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The Priests and Their Garments Exodus 28:2 “And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother for glory and for beauty.”

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Presentation on theme: "The Priests and Their Garments Exodus 28:2 “And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother for glory and for beauty.”"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Priests and Their Garments Exodus 28:2 “And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother for glory and for beauty.”

2 References The Bible The Law of Moses (Chapter 17), bro Roberts Patterns of things in the Heavens (p 7-40) – sis E. Lasius (daughter of bro Thomas) Eureka, bro Thomas Ministry of the Prophets - Isaiah, bro Roberts Christadelphian magazine The Temple Institute in Jerusalem (




6 It is not possible, within the limits of these pages, to enter into an examination of the exterior parts of the Tabernacle. Our work is specially directed to the symbols of the interior. For expositions of these we are indebted to a work entitled "Eureka," an exposition of the Apocalypse, by Dr. John Thomas. To the teachings and expositions of this writer we owe our understanding of the word of the Deity. To present these expositions in the light of the oracles of God is our endeavor in these pages. To the " Great High-Priest of Israel“ this little offering is dedicated. May He soon appear, in all the splendor of His robes of glory, E. J. L.


8 Christ, Our High Priest Heb 9:11 But Christ being come an high priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this building; Heb 9:24 For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us:

9 Let’s Begin


11 Garments on Day of Atonement Lev 16:4 He shall put on the holy linen coat, and he shall have the linen breeches upon his flesh, and shall be girded with a linen girdle, and with the linen mitre shall he be attired: these are holy garments; therefore shall he wash his flesh in water, and so put them on.

12 The Need for Priests (Law of Moses) The appointment of a Tabernacle and its various appurtenances as a meeting place between God and Israel necessitated the appointment also of an order of men to act as intermediaries (declared in Exod. 29:43) How otherwise could Israel who was unfit acceptably draw near?

13 The Need for Priests (Law of Moses) The erection of the Tabernacle was an intimation (an indirect suggestion) of His willingness to be approached by man for mercy, but not at the sacrifice of His holiness, or His authority, or His majesty. Familiar and indiscriminate approach was not invited: “I will be sanctified in them that come nigh me”, He would be approached in a consecrated and concealed recess (the Most Holy Place), and that only once a year, and that only by blood shed (Leviticus 16), and that only presented by a man of His own choice, assisted by men of His own appointment, and attired in a way prescribed by Himself.

14 Moses and Aaron (Law of Moses) Moses was directed to… “take Aaron, thy brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that he may minister unto me in the priest’s office”, The priesthood was to be Aaron’s and his successors by a perpetual ordinance: any stranger obtruding (thrust oneself in as if by force ) himself upon the sacred office was to be put to death (Num. 18:7).

15 About the Priests (Law of Moses) The father only was to be high priest (Aaron) The sons were to be assistants All were to be physically without blemish Any disfigurement was to be a disqualification They were to live by the offerings made to God by the people They were not to have any land inheritance - God was their inheritance (Num 18:12-20) They were to stand between God and the people

16 God’s Own Way (Law of Moses) cannot approach God except in God’s own way. That we can only learn this by the revelation of His mind, and that all other so-called religion -- is the mere device of human ignorance and presumption.

17 Christ (Law of Moses) Christ is the substance of all these preliminary shadowings (Col. 2:17) In him we see a chosen mediator (1 Tim. 2:5)—not self-appointed: “No man taketh this honour unto himself, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron” (Heb. 5:4). It was God who said, “Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek” (Psa. 110:4)

18 Christ (Law of Moses) We see him offer blood—not the blood of bulls and goats, but his own blood He alone entering the holiest, “heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us” (Heb. 9:24). We see him the perfect one, without spot, without sin, without superfluity (extreme excess), or incongruity (the quality of disagreeing; being unsuitable and inappropriate)

19 Christ (Law of Moses) Aaron was assisted by his sons… Christ will be assisted by his originally blemished sons in the ultimate development of his priesthood; —the forgiven saints, are to reign with him as priests as well as kings (Heb. 2:13–14; Isa. 53:10; Rev. 5:10)

20 Christ is the Way Jesus said: “No man cometh unto the Father but by me” Peter preached: “There is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved” (Acts 4:12) Paul preached “Through this man is preached unto you the forgiveness of sins” (Acts 13:38)

21 For Glory and For Beauty (Law of Moses) The men chosen as priests were not only to be of a certain family, but they were to be dressed in a particular way, which is minutely described Their outfit, when complete, was to be “for glory and for beauty” (Exod. 28:2, 40)

