispensing of Food Items

69 Dispensing of Foods Keep foods hot or cold until picked up Encourage individuals to use sanitized coolers with ice to keep foods out of the temperature danger zone

70 Alliance Rubber When bagging potentially hazardous foods, gloves should be used or tongs The state food code does not allow a handlers hands to touch ready to eat foods

71 Cleaning and Sanitizing

72 Definitions Cleaning—removing food and soil – Usually done with soap and water – Table tops, dishes, delivery vehicles, etc… – Can be food and non-food contact surfaces Sanitizing---reducing the amount of microorganisms to a safe level – Usually involves a chemical – Can be done with hot water (180° F) – Involves a food contact surface


74 Statistics The levels of bacteria are greater in your kitchen sink than in your toilet They are also higher on your cell phone and your steering wheel

75 Buckets Cleaning and sanitizing pails must be kept separate Monitor the chemical in the sanitizing bucket often with the correct test strips Mix chemicals per their instructions

76 When to Clean and Sanitize Food contact surfaces must be washed, rinsed, and sanitized: – Each time you use them – When you are interrupted during preparation – When you start working with a different type of food – At least every four hours

77 Factors Effecting Sanitizers Hardness of the water The water temperature The concentration of the chemical The time the chemical stays in contact with the food contact surface

78 Chemical Safety Never mix two chemicals together Have copies of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) available for all chemicals used Keep these in a conspicuous place that all are aware of

79 How to Use a Three Compartment Sink Sanitize the entire sink area Scrape and rinse all items Wash in hot soapy water (110°) Rinse in hot, clear water (110°) Immerse in sanitizer for the correct amount of time Air dry all items

80 Questions???????????????? Call your local Health Department Call your local Extension Office Call Cindy Brison, MS, RD at the UNL Extension Office at 1-402-444- 7804 Email the UNL Extension Office in Douglas and Sarpy Counties –

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