Presentation on theme: "Greek Food A journey to Heaven 2 nd High School of Ano Lios 2 ia Comenius Project Namestovo, Slovakia."— Presentation transcript:
Greek Food A journey to Heaven 2 nd High School of Ano Lios 2 ia Comenius Project Namestovo, Slovakia
Introduction Greece is at a historical crossroads of cultures. Looking around us we can detect elements from these cultures almost anywhere in Greece as well as their fertile assimilation in the course of time. Apart from the monuments, the antiquities, the dialects, the traditional costumes and anything else that might mark a certain culture, its preferences for taste also constitute an important trait which makes it stand out from other peoples. We have evidence on the choices of taste of the Greeks of the antiquity of even three-four thousand years ago. Although there have been fluctuations in the passing of such a long period of time, the main constituents of Greek cooking have virtually remained unchangeable shaping the context of what we nowadays call the Mediterranean diet and which is a top dietary choice for those who wish to reduce potential health dangers. In a mild climate which requires not many fats as such is the case in cold North Europe, the basis of the Greek diet is the legumes, the vegetables and the olive oil. In general, when having a meal, the Greeks are used to having a salad of tomatoes, cucumber and olives. Many times this dish is enriched with the traditional white Greek cheese, feta, which is now protected as a product which is made only in Greece by the law of the European Union, too. Alternatively, one may have boiled greens (greens picked in the open air), a dietary particularity not found in the diets of other European peoples and which actually comes from the need to find food in hard times when enemies had occupied Greece and where there was a serious food supply problem. As the religious convictions of the Greek people prompt them to abstinence from consuming meat on Wednesday and Friday, those days the necessary proteins were taken by eating legumes and mainly lentils, beans and chickpea. Despite the generally frugal type of the everyday Greek menu, things change when there is an occasion for celebration. On such occasions the influence of taste choices of the Greeks of the East, who due to political and financial circumstances returned to their homeland from time to time, also becomes evident. At the table along with the mellow local wine there are many delicacies for appetizers some of which are mentioned in our presentation. The main courses primarily include meat cooked in many ways. Lamb, kid meat and pork are among Greeks' favourites. They are usually served roast and if they are cooked in casserole they are accompanied by delightful sauces which enthral the palate.
On the Greek islands, meat is quite often replaced by fresh fish from the deep blue Aegean Sea and the emerald Ionion Sea. Roast, fried or boiled, fish also contributes to the banquet of tastes which take off anyone who has the pleasure of taking part in a Greek feast. Naturally a meal is never considered whole without sweets. These sweets are usually syrupy and make one recall sweets from the East such as baklavas. On special occasions such as Christmas and Easter, pies, buns and biscuits are offered to celebrate these days. On Sunday mornings the Greeks enjoy reading their newspapers while having Greek coffee and teaspoon sweets in the company of the almost always bright Greek sun. Thus it is not absurd that philosophy was born in Greece among conversations that started during feasts and continued during walks in cool gardens. In their works Plato, Aristotle and Epicurus study the notion of bliss probably having in mind that the satisfaction of the needs of the body with respect to taste, when not exaggerated, gives us psychological uplift. Therefore when all sorts of temptations lie before us as on the table there are many different goodies, we should not forget as we are carried away by minor sins that we should keep "all things in moderation." With these thoughts we invite you to taste the Greek recipes and we say to you, what else? – "Kali Orexi"! (Enjoy your meal!) The Comenius team 2 nd high School of Ano Lios 2 ia Icons of Identity 2008
...food has been important for Greeks
Eggplant with bell pepper, feta, and green olives Eggplant with bell pepper, feta, and green olives (a dance of tastes) INGREDIENTS Olive oil 1 2 1/2- to 3-inch-diameter eggplant, cut into six 3/4-inch-thick rounds, then halved to form 12 semicircles 1 long slender red bell pepper, cut into six 1/4- inch-thick rings, then halved to form 12 curved strips 1/2 cup crumbled feta cheese (about 2 ounces) 12 small inner leaves of butter lettuce 10 large imported green Greek olives, pitted, chopped 1 teaspoon finely chopped fresh oregano PREPARATION Pour enough oil into heavy large skillet to coat bottom; heat over medium heat. Add eggplant to skillet, arranging in single layer. Sprinkle eggplant with salt and pepper. Sauté until cooked through, but not browned, about 3 minutes per side. Transfer eggplant to sheet of foil; reserve skillet. Arrange 1 bell pepper strip atop rounded edge of each eggplant piece, trimming to fit, if necessary. Sprinkle cheese atop eggplant. do ahead Can be made 2 hours ahead. Let stand at room temperature. Arrange lettuce leaves on platter. Reheat oil in skillet over medium heat. Place eggplant, cheese side up, into skillet. Cover and cook until cheese softens and begins to melt, about 4 minutes. Place 1 eggplant piece atop each lettuce leaf. Sprinkle each with olives and oregano.