22 For Glory and For Beauty (Law of Moses) The attire of the high priest would be highly picturesque It would be pleasing to the eye as regards symmetry of form and combination of colour Indeed, with the addition of the frontal-plate of pure gold, the shoulder-buckle of gold-set onyx stone, and the glitter of the twelve rich- set precious stones in the breast-plate, it would be nothing less than splendid “Glory and beauty” describes it all

23 For Glory and For Beauty (Law of Moses) What do we see in this description but the fact that glory and beauty are the attributes of Divine wisdom In contrast to… Baseness and hideousness which are the reverse of “glory and beauty” All we have to do is to look at the ways of men apart from God to see how inglorious and ugly they are—in all ways and senses

24 The Spirit-Mind (Law of Moses) The anti-typical "glory and beauty" of the priestly garments is more about the intellectual glory of the spirit-mind than with the physical glory portrayed with the Levitical priesthood.

25 Significance of the Materials (Law of Moses) The preponderant (having superior power and influence) materials were “gold, blue, purple, scarlet, fine-twined linen” (Exod. 28:6–8) which are the materials of the veil and the gate hangings of the tabernacle The significance of these materials are:—tried faith, healing by chastisement, royal destiny, sin-nature, and spotless righteousness

26 Consider the Significance… What is faith but trust in His word? What is tried faith but faith put to the test by Him? What is healing but His act who says, “I wound and I heal”? And whose are the stripes but His, Whom it pleased to bruise the saving Son, with whose stripes we might be healed?

27 Consider the Significance Who so royal as the King of glory, whether in Father or Son, to whom every knee shall bow? What is sin-nature but nature cursed by God because of disobedience? What is righteousness but the doing of His perfect will?

28 Glory and Beauty (Law of Moses) So… What is there of “glory and of beauty” in these significances? The appropriate answer would be, what is there not of glory and beauty in them? They all involve one transcendent truth—the hallowed supremacy of God as the rule of all being

29 God in the Garments (Law of Moses) God is in every aspect of the garments There could be no greater “glory and beauty” than this proclaimed fact that He will and must be worshipped and obeyed as “Head over all” None so beautiful and glorious as He Merciful and gracious, slow to anger Abundant in goodness and truth

30 Conditions of Fellowship with Him (Law of Moses) The man chosen as priest had to be covered with garments having all these meanings God not only plainly declared, “I will be sanctified in them that come nigh me”, but He required such to be arrayed in vestments which were not only glorious and beautiful in an artistic sense, but which typically proclaimed the supremacy of God and the complete subordination of man as the conjoint and indispensable conditions of acceptable fellowship.

31 What kind of man? (Law of Moses) Not man unclothed: not man naked: not man as he is in himself, but man invested or “clothed upon” with superadded attributes or conditions, is acceptable. And these superadded conditions must be of divine pattern and prescription: “See thou make all things according to the pattern shown to thee in the mount” --- “Ye shall not add thereto or diminish aught therefrom.”

32 A Look at the Garments Exo 28:4 And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.

33 The High Priest’s Garments These seven holy garments are a type of the NATURE and CHARACTER of Christ, reflecting his GLORY and BEAUTY. The Coat of Fine Linen The Girdle of the Coat The Robe of Blue The Ephod and its Girdle The Shoulder Pieces of the Ephod The Breastplate of Judgment The Linen Mitre and Golden Crown


35 Strong’s Definitions Coat (H3801) - to cover; a shirt, garment, robe Girdle (H73) - a belt Robe (H4598) - cloke, coat, mantle, robe (covering) Ephod (H646) - a shoulder piece Curious girdle (H2805) - a belt or strap Breastplate (H2833) - meaning to contain or sparkle Mitre (H4701) - a tiara, turban, diadem Crown (H5145) - consecration, crown, hair Broidered (H8665) - checkered stuff Ouche (H4865) - the setting of a gem Habergeon (H8473) - a linen corslet which is… A piece of body armor for the trunk; usually consists of a breastplate and back piece; a light sleeveless coat of chain mail)

36 Order of Putting On 1. Coat 2. Girdle of the coat 3. Robe, or skirt, with pendant bells and pomegranates on the lower edge 4. Ephod 5. Curious girdle (or sash) of the ephod, with which it was secured 6. Breast-plate 7. Urim and Thummim, or framed collection of twelve precious stones 8. Mitre 9. Golden plate (or holy crown) in front, inscribed with the words, Holiness to the Lord, to be worn always upon Aaron’s forehead, “they that might be accepted before Yahweh” (Exo 28:38)

37 THE COAT OF FINE LINEN (Law of Moses) This was a tunic, or long inner garment, of fine linen, of woven work, and embroidered (Exod. 28:39; 35:27). The fine linen is the symbol of righteousness, the weaving and embroidery would stand for the particular works or actions in which righteousness is expressed: as it is said by John, “He that doeth righteousness is righteous” (1 John 3:7), and as it is figuratively said of the King’s bride in the day of glory “she shall be brought unto the king in raiment of needlework”.

