2CHARACTERISTICS OF PHASE CHANGES A phase change is the reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to anotherMelting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, sublimation, and deposition are six common phase changes
3Temperature and Phase Changes The temperature of a substance does not change during a phase changeWhen a solid changes to a liquidAt first the temperature rises as a solid warms upAt the melting point, the temperature stops rising and remains the same until the melting is completeThe temperature will begin to rise again
43. When a liquid changes to a solid a. At first the temperature of the liquidwill drop until it reaches the freezing pointb. At the freezing point, the temperature will remain at that temperature until all of the liquid freezesc. After the freezing is complete, the temperature will begin to drop again
54. The temperature at which a substance freezes (its freezing point) is identical to the temperature at which it melts (its melting point)5. When a liquid changes to a gasa. The temperature keeps rising until it reaches the boiling pointb. The temperature then remains the same until the boiling is complete
7Energy and Phase Change Energy is either absorbed or released during a phase changeDuring an endothermic change, the system absorbs energy from its surroundingsMelting, vaporization, and sublimation are all examples of endothermic changesThe heat of fusion is the amount of energy a substance must absorb in order to change from a solid to a liquid. Fusion is another term for melting
93. One gram of water releases 334 joules of energy to its surroundings as it freezes. a. This is the same amount of energy absorbed when one gram of ice meltsb. Farmers use this release of energy to protect their crops
104. During an exothermic change, the system releases energy to its surroundings. Freezing, deposition, and condensation are examples of exothermic reactions
12MELTING AND FREEZINGThe arrangement of molecules in water becomes less orderly as water melts and more orderly as water freezesMeltingIn ice, the attractions between water molecules keep the molecules in fixed positionsWhen ice is removed form the freezer, heat flows from the air to the ice
133. As the ice gains energy, the molecules vibrate more quickly. 4. At the melting point of water some molecules gain enough energy and move from their fixed position.5. When all of the molecules gain energy melting is complete.
14Freezing1. When liquid water is placed in a freezer, energy flows from the water to the air in the freezer2. This process is the reverse of the melting process.
15VAPORIZATION & CONDENSATION Vaporization is the phase change in which a substance changes from a liquid into a gas.A substance must absorb energy in order to change from a liquid to a gas.The heat of vaporization for water is equal to 2261 joules of energy.
16There are two vaporization processes – boiling and evaporation. Evaporation takes place at the surface of a liquid.Evaporation is the process that changes a substance form a liquid to a gas at temperatures below the boiling point.A vapor is the gaseous phase of a substance3. Vapor pressure is the pressure caused by the collisions of vapor and the walls of the container.
18Boiling1. When vapor pressure becomes equal to atmospheric pressure, water boils.2. The temperature at which this happens is the boiling point of water.3. As temperature increases, water molecules move faster and faster.
194. When the temperature reaches 100°C, some molecules below the surface have enough kinetic energy to overcome the attraction of neighboring molecules.5. Because water vapor is less dense than water, the bubbles rise to the surface.
206. The boiling point of a substance 6. The boiling point of a substance depends on the atmospheric pressure.a. At higher elevations the atmospheric pressure is lowerb. This will cause the boiling point to occur at a lower temperature.c. Cooking will take longer at higher elevations
21G. Condensation is the phase change in which a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a liquid. This process is responsible for the dew on grass and the condensation on bathroom mirrors.
22SUBLIMATION & DEPOSITION Sublimation is the phase change in which a substance changes from a solid to a gas or vapor without changing to a liquid first.Example, at room temperature, dry ice can directly change from a solid to a colorless gas.
23As dry ice sublimes, the cold carbon dioxide vapor causes water vapor in the air to condense and form clouds.D. Deposition is the phase change that occurs when a gas or vapor changes directly into a solid without first changing to a liquid.E. Deposition causes frost to form on windows