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CRITERIA 1Observation7Manipulated variable(what to change) 2Inference8Responding variable(what to measure) 3Predicting9Controlled variable( Kept the same) 4Trend10Aim 5Relationship11Hyphotesis 6ConclusionTotal 20 marks

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Science Process Skills Inference 2 Inference 2 Inference 2 Inference 2 Variables 3 Variables 3 Variables 3 Variables 3 Observing 1 Observing 1 Observing 1 Observing 1 Predict 4 Predict 4 Predict 4 Predict 4 Hypothesis 5 Hypothesis 5 Hypothesis 5 Hypothesis 5 Interpret data 6 Interpret data 6 Interpret data 6 Interpret data 6

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Using the five senses State the similarities /differences / changes that can be observed in the pictures / tables / statements. Key words to answer: Tounge hand eyes ears nose

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What can you observe ? The leaf releases bubbles Daun membebaskan gelembung udara 3. Hot water Leaf Hot water Leaf

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State your observation based on the two pictures above The fish in aquarium B is bigger than the fish in aquarium A. Ikan dalam akurium B lebih besar daripada ikan dalam akurium A Aquarium A Aquarium B Aquarium A Aquarium B Aquarium A

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What can you observe from the picture ? Spring Q stretches longer than spring P. Spring Q lebih panjang daripada spring P P Q

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What can you see from the pictures ? Magnet A attracts more paper clips than magnet B. Magnet A menarik lebih banyak klip kertas daripada klip B A B

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Year No. of elephants in the forest State your observation from this investigation. The number of the elephant decreased. Bilangan gajah berkurangan

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After two weeks What do you observe after two weeks? PQ The shoot of plant Q moves towards the hole. / The shoot of plant P moves upwards. Pucuk pokok Q bergerak ke arah lubang

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Making an initial conclusion to explain an event based certain causes or reasons. State a reasonable explanation from the observation. State other reasonable explanation State additional observation for the inferences. Membuat kesimpulan awal, penerangan, atau alasan

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State two inferences about the growth of the two plants after a week. Plant Y gets enough water compared plant X Plant Y gets enough sunlight compared plant X Pokok Y mendapat air/cahaya/ruang/baja/mineral yang mencukupi berbanding pokok X X Y 1 2

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An astronaut grows a species of plant at planet X. He found out that plants could not grow there. State two possible reasons for this observation. No air // No water // Far from the sun or // Near to the sun. Tiada udara//Tiada air//Jauh dari matahari// Dekat dengan matahari

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Objects Do not light up the bulbLight up the bulb Group A String Comb Plastic ruler Group B Nail Needle Key State two inferences about the differences between objects in group A and group B. A is insulator and B is conductor A is plastic and B is metal A penebat/plastik dan B konduktor/besi i ii

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Types of object Tissue paper TowelSponge Volume of water absorbed/ml Why the volume of water absorbed by the various objects were different? Different properties of the objects Keupayaan menyerap air setiap bahan berbeza

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Both plants were watered once in a week. After 3 weeks, the rose plant died while the cactus is still alive. cactus rose plant State two inferences to explain why the cactus plant survived? Its succulent stems can store water. Its needle-shape leaves reduce water loss. Batang kaktus menyimpan air Daun berbentuk duri mengurangkan kehilangan air i ii

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State your inference based on the result of the experiment. The grasshopper in container A is still alive because it has air to breathe. Belalang dalam bekas A hidup kerana ada udara untuk bernafas. CONTAINER OBSERVATION AFTER A WEEK Container A Grasshopper stays alive Container B Grasshopper died AB

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State variables involved in an experiment. State What to change (Manipulated Variables) State What to measure (Responding Variables) State What to keep the same ( Controlled Variables) Key words to answer Size of the shadow Parameter + Object

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a) State what is : Size of flower / type of flower Colour of flower Height of flower after 2 week Constant variables : Manipulated variables : Responding variable :

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Length of thread / cm Oscillations of pendulum FIGURE 1 – OSCILLATIONS OF PENDULUM 1. What to change Length of thread. 2. What to observe Number of oscillations.

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A group of year six pupils gathered information about the temperature in the cage. The table below shows the information obtained by the pupils. Number of animals in the cage Temperature in the cage / ºC In the investigation: (i) What to change Number of animals. (ii) What to measure Temperature in a cage. (iii) What to keep the same Size of the cage.

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Number of batteries 123 Brightness of the bulbs DimBrightBrighter (i) What to change Number of batteries. (ii) What to measure Brightness of bulbs. Based on this result, state the following variables:

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In this investigation, state the following: (i) What to change Presence of air. (ii) What to observe The condition of the plant. (iii) What to keep the same Type of plant. Plant B Plant A

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Amount of water absorbed (ml) Sponges RS T U Four different sizes of sponges were soaked in 100ml of water. The amount of water absorbed by the sponges are given in the graph. (i) What to change The size of the sponge. (ii) What to measure Amount of water absorbed. State the following variables:

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The table below shows their observations In an investigation, a group of pupils use a spring powered toy car. Number of times the spring is wound Distanced traveled (cm) Time taken (second) a)State : Constant variables : Distanced traveled Manipulated variables : Number of times the spring is wound Responding variable : Time taken b)What is aim of the investigation ? To investigate the relationship between Number of times the spring is wound and Time taken

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Anticipating future events based on observation and inferences. Making prediction based on data collected before hand to determine what will follow. State what will happen by extrapolating data. Key words to answer The answers could be in figure or in the form of statement.