38 THE COAT OF FINE LINEN (Law of Moses) This, then, is the groundwork of the mental attire which renders the clothed man acceptable: white, pure, beautiful, righteousness, or the disposition to do what God commands, expressed in the actual rendering to Him what He delights in, which we can only know by His requirements.

39 THE COAT OF FINE LINEN (Patterns) The signification of fine linen, we learn from the testimony of John in Rev. 19:8, where it reads thus: “And to her it was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.“ The sons of the high-priests also, were clothed with linen robes. When thus arrayed in fine linen robes, Aaron and his sons were representative of a priestly family, all clothed with righteousness.

40 THE COAT OF FINE LINEN (Patterns) "Let thy priests be clothed with righteousness." “I put on righteousness, "says Job,” and it clothed me. "When David, the king, and the elders of Israel, went to bring up the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord, out of the house of Obed-edom;—" David was clothed with a robe of fine linen, and all the Levites that bare the Ark, and the singers," etc—1 Chron. 15

41 THE COAT OF FINE LINEN (Patterns) Eureka vol 1 p 170 "In this mortal state, they put on Christ as a robe, when having believed the things of the kingdom of the Deity, and the Name of Jesus Anointed, they were immersed for that name and into it. They fall asleep in Him, and arise to partake of the nature of His individual body, of His flesh and of His bones, that they may be like Him."—1 Jno.3:2. When clothed with this Spirit-nature, they are clothed upon with their habitation which is from heaven,— mortality being swallowed up under the life or spirit that is poured upon them.“ --2 Cor 5:2,4 

42 THE COAT OF FINE LINEN (Patterns) Eureka vol 1 p 170 "This is the consummation of their investiture, which begins with their immersion into Christ, and is perfected in their post-resurrectional immortalization by the spirit through Christ. They are then the Body Corporate of God's kings and priests—the inhabitation of Eternal wisdom and power, clothed in the linen garment of righteousness, honor, majesty and salvation.”

43 THE GIRDLE OF NEEDLEWORK (Law of Moses) The Girdle of the Coat.—This was a sash of the same material (Exod. 28:39), used as a sort of easy belt to draw the coat together at the loins, giving fit and comfort in the wearing of the garment. Its literal use is seen in the statement that Jesus “took a towel and girded himself” (John 13:4)—tucking up his loose robe for convenience of action.

44 THE GIRDLE OF NEEDLEWORK (Law of Moses) Its figurative use is frequently illustrated: e.g., “She girdeth her loins with strength” (Prov. 31:17); “I girded thee about with fine linen” (Ezek. 16:10); “Gird up the loins of your mind” (1 Pet. 1:13).

45 THE GIRDLE OF NEEDLEWORK (Law of Moses) The typical significance of the girdle of the priestly linen coat, as distinguished from the coat itself, would therefore be intelligent and executive righteousness, in addition to the sentiment and habit of righteousness: a resolute binding together and strengthening of the principles of righteousness for action.

46 THE GIRDLE OF NEEDLEWORK (Patterns) The Girdle in Scripture, is often used as an emblem of those moral and spiritual qualities, which strengthen and establish the mind. Paul, addressing the Ephesians, says: " Stand, therefore, having your loins girt about with truth."

47 THE GIRDLE OF NEEDLEWORK (Patterns) Isaiah, describing Him who is called "the Branch," says: "Righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins." The Saviour said:" Let your loins be girded about, and your lights burning.“ – Luke 12:35


49 The Robe

50 Robe (Law of Moses) This was a skirt of blue woven work—answerable almost to the modern petticoat of female attire, only that it was an outer garment, and did not reach to the ground, but fell some eight or ten inches short of the lower end of the inner coat or linen tunic. It was fastened over the tunic at the waist, exactly like a petticoat, except that the fastening was not with strings, but by the grip of the garment at the bound border of the upper opening. It would be put on by being slipped over the head.