Roasted feta with olives and red peppers ( a prelude to a delightful taste ) INGREDIENTS 1/2 lb feta (preferably Greek), rinsed and drained 1/4 teaspoon dried oregano, crumbled 1/4 teaspoon black pepper 1/4 cup bottled roasted red peppers, chopped 10 Kalamata or other brine-cured black olives, pitted, rinsed, and coarsely chopped (1/4 cup) 2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil PREPARATION Preheat broiler. Cut cheese into 1/2-inch-thick slices and divide evenly among 4 small flameproof baking dishes (or arrange in 1 layer in a large one). Sprinkle oregano and pepper over cheese. Stir together roasted peppers, olives, and oil in a small bowl, then spoon mixture over and around cheese. Broil 2 to 4 inches from heat until edges of cheese are golden, about 5 minutes.
TZATZIKI (the great) Ingredients 1 ½ cup yogurt 2 cucumbers 4-6 garlic cloves 4 spoonfuls olive oil little vinegar salt Directions Grate the cucumber or cut it thin. Drain and salt it. Add the crushed garlic, vinegar and yogurt and stir well. Finally, add oil. Tzatziki is best served with souvlaki or roast meat.
Skordalia (a magic touch) ½ cup olive oil 5-6 garlic cloves crumb from 5 slices of bread a little vinegar salt Directions Peel the garlic and put it in the vinegar for about 5 hours. Melt the garlic and add the bread you have already soaked and which you have drained well. Pour 2 or 3 spoonfuls of vinegar, add salt and beat the mixture adding olive oil slowly. Skordalia is best served with fried codfish, fried zucchini or eggplants. * You can also replace bread with 5 boiled medium potatoes while they are hot.
The main course
Lamb in the Oven ( A secret recipe from mother to daughter) What we need One 7- to 8-pound leg of lamb, main bone removed, shank bone intact Coarse salt and freshly ground pepper 1 garlic clove, quartered 2 tablespoons olive oil 1½ teaspoons dried Greek oregano ½ cup dry white wine 2 ½ cups Chicken Stock Marinated Tomatoes Herbed Bread Crumbs One 7- to 8-pound leg of lamb, main bone removed, shank bone intact Coarse salt and freshly ground pepper 1 garlic clove, quartered 2 tablespoons olive oil 1½ teaspoons dried Greek oregano ½ cup dry white wine 2 ½ cups Chicken Stock Marinated Tomatoes Herbed Bread Crumbs
How we do it (its not so complicated as it seems) For my entire life, every celebration—birthdays, Easter, whatever—will find some type ο f lamb ο n the table. This is my interpretation ο f a dish that both my mother and my grandmother made. Ask the butcher t ο prepare the lamb. Although it's a simple process, it can be accomplished very quickly by a trained butcher. Combine the bread crumbs, garlic, and oregano in a small mixing bowl. Squeeze the lemon juice over the mixture, tossing to blend. Drizzle with the olive oil and season with a pinch of salt and pepper. The crumbs should stick together when pinched; if not, add a bit more olive oil. Lay the lamb out flat on a clean work surface. Season the top with salt and pepper. Starting at a narrow end, roll the lamb up, cigar-fashion. Using kitchen string, tie the meat in place s ο that it will hold its shape and cook evenly. 