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What will happen to plant Q after 1 week? After 1 week. Plant Q will die. Pokok Q akan mati

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Predict what would happen if a nail is used in this circuit? The bulb will light up. Mentol akan menyala

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Time Room temperature ( o C) 7.00am am am pm pm pm pm Predict the room temperature at 7pm. 18 o C

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Making educated guesses which can be tested based on evidence collected. State the relationship between variables. What to change (W2C) What to measure (W2M) Key words to answer As the (W2C) increases/decreases, the ( W2M ) increases/decreases. or Science concept or general statement can also be used to answer the question. Plants need water to stay alive // Light travels in straight line.

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c) What is the pattern / the trend of : Number of seedlings : Average height of seedlings : ………………………… More/Increase Less/Decrease d) What can be concluded from this study ? The ………. ( Manipulated variables ), the ……….. ( Responding variables ) The more Number of seedlings, the less Average height of seedlings ContainerNumber of seedlingsAverage height of seedlings P316 cm Q612 cm R98 cm

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TREND Increase / decrease /no change / same / more / less RELATIONSHIP The more / less ( MV ), the more / less ( RV ) Key Word to answer Use the science concept ( e.g) Plants need water to stay alive AIM To investigate the relationship between MV and RV Conclusion The more / less ( MV ), the more / less ( RV ) The more number of iron balls, the more level of water The more number of bulb, the dimmer brightness of bulb

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AGE(YEAR)HEIGHT(CM) Based on the result, write the hypothesis that has been tested. The more the age, the more the height

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Using the information above, write a hypothesis for this investigation. The mouse needs food to live. Week 1 Week 2

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What is the hypothesis of the experiment ? 2 ml14 ml8 ml The more number of iron balls, the more level of water

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Based on the table, what is the hypothesis of the experiment ? Time (second) Length of String (cm) Number of Swings The more the length of the string, the less the number of swings

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Interpreting Data

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Explain the patterns or relationships based on the Information gathered.

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2 ml14 ml8 ml What is the trend of water level as more marbles are added? Increase.

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Time (min) Water temperature ( o C) Based on the table, state the trend of the water temperature. Increase, no change // remain the same

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Year No of owls in the estate Based on the investigation, state the number of owls in the estate from the year Decrease, increase, decrease.

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What conclusion can be made from this investigation ? Plants need water to grow. Week 1 Week 2 Plant A Plant B

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AGE(YEAR)WEIGHT(KG) What is the relationship between the two variables? If the age increases, so the weight also increases.

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Number of battery Brightness of bulb 1Dim 2Bright 3Brighter State the aim of the investigation. To investigate the relationship between the number of batteries and the brightness of the bulb.

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What can you conclude from this experiment? Plant breathes. Tumbuhan bernafas

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State one conclusion from this experiment. Animals need food to live. Haiwan memerlukan makanan untuk hidup Week 2 Week 1

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Week1234 Number of frogs Number of snakes State the aim of the investigation ? To investigate the relationship between the number of frogs and the number of snakes.

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State the purpose of the investigation. To investigate the relationship between the number of marbles and the level of water Water Level (ml) 1234 Number of marbles

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The length of spring 3cm6cm9cm Mass1086 What is the aim of this experiment ? To investigate the relationship between the length of spring and the mass.

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Three containers R,S and T, containing equal amounts of garden soil are planted with bean seedlings of the same height. The seedlings are planted 5 cm from each other. The container are left in the open and watered with the same amount of water daily. After three weeks the average height of the seedlings in the containers are taken. The results are shown in the table. Container Number of seedlings Average height of seedlings P3 16 cm Q6 12 cm R9 8 cm Constant variables:…………………………………….. Manipulated variables :………………………………... Responding variable : ……………………………….. a) State what is : b)What is aim of the investigation ? To investigate the relationship between………………and ……………………

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Three containers R,S and T, containing equal amounts of garden soil are planted with bean seedlings of the same height. The seedlings are planted 5 cm from each other. The container are left in the open and watered with the same amount of water daily. After three weeks the average height of the seedlings in the containers are taken. The results are shown in the table. Container Number of seedlings Average height of seedlings P3 16 cm Q6 12 cm R9 8 cm Constant variables : Manipulated variables : Responding variable : a) State what is : b)What is aim of the investigation ? To investigate the relationship between Number of seedlings and Average height of seedlings Amount of garden soil / amount of water Number of seedlings Average height of seedlings

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c) What is the pattern / the trend of : Number of times the spring is wound : Distanced traveled : ……………………… Time taken : ………………………… Number of times the spring is wound Distanced traveled (cm) Time taken (second) Increase same Decrease d) What can be concluded from this study ? The ………. ( Manipulated variables ), the ……….. ( Responding variables ) The more number of times the spring is wound, the less time taken

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In an investigation, a 3 cm candle is lit. The remaining length of the candle is recorded at regular intervals as shown in the table below. 1. Based on the experiment, state the following variables: What to change/manipulated:……………………………………………… What to measure/responding :………………………………………………… Kept the same /controlled : ………………………………………………….

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b) What are the relationship between what to change and what to observe? a) State the relationship between two variables The result of the investigation are recorded in the following. Height of lamp from the table (cm) Length of shadow cast (cm) c) What can be concluded from this investigation? d) Make a hyphothesis from this investigation ? The ………. ( Manipulated variables ), the ……….. ( Responding variables ) The less height of lamp from the table, the more length of shadow cast

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