51 Robe (Law of Moses) It was strengthened at the upper edge with a woven binding like a habergeon (Exod. 28:32) The lower hem was finished in a remarkable way, namely, with a row of tassels resembling pomegranates worked in purple and scarlet, alternated with bells of gold—“a bell and a pomegranate, a bell and a pomegranate” all the way round.

52 Healing and Righteousness (Law of Moses) Blueness is healing. This blue robe (or skirt), resting upon an inner coat of white linen (righteousness) is an allegorical intimation that there can be no healing of human woe except by righteousness: and that righteousness— that which God appoints to be such—will at last heal with such completeness of effect that there be no more curse, “and the inhabitant shall not say, I am sick”

53 Healing and Righteousness (Law of Moses) But the healing will never conceal the righteousness: therefore, the coat reaches below the blue skirt, and is visible to the spectator’s eye: an edging of white at the bottom is the finish of the priestly attire.

54 Robe (Patterns) This robe of blue exhibits a very important and beautiful element in the Body of Christ; even a cleansing and uniting principle. To the law and the testimony we refer. There we find the evidence concerning the signification of the Blue. 

55 Robe (Patterns) “And Moses called for the elders of Israel and said unto them, Draw out and take you a lamb, according to your families, and kill the passover. And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop and dip it into the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the basin," etc.— Exod. 12: 21, 22.

56 Robe (Patterns) In the holy garments blue appears also in connection with the breastplate and the ephod. A lace of blue united the golden plate of the holy crown to the mitre:—and a lace of blue also fastened the golden rings of the breastplate to the golden rings of the ephod. Intermingling with the purple and the scarlet—the blue also unites the gold and the fine linen. A cloth wholly of blue was spread over the Ark, and all the golden furniture of the Holy place when the camp set forward on a journey.— Numbers 4.

57 Robe (Patterns) The purifying principle, so largely represented in the Sanctuary, we find abundantly realized in the" Substance," which is "of Christ." Both as a physical and a spiritual power, it flowed, to cleanse and to save the suffering and the sinner. "There went virtue out of him and healed them all."—Luke 6:19.

58 Robe (Patterns) For the full expansion of this cleansing power, we look forward to the future Age, when the “pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb," shall vitalize the leaves of the trees on either side of it, and through them communicate health to the nations.

59 Hem with Bells and Pomegranates

60 Bells


62 Exodus 28: 35 "And his sound shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place, before the Lord, and when he cometh out, that he die not.“

63 Robe Hem – Bells & Pomegranates (Law of Moses) Pomegranates of purple and scarlet represent the following: The streak of scarlet speaks of sin-fruit to be healed The purple of the kingly nature of the healing institution The golden bells, with their sound, tell us of the means: namely, the preaching of the word of faith, both when the Great High-priest goes into heaven, as Paul showed us, and when he comes out: for preaching is not ended when Christ comes, though its particular object changes. 

64 Robe Hem – Bells & Pomegranates (Law of Moses) The everlasting gospel is preached after the Lamb stands on Mount Zion (Rev. 14:1–6); and John himself, who took part in the first preaching when Christ went away, takes part, with his brethren, in another preaching after Christ comes, to “many peoples, and nations, and tongues, and kings” (Rev. 10:11). 

65 Robe Hem – Bells & Pomegranates (Law of Moses) This is the will of God, that His name be proclaimed, with all that is involved in that, in the two stages, “when he (the high priest) goeth into the holy, and when he cometh out” Silence would be stagnation: it would be disobedience in the high priest: the golden bells sound, “that he die not”.

66 Robe Hem – Bells & Pomegranates (Law of Moses) In so far as the brethren of Christ are covered with the name of Christ, and in him are an holy priesthood, the figure would have a minor application to them as the sounders of the truth and the doers of his commandments—“a bell and a pomegranate, a bell and a pomegranate”—words and deeds, words and deeds, of Divine character.

67 Robe Hem – Bells & Pomegranates (Patterns) Upon the hem of this beautiful robe we find the symbol of utterance and expression—the little golden bells. To get the intended message of this, we are led to the words of the apostle Paul in Romans 10:17-18 The primary fulfillment of this we learn from Paul’s words to the Colossians in 1:23

68 The Ephod " And they did beat the gold into thin plates, and cut it into wires to work it in the blue and in the purple, in the scarlet and in the fine linen with cunning work."—Exo. 39:3


70 Ephod (Temple Institute) The most important garment worn by the High Priest is the ephod. Its appearance can be likened to an apron; it was worn in back, on top of his other garments, and was fastened by a long belt in the front, opposite his heart. This belt was woven into the entire length of the ephod's upper hem.