2. Make 4 small slits in the lamb. Insert a garlic sliver into each slit. Lightly coat the lamb with olive oil. Sprinkle the oregano over the lamb and again season with salt and pepper. Wrap in plastic wrap and refrigerate for at least 3 and up to 12 hours. 3. When ready to roast, preheat the oven to 450°F. 4. Remove the lamb from the refrigerator, unwrap, and place it in a large roasting pan. Place in the preheated oven and roast for 25 minutes. 5. Remove the lamb from the oven and pour the wine into the pan. Add the stock, reduce the oven temperature to 400°F and return the pan to the oven. Roast, basting frequently with the pan juices, for 40 t ο 50 minutes. If the pan juices dry up, add stock or water as needed. 6. Remove the lamb from the oven. Spoon a thin layer of marinated tomatoes over the lamb, pressing down slightly to make them adhere. Return the lamb to the oven and roast, basting every 5 minutes, for 10 minutes. Sprinkle on the Herbed Bread Crumbs (recipe below), lightly pressing to make them adhere. Roast for 5 minutes longer. 7. Remove the lamb from the oven and allow it to rest for 15 minutes before cutting the strings and slicing for serving. Herbed Bread Crumbs Makes about 1 cup 1 cup Fresh Bread Crumbs 1 garlic clove, minced 1 teaspoon dried Greek oregano Juice of 1 lemon ¼ cup extra virgin olive ο il Coarse salt and freshly ground pepper Combine the bread crumbs, garlic, and oregano in a small mixing bowl. Squeeze the lemon juice over the mixture, tossing to blend. Drizzle with the olive oil and season with a pinch of salt and pepper. The crumbs should stick together when pinched; if not, add a bit more olive oil.
The King of Greek Food (known almost everywhere in the world)
Souvlaki 1 kg (2.2 pounds) tender meat (pork, beef, veal, lamb, boned chicken, intestines or fillet of fish) skewers Marinade 75 gr (2.7 oz) onions, sliced 30 gr (1 oz) carrots, sliced 30 g/1 oz celery 2-4 cloves of garlic, chopped parsley, finely chopped grated rind from ½ lemon 1-2 lemons, freshly squeezed 2-7 tsp salt 75 ml (0.16 pints) olive oil 125 ml (0.26 pints) white wine or water Herbs 1 pinch of thyme 1 pinch of rosemary 1 pinch of coriander 4 pinches of oregano 2 pinches of ground cloves 4 pinches of black pepper 1 bay leaf Instructions: Cut the meat into small cubes, put all the ingredients for the marinade into a clay pot, mix well, toss in the meat and leave to marinate for hours. Put the meat on the skewers and cook on a slow burning grill for 4 to 6 minutes. Serve hot. Note: For skewered game, add 125 ml/0.26 pints wine and 125 ml/0.26 pints water to the marinade, together with 2-4 dessert spoons of vinegar and 2 dessert spoons of tsipouro and brandy. Boil the marinade for 30 to 40 minutes, leave to cool and then marinate and cook as above.
