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What Happens to Fish as it Freezes?
Nature of Raw Material Fish/Shellfish Composition Protein15-25% Fat 1-15% Minerals 1-2% Water65-80%
Water in Fish Free – In Muscle Transport – Dissolved Minerals Bound –Attached to Proteins
Freezing Change State of Water Liquid to Solid Proteins aren’t changed Fats aren’t changed Minerals aren’t changed
Freezing - Two Stages To Consider Freezing Process Cold Storage
Freezing Process What Occurs -Three Stages First - Chilling/Removing Heat to the Transition Temperature
Freezing Process Second - Phase Change - Liquid to Solid - Over a Temperature Range – Fairly Complex Third – Final Temperature Drop to Surroundings
Phase Change Happenings As Temp Decreases Through “Critical” Zone Pure Water Freezes in Crystals Starting Around 28F
Phase Change Happenings Salt/Solute Concentration Increases Amount of Unfrozen Water Left
Ice Crystals Small Crystals - Fast Freezing Large Crystals - Slow Freezing Through the Phase Transition Zone
Ice Crystal Size
Freezing Time Freezing Time - What is Fast? Hours Vs. Days Inches Per Hour
Final Core Temp Final Temperatures - What is Best? -20F -40F
Other Things Happening During Freezing Increased Enzyme Activity in Transition Zone Glassy State Conditions
Glassy State Occurs Around 5 to 10 F In Pockets – Hi Concentration of Salts/Enzymes Ice Crystals Dissolve
Glassy State Ice Recrystallizes in Larger Chunks Quality Changes Avoid this Region
Other Things Happening During Freezing Moisture Loss in Freezing Freezing in Rigor Visual Quality Concerns
Moisture Loss in Freezing Depending on System, Can Lose Water From Surface Sometimes Up to 1% or 2%
Freezing in Rigor Stiffening of the salmon muscle shortly after death May last several hours to days depending on temperature
Freezing in Rigor Don't process/handle fish in rigor Gaping, Drip Loss and Toughness
Cold Storage Severe Conditions Dry Air Temperature Fluctuations
Cold Storage Glassy State Deterioration Freezer Burn Protection
Quality Changes Moisture Migration and Recrystallization Hydrolytic Enzyme Activity Protein Denaturation
Moisture Migration and Recrystallization Freezer Burn Temperature Fluctuations – Limit Shelf Life
Quality Changes Fat Oxidation Microbial Changes
Minimizing Quality Losses Cryoprotectants - Glazing Antioxidants
Glazing Options for Glaze Salt Sugar Antioxidants
Glazing Glaze Water Temperature How Much Glaze? Cold Storage Effects
Minimizing Quality Losses Packaging Bleeding
Packaging Critical Aspect of Shelf Life As Much Protection As You Can Afford Plastics/Boxes/Vac Pack
Shelf Life Time of Acceptable Quality Limiting Factor is Often Fat Oxidation Also Texture Changes
Shelf Life Depends on Water Content Fat Content Packaging Storage Temperature
Preservation of Seafoods FSN 261 Spring 2011 Chuck Crapo Seafood Technology Specialist 1.
Quality changes in fish during freezing and frozen storage physical changes.
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Water. Importance Water makes up 55-60% of the human body! Losing 10% could cause death Major function for life Digesting food Transporting nutrients.
Mineral Formation Part of Chapter Mineral Formation Mineral crystals grow as atoms are added to its surfaces, edges, or corners.
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When you are making ice cream, the temperature around the ice cream mixture needs to be lower than 32 F if you want the mixture to freeze. Salt mixed with.
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How Minerals Form. Crystallization Geode is a rounded, hollow rock that is often lined with mineral crystals. Crystals form inside a geode when water.
Freezing Food History The frozen food industry was born in the 1920’s Clarence Birdseye produced the first frozen fish.
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