71 Ephod (Temple Institute) There were also two shoulder-straps that were sewn onto the belt. These straps went behind, up and slightly over the upper corners of the garment, over the priest's shoulders. The settings for the two sardonyx stones were attached at the ends of these straps, on the shoulders.

72 Ephod (Temple Institute) The ephod covered the back of his body. Some opinions describe it as a sort of half-cape; others, more like a skirt. It was long - it extended from just below his elbows, all the way to his heels. It was slightly wider than a man's back, since it was to cover his back and extend a little towards the front on both sides as well, covering a portion of his belly from either side.

73 Ephod (Law of Moses) Ephod is an untranslated word: that is, it is the Hebrew word lifted into the English version, because there is no modern garment that is its equivalent, and therefore, it cannot be translated, except as to its root meaning: oracular. It appears to have been a kind of waistcoat or frock, closed behind the shoulders instead of in front (Exod. 39:4), and finished in a short skirt or girdle, reaching to the loins (verse 5) 

74 Ephod (Law of Moses) As already remarked, it was the most complicated, beautiful, and significant of all the priestly garments. In material it differed from the others, except as to the main fabric, which was “fine twined linen”. On this appears to have been embroidered ornamental work in gold, blue, purple, and scarlet. We are exactly told how the gold was used. It was “beaten into thin plates and cut into wires to work in the blue” (Exod. 39:3). A garment with a white ground, with cunning work embroidered on it in gold and colours, would certainly have an aspect of” glory and beauty”.

75 The Ephod

76 Ephod (Law of Moses) It was of identical constitution with the veil and the door-hangings of the tabernacle and the gate of the court, as its typical significance required: for while the fine linen and the blue betokened separate elements of the way of righteousness, the combination of the whole in the ephod prefigured the perfect qualification of Christ for the priesthood, as it prefigured his perfect qualification in the several aspects typified by the gate, and the door, and the veil.

77 Ephod (Law of Moses) The constitution of the ephod (gold, blue, purple, and scarlet, on a ground-work of white), is a typification of the method of the development of Christ as the great high priest, and of the principles that have become incorporate in him as the result of that method.

78 Ephod (Patterns) Now, the Ephod, with its Foursquare of precious stones, represented the Body of the Anointed. For as the body is one, and, hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many are one body; so also, is Christ. For, by one Spirit, are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles—and have been made to drink into one Spirit."—1 Cor 12:13. 

79 Ephod (Patterns) Gold was chosen as the most precious of all known metals, to represent the most precious of "heavenly things” before the Eternal Spirit, namely, FAITH PERFECTED BY TRIAL, which is much more precious than of gold which perisheth, though it be refined by fire ; and without which it is " impossible to please God."—Hebrews 11. 

80 Ephod (Patterns) It is the basis of righteousness unto eternal life; for "we are justified by faith." Job said, "when God hath tried me, I shall come forth as gold." Passing through the fiery trial and temptation in the wilderness,—Jesus came forth, preaching the gospel of the_ kingdom of God. Bringing to light the Faith, for belief unto righteousness. Of this faith, it is testified that Jesus is “the author and the finisher."—

81 Ephod (Patterns) The Ephod fitted closely over the blue robe and the linen coat; and to it, was attached the Breastplate and the shoulder-pieces." It shall have the two shoulder-pieces thereof joined at the two edges thereof: and so it shall be joined together." "And the curious girdle of the Ephod, which is upon it, shall be of the same, according to the work thereof: even of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen.“ --Exo. 28: 7,8.

82 Ephod (Patterns) Eureka. On page 317, vol. ii reads: “Now, the Ephod, with its Foursquare of precious stones, represented the Body of the Anointed. For as the body is one, and, hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many are one body; so also, is Christ. For, by one Spirit, are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles—and have been made to drink into one Spirit."—1 Cor 12:13

83 Curious Girdle Eph 6:14 Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth, and having on the breastplate of righteousness


85 Curious Girdle (Patterns) As to the curious girdle, the text informs us, that it is of the same material as the Ephod “The gold and fine twined linen were embroidered through all the blue, purple and scarlet of this "curious" breastband “These articles “represented principles” afterwards to be incarnated in the high-priest after the Order of Melchizedec.