Moussaka (sometimes the only Greek word a tourist knows) INGREDIENTS 1 kg aubergines (large or/and elongated variety) 160 ml vegetable oil (about 1 teacup) 1 large onionn, finely sliced 450 gr. minced beef 1 glass white wine (not retsina, but aretsinoto) 350 gr. fresh tornatoes, 1400 gr. tomatoes, drained of some of their juice and chopped teaspoon ground cinnamonn teaspoon ground allspice salt and black pepper 1 teaspoon oreganoo 25 gr. grated parmesan, kefalotiri, or Gruyere cheesee some chopped parsley Bechamel Sauce 80 gr. butter 80 gr. flour 600 ml warm milk salt and white pepper 30 gr. grated Parmesan or Gruyere cheese 2 egg yolks Topping z 60 gr. grated Parmesan,Gruyere or kefalotiri cheese 4 tablespoons toasted breadcrumbs <>
Start the experiment.... Moussaka should be baked in the oven. Use a roasting container, eitber square or oblong, approximately 25x25 cm or 39x28 cm. It is recommended that you spread the work involved over two days for your convinience; one can easily cook the meat the day before, witbout the Moussaka suffering at all. Do not do the same with the aubergines; they should be fried on the day. Aubergines Top and tail the aubergines, without peeling them. Rinse them, cut them lengthways in 75-mm thick slices and immerse them in salted water, for 30 minutes.Take them out, squeeze gently, rinse, then squeeze them again. Drain them in a colander and pat dry. Fry them in hot vegetable oil until they become pale golden on both sides; you can either deep-fry them, which is easier but they absorb a lot of oil, or shallow-fry them. In either case, drain them on absorbent paper on a flat platter before serving, so that most of their oil will dribble away. Meat Sautee the sliced onion in 2 tablespoons vegetable oil, until it looks glistening. Add the meat and sautee together, stirring, until all the lumps are broken down and the meat starts to change colour. Pour in the wine, add tomatoes, sliced finely, the spices, salt and pepper and the oregano. Cover and cook for 20 minutes, stirring from time to time in case it sticks. Then mix in the grated cheese and parsley. Bechamel Sauce Melt the butter and, away from the heat, gradually add the flour and stir to amalgamate. Return to the heat and gradually add the milk and seasoning, stirring continuously. Simmer for 9-10 minutes, stirring, until it has thickened considerably. Withdraw the pan from the heat, let it stand briefly, then add the cheese and the egg yolks. Stir to amalgamate them. Do not let the sauce boil after this. It should by now be a thick bechamel, to enable it to sit on top of the meat mixture and form a kind of crust. To assemble, cover the base of the roasting dish with half of the fried aubergines, then spread half of the meat mixture evenly on top of them and cover neatly with the remaining aubergines. Spread the remaining meat and sauce evenly over the top and cover neatly with the bechamel sauce. Sprinkle the grated cheese all over the top, and the breadcrumbs. Moussaka from Macedonia may contain a layer of thinly sliced roun potatoes which have been fried first. Bake in a pre-heated oven, gas no.4/ 350 grades F/ 180 grades C, for 1 hour, untit a golden crust is formed all over the top. Let it stand for 5 minutes before serving, in order to be able to cut it more easily. To serve, cut into square or oblong-shaped pieces, about 8 cm thick. It should be quite dry by then and the pieces should ideally stay intact.
Pork with beans Ingredients 1 ½ kilo pork meat ½ kilo dried beans or giant beans 1 ½ cup tomato juice ½ cup olive oil 1 big onion salt, pepper Directions Pour oil in a saucepan, sauté the onion and add the meat that you have cut in pieces. Let meat brown. Add salt and pepper and tomato juice. Let the food cook. Boil the beans and drain them. When the meat is almost ready, pour some water in the sauce and add the beans. Let the food boil and make sure it has enough sauce.
Meatpie of Epirus ( a favorite dish of greek highlanders) Ingredients 1 packet phyllo (pastry sheets) 1 ½ kilo lamb or kid meat 4 onions in slices 250 grams grated "kefalograviera" (hard yellow cheese) 5 whisked eggs 1 teaspoon dill ¾ cup olive oil salt and pepper Directions Let the meat and onions boil for 1 ½ hours. Bake 2 pastry sheets and crumble them. Add the cheese, eggs, dill, salt and pepper and the meat to the pastry. Put 3 pastry sheets in a baking pan and spread oil over them. Place the filling and cover with 2 more pastry sheets. Bake at 200 C for 1 hour. (preheated oven)
Anchovy in vine leaves (what gourmet means) Ingredients 1 kilo anchovy fresh vine leaves ½ cup olive oil the juice of 3 lemons 2 cups water slices of lemon oregano salt and pepper Directions Clean the fish cutting their head and removing the entrails. Wash the fish well and drain them. Salt them. Roll one fish at a time in vine leaves and put them in a baking pan. Pour water, oil and lemon juice over them. Add pepper and oregano and cover with the slices of lemon. Cover the food with thick plate and bake (medium heat) until the leaves are soft and water evaporates.