86 Curious Girdle (Patterns) These principles were embodied in Jesus As to his character… "holy, harmless, undefiled and separate from sinners" As to his nature … the likeness of sin's flesh, in whom sin was condemned when crucified He is the purifier unto righteousness of those who become the righteousness of the Deity in and through Him.

87 Curious Girdle (Patterns) Aaron wore the representations upon his person; Jesus bore them in himself". “Wisdom and righteousness were intertwined in all His words and actions, according to the type.

88 Curious Girdle (Patterns) But when Jesus and His Brethren shall all have attained to the divine nature, even as Jesus hath already, the gold and the linen of the girdle, alone appear." The fine linen robe of righteousness is girded about the saints by the golden girdle of a tried faith.

89 Curious Girdle (Patterns) They are apocalyptically represented as like a “Son of man,”—as the Holy city, New Jerusalem, having been prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband. A city of pure gold like to transparent crystal. The precious sons of Zion, saith the prophet, are comparable to fine gold; for in their glory they are the Spirit- incarnations of a tried and precious faith, which is the shining girdle of their Ephod."— Eureka, vol. i., pp. 172-3.

90 Curious Girdle (Patterns) Jeremiah in chapter 13, illustrates the idea of a girdle representing a body of people. "For," saith Jehovah,—" as the girdle cleaveth to the loins of a man, so have I caused to cleave unto me the whole house of Israel, and the whole house of Judah, saith the Lord; that they might be unto me for a people, and for a name, and for a praise, and for a glory”

91 The Breastplate

92 Breastplate (Temple Institute) This garment is called choshen mishpat in Hebrew, which means the "breastplate of judgment" or "decision." Square-shaped and worn over the heart, it was called so because of the unique role which it played in helping to render fateful decisions.

93 Breastplate (Temple Institute) According to the Biblical instructions and rabbinical traditions, the breastplate is a patterned brocade like the ephod. The threads of its fabric are gold, sky-blue, dark red and crimson wool, and twisted linen. The garment itself is set with four rows of small square stones, in settings of knitted or braided gold. Each row contained three stones-totaling twelve stones, one stone representing each of the twelve tribes of Israel. The name of the corresponding tribe was engraved on each stone.

94 Breastplate (Law of Moses) The breastplate was held in its place by gold chains inserted in gold rings at the four corners, and ending in other rings. These other rings were fastened with a lace of blue to other corresponding rings fastened in the lower part of the ephod, and at the shoulder-buckles (verses 22–28)

95 Breastplate (Law of Moses) Considering the significance of gold as tried faith, here we have faith as the fastenings of the foundations of the commonwealth of Israel, and not only faith, but mutuality of healing-faith—ring to ring held with a lace of blue—“the mutual faith both of you and me” (Rom. 1:12).

96 Ex 28:15-30 Breastplate (Law of Moses) That precious stones should be used to represent the 12 tribes is an intimation (an indirect suggestion) that they will at last be both excellent and immortal That they should be set in gold shows that faith will never be absent from our relation to God

97 Ex 28:15-30 Breastplate (Law of Moses) That they should be called the Urim and the Thummin (light and fullness) is an indication of the fact that without light, precious stones have no beauty; and that when the light shines upon them, their beauty is a radiant fullness. The light that developed the beauty of the stones in the ephod when Aaron “went in before the Lord” in the dark interior of the tabernacle, was the glory that dwelt between the cherubim.

98 Ex 28:15-30 Breastplate (Law of Moses) The antitype will be seen in its completeness when the glory of the Lord beautifies the perfected tribes of Israel with light and immortality.

99 The Two Sardonyx Stones Two sardonyx stones were fixed in settings of gold on the High Priest's shoulders; one on the right, and one on the left. The names of the tribes of Israel were engraved upon these two stones, according to the instructions given in Exodus 28:9-10

100 Breastplate & Shoulder-Buckle (Law of Moses) The gleaming shoulder-buckle of onyx stone, engraved with the names of the tribes, and the resplendent collection of twelve differently coloured gems, set in ouches of gold in the breastplate—each having cut into it the name of a tribe—tell us of the objects of the priesthood. 

101 Breastplate & Shoulder-Buckle (Law of Moses) The language of the type is this: “Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart and carry them upon his shoulders when he goeth in unto the holy place, for a memorial before the Lord continually 

102 Ephod (Law of Moses) The heart to love and the shoulders to carry— in memory this agrees with all that Paul tells us in the antitype concerning the priesthood of Christ in Hebrews: “We have a great high priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God”—“to appear in the presence of God for us”—“called of God an high priest after the (perpetual) order of Melchisedec”

103 Breastplate & Shoulder-Buckle (Patterns) In studying this figure, our attention is primarily drawn to the names of the children of Israel inscribed on these two stones “according to their birth." Thus plainly indicating that the twelve natural sons of Israel were represented thereon. Being placed upon the shoulders, a position of priority and power is accorded them.

104 Breastplate & Shoulder-Buckle (Patterns) From these two memorial stones was suspended the Breastplate of judgment, fastened by two wreathen chains to the ouches of gold. For the solution of the mystery hidden beneath these “stones of memorial," with their twelve names twice told, we refer to the New Testament. There, in the words of Paul, the "fellowship of the mystery" is revealed. " Even the mystery which hath been hid from the ages and generations, but is now made manifest to his saints."—Col. 1. 26

105 Breastplate & Shoulder-Buckle (Patterns) "That the Gentiles should be fellow-heirs, and of the same body, and partakers of his promise in Christ by the gospel."—Eph. 3. Two classes of Israelites are represented here; the one class descended from Abraham according to the flesh; the other adopted children through Christ the seed of Abraham: "redeemed out of every kindred, tribe, and people, and nation.”

106 Breastplate & Shoulder-Buckle (Patterns) “And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart" etc. The heart is acknowledged to be the seat of the affections. The beautiful principle of love exhibited in the teachings of the Saviour, forms the perfections of the Body of Christ.

107 Breastplate & Shoulder-Buckle (Patterns) The prophet Isaiah, comparing the love of Christ to the tender care of a shepherd for his flock, says: “He shall gather the lambs with his arm, and carry them in his bosom. "The Urim and Thummim—the lights and fulnesses that shone out through the breastplate—illustrated the glory and beauty arising out of that perfectness of light and measure which is combined in the gospel of Faith, Hope and Love. The names engraven on the two onyx stones are linked with those engraven in the breastplate by two golden chains.

108 Breastplate & Shoulder-Buckle (Patterns) “The wisdom of a tried and precious faith “in the promises and covenants made unto the Fathers, forms the indissoluble bond of union between the two classes of Israelites. The golden chain of FAITH connects them all, and binds them to the ephod or the Body of Christ, as the sacrificial Altar, the Passover Lamb, and the high priest of the holy place.

109 The Mitre and Plate of Gold


111 The Mitre (Law of Moses) This was a head-covering of linen—a crown of righteousness: a different thing, both in form and meaning, from the split, two-horned, towering headpiece of an ecclesiastical bishop: which identifies the wearer with the two-horned beast of the earth. The priest’s mitre was a comfortable bonnet of white, surmounting the entire priestly dress as the token of kindly purity presiding over all. The linen bonnet (or mitre) was fronted by a plate of pure gold.

112 The Crown- The Plate of Pure Gold (Law of Moses) Engraved with the words, “Holiness to the Lord”, and tied with a lace of blue to the forefront of the mitre. The explanation connected with it was this: “It shall be upon Aaron’s forehead, that Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the Lord” (Exod. 28:38).

113 The Crown with Plate of Pure Gold (Law of Moses) “The iniquity of the holy things” is at first sight a strange and obscure expression. It becomes intelligible when we look into it. The holy things were the things which Israel were required to offer, whether as free-will offerings, or firstfruits, or sacrifice. They were made holy in being consecrated to God: but as emanating from an unclean people, they were considered as tainted with their unholiness, and therefore as unfit for presentation, except through a cleansing medium.

114 The Crown with Plate of Pure Gold (Law of Moses) This cleansing medium under the law was the high priest. The defilement came upon him, but was neutralized, as we might say, by the ceremonial holiness of the ever-visible assertion of the holiness of God on the frontal plate of gold. Thus he was qualified to “bear the iniquity of the holy things” without harm, and the offerings through him (with the plate “always upon his forehead”) were “accepted before the Lord”

115 The Mitre and Crown (Patterns) WHITE linen, being an emblem of purity and' righteousness; and pure gold, the “wisdom of a tried and precious Faith,"—the typical relation of this “holy crown " will readily appear.” Christ, the head over all things to the ('Ecclesia') which is his Body." “Who is of God, made unto us wisdom, righteousness, sanctification and redemption."—1 Cor. 1:20.