Fish soup (Delicious not only when the weather is cold!) Ingredients 1 ½ kilo of fish (appropriate for boiling) the juice of 1 lemon 1 cup olive oil 2 onions in slices 5 cups water 2 tomatoes ½ cup white wine salt, pepper a small bunch of sweet-smelling herbs: a little parsley, a little celery and 1 bay leaf Directions Clean and wash the fish. Sprinkle with lemon juice. Put the oil and onions in a saucepan and let sauté. Add the water, pulped tomatoes, wine, salt and pepper, and herbs. Once the food boils, add the fish. Put lid on saucepan and let the fish soup simmer for 35 minutes. Remove the fish from its stew, put it in the herb-mill and re-boil it with rice. Prepare avgolemono (egg and lemon sauce) and add in the fish soup.
Greek coffee and sweets
Tiganites ( an ancient recipe) INGREDIENTS 200gr white flour 50gr peeled almonds 50gr walnuts 50gr sesame 150gr honey (thyme fed) 3 eggs METHOD Crush the almonds and walnuts well. Grind the sesame. Preheat the oven to 200oC. Beat the eggs with the honey and slowly add the flour and all the other ingredients, beating constantly. Grease a cake pan and sprinkle with the ground sesame and add the batter. Bake for 45 minutes, leaving the oven door open a bit for the first 10 minutes. When done remove from the oven and take the cake out of the pan. Cover with a towel until cool.
Batter Puffs with Honey and Cinnamon INGREDIENTS 1 c Boiling water 1 ts Baking powder 4 tb Butter or margarine 4 eggs 1/4 ts Salt Olive or other vegetable oil 1 tb Granulated sugar Honey; warmed 1/2 ts Grated orange rind Ground cinnamon 1 c All-purpose flour METHOD I n a medium-sized saucepan, combine the boiling water, butter, salt, sugar, and orange rind. Bring to a boil. Meanwhile, sift together the flour and baking powder. Add the dry ingredients all at once to the hot mixture, beating hard with a wooden spoon over medium heat until the mixture forms a compact mass and leaves the sides of the pan. Remove from the heat and let cool for 1 minute. Add the eggs, one at a time, beating hard after each addition; the mixture should be smooth, glossy, and thick. Heat the oil (which should be 2-1/2 to 3 inches deep) almost to the smoking point, then drop the batter by tablespoons into the oil, without crowding, to form puffs. When the puffs surface, turn them to fry on all sides, using tongs, then lift them out, drain off excess oil on absorbent paper. Place on warm platter and keep warm. If using the syrup, boil the syrup ingedients for 5 minutes; spoon the syrup, or warm honey, over the puffs, sprinkle with cinnamon, and serve hot.
Nutpie (Karydopitta) Ingredients For the syrup you need: 1 cup sugar 3 cups sugar 1 cup milk 2 cups water ½ cup butter 1 spoonful lemon juice 2 cups pounded nuts mixed cinnamon and ground clove 1 ½ cup ground rusk 1 ½ cup flour 5 eggs 1 teaspoon soda (powder) 3 teaspoons baking powder 2 spoonfuls cognac Directions Beat the butter, sugar and eggs. Pour the milk, nuts, cinnamon and clove, add the soda which you have dissolved in the cognac and, finally, add the rusk, flour and baking powder, all three of which you have mixed together. Stir the mixture well and empty it in a buttered baking pan the surface of which you have already sprinkled over with flour. Bake for about one hour (medium heat). Prepare the syrup. Pour the syrup while the nutpie is hot.