116 The Mitre and Crown (Patterns) The crown, besides representing mental and moral attributes, is also a symbol of Royal honor and dignity. Isaiah, prophesying of the day that is coming, says,—"In that day shall the Lord of hosts be for a crown of glory, and for a diadem of beauty unto the residue of his people."—Ch. 28:5.

117 The Mitre and Crown (Patterns) Touching the king, the Psalmist says: "Thou preventest him with the blessings of goodness; thou settest a crown of pure gold on his head."— Psalm 21:3. Paul, to the Philippian believers, calls them his “joy and crown." To the Thessalonians; he saith: " For what is our hope, or joy; or crown of rejoicing?— Are not even ye in the presence of our Lord Jesus Christ at his coming?" "Ye are our glory and joy."

118 The Mitre and Crown (Patterns) To the saints, individually, a crown of righteousness is promised: according to the testimony of the apostle Paul; who, when verging towards the end of his course, said:—" I have kept the faith,—henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but unto all them that love his appearing."— 2 Tim. 4:8. These were represented to John in vision ; which he describes under the similitude of the twenty four elders,—clothed in white raiment: and "on their heads crowns of gold."—Rev 4.

119 The Type and Antitype This was the type. The antitype is manifest in Christ, “the mediator between God and men”. Mankind are unfit to offer God anything in which He can take pleasure, by reason of their state—“alienated by wicked works”—“dead in trespasses and in sins”—which are apostolic definitions (Col. 1:21; Eph. 2:1). “We are all as an unclean thing: and all our righteousnesses are as filthy rags” (Isa. 64:6). 

120 The Type and Antitype Yet we are invited to come: yet not in our own capacity, but through one who has borne the iniquity of the invited worshippers in partaking of their unclean nature and coming under the curse of the law which condemned their transgressions, and triumphing over it by resurrection. 

121 The Type and Antitype He has thus borne the iniquity of the antitypical holy things without harm by reason of that “Holiness to the Lord”, which in a tried faith was exhibited to all Israel when manifest in their midst as the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world, and since more conspicuously shown in the preaching of the Apostles: 

122 The Type and Antitype “Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God; to declare, I say, at this time his righteousness: that he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus” (Rom. 3:25–26).

123 In Conclusion (1) The very name of priest has become hateful on earth through the iniquity of man; but we must endeavour to eliminate this present evil world from our ideas, and go back to the appointment of God in Israel to get some true idea of the true glory and beauty of the divine regulation of the world in the age to come. The world is God’s, “that he may be glorified”; this is the first principle, the recognition of which is almost absent from the earth now. True well-being for man upon earth is impossible till it be reinstated in its true position.

124 In Conclusion (1) In Israel everything was for God. The nation was of God. Its first Father was called God. His son Isaac was given of God. His descendants were delivered from Egyptian bondage by God, constituted “a kingdom of priests and a holy nation” by solemn covenant at Sinai. Not only its worship, but its whole life was regulated by God through a priesthood, which in its highest order held direct communication with God. The law of God was administered by this priesthood, a law the true character and beauty of which is only just beginning to dawn upon the minds of modern thinkers, and which was at once a blessing in its regulation of the life that now is, and a wonderful shadow of the conditions of the life to come with Jesus Christ. -- Robert Roberts, e. a. (1907; 2002). The Ministry of the Prophets: Isaiah (Page 713).

125 In Conclusion (2) In due time Jesus came in the flesh. Even at twelve years of age he illustrated Mal. 2:7 to the astonishment of the doctors in the temple. At “about thirty years of age” he entered seriously into a priesthood which was, in fact, the substance of the shadow of the Levitical priesthood with which he was contemporary, and with which also he was always at enmity for its sins. In his baptism in Jordan he “came by water,” and in the crucifixion he “came by blood,” as John afterwards declared (1 Jno. 5:6). In his resurrection to eternal life he was “clothed in the garments of salvation,” and “covered with the robe of righteousness” and decked with a priestly crown (Is. 61:10).

126 In Conclusion (2) All the “glory and beauty” of the typical high- priestly garments is antitypically fulfilled in Christ. The “golden bells and pomegranates” of the high priest’s robe find their substance in the music of a true and precious faith in the praise and prayer and preaching of the Lord Jesus; and those “fruits of the spirit” by which he says the Father is glorified. Vol. 47: The Christadelphian : Volume 47. 2001, c1910

127 Collectively these materials symbolize… Christ, our High Priest A perfect one separated and cleansed Then, exalted to royalty by covenant Operating on sin’s flesh and working righteousness This was and is a wonderful work of God!

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