Fanouropitta (a pie prepared when one wishes to find a lost object or even a missing person; it's made in honour of Saint Fanourios and when made, it is cut in pieces and given away to people one either knows or not, and, in particular outside a church) Ingredients 1 kilo flour 20 grams baking powder 2 glasses olive oil 2 glasses sugar 1 glass water the juice of 1 lemon 1 teaspoon cinnamon 1 teaspoon clove a little nutmeg 1 teaspoon soda (powder) black raisins mastic (pounded) sesame Directions Warm up the water with the cinnamon, nutmeg and clove. In a bowl put the sugar, oil, the water with the spices that have already been warmed up and stir well. After that, add the lemon juice, bicarb, flour, mastic and raisins. Put the mixture in a buttered baking pan, sprinkle sesame over it and bake for about 1 hour (medium heat).
Melomakarona (traditional Christmas sweet) Ingredients For the syrup you need: 1 ½ cup oil 2 cups sugar ½ cup butter 2 cups honey 1 cup sugar 2 cups water ¾ cup orange juice (Boil for 5 minutes) ¼ cup cognac 2 spoonfuls scraped orange 2 teaspoons baking powder 2 teaspoons soda powder 1 kilo flour Directions Mix all the ingredients and make "melomakarona" in various shapes. Bake at 175 C for 30 minutes. Once baked, remove them from the oven and pour syrup over them.
Traditional Easter biscuits IngredientsIngredients 250 grams butter250 grams butter 2 cups sugar2 cups sugar 1 kilo flour1 kilo flour 30 grams ammonia30 grams ammonia 150 grams milk150 grams milk 1/3 small glass cognac1/3 small glass cognac 6 eggs6 eggs 1 teaspoon vanilla1 teaspoon vanilla DirectionsDirections Beat the butter with sugar and after a while, add eggs. After melting the ammonia in lukewarm milk, add it in the mixture. Add the cognac, vanilla and flour to make the pastry. Make biscuits in different shapes and place them in a buttered baking pan. Bake at 200 C.Beat the butter with sugar and after a while, add eggs. After melting the ammonia in lukewarm milk, add it in the mixture. Add the cognac, vanilla and flour to make the pastry. Make biscuits in different shapes and place them in a buttered baking pan. Bake at 200 C.
Cherry spoon sweet Ingredients 1 kilo cherries ( white-heart cherries) 1 kilo sugar 1 cup water 1 teaspoon lemon juice A little vanilla ( powder) Directions Choose big and hard cherries. Wash them well and remove stems, and leaves. Also remove the stones of the cherries by using a special tool. Boil sugar and water stirring well in the beginning. Once the mixture is thick, remove it from heat and let it cool a little. Then, add cherries in the mixture and boil it again. Remove bubbles and when the mixture is thick again, pour lemon juice and add vanilla. When cool, put the mixture in jars.
Homemade liquers Jasmine ratafia Ingredients 500 grams sugar 1 litre water 200 grams jasmine (the flowers) 1 litre pure alcohol Directions Prepare syrup with the water and sugar. Once it starts boiling, put the well-cleaned flowers in a saucepan and cover with lid. Remove from heat and let stand for 10 minutes. Then pour the drink in a bottle, add the alcohol and leave for days. After filtering the drink, pour it in bottles.
Mandarin orange liquor Ingredients 5 orange peels 5 mandarin orange peels 1 kilo ouzo 1 ½ kilo cognac 3 glasses sugar 2 glasses water Directions Put the orange and mandarin orange peels with 1 kilo of cognac in a glass jar and let stand for 20 days. Then prepare syrup by boiling the water and the sugar for 10 minutes. Drain the peels well and stir the cognac with the syrup in a big container. Add half kilo of cognac and the ouzo. The drink is ready; pour it in bottles.
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