2What is a wave?A wave is a disturbance that passes through a medium. A wave transmits energy not matter!
3What is Sound?sound is a type of wavewaves are caused by vibrations.vibrations are the source of all sound.a vibration is a repeated motion.
4Classifying WavesElectromagnetic Wave: is a wave which is capable of transmitting its energy through a vacuum (i.e., empty space). Electromagnetic waves are produced by the vibration of electrons within atoms on the Sun's surface. These waves subsequently travel through the vacuum of outer space, subsequently reaching Earth.Mechanical Wave: is a wave which is not capable of transmitting its energy through a vacuum. Mechanical waves require a medium in order to transport their energy from one location to another. A sound wave is an example of a mechanical wave.
5Transverse WaveTransverse Waves – are due to vibrations in which particles of the medium move in a direction perpendicular to the direction motion. ex. whip.
6Longitudinal WavesLongitudinal Waves – are due to vibrations in which particles of the medium move in a direction parallel to the direction of motion.
7Properties of Transverse Waves Crest: the highest point on a wave.Trough: the lowest point on a wave.Amplitude (A): the distance from the rest position to the maximum displacement.Wavelength (): the distance that one complete cycle of a wave takes.
8Properties of Longitudinal Waves Compressions: regions where the particles come togetherRarefactions: regions where the particles are further apart.Wavelength (): is the midpoint between successive compressions and rarefactions.
9Wave Terms cycle: one complete repetition of the pattern or vibration. period (T): the time required to complete one cycle.Frequency ( f ): # of cycles per second. units: Hertz (Hz)How does f relate to T?
10PhaseWaves in phase have crests and troughs arriving at the same place at the same time.Waves out of phase have crests that arrive coincident with a trough of the second wave.Objects are out of phase if during any part of their cycles, the two objects are moving in opposite directions.
12Diffraction of WavesWhen a straight wave propagates forward and passes through an opening the wave tends to bend or diffract. Can also occur when a wave passes an edge or around an object.Diffraction helps us explain why we can hear around corners.We tend to hear the lower bass notes more than the higher treble notes when listening to music in another room due to the fact that longer wavelengths diffract better than shorter wavelengths.
13Refraction of WavesA wave can change it’s speed when it enters a new medium. It’s frequency will remain the same. i.e. if there are 10 crests approaching the boundary between the media then 10 crests should enter the new medium.The wavelength does change though. If the wave slows down the waves bunch up causing a shorter λ.
14Transmission and Reflection of Waves One dimensional waves react in a special way when they are reflected.In the case of a fixed-end reflection a crest reflects as a trough and a trough reflects as a crest.On the other hand if the reflection occurs from a free-end, where the medium or particles are free to move, there is no inversion. Crests reflect as crests and troughs reflect as troughs.
15In both fixed and free end reflections there is no change in wavelength, frequency or the speed of the pulse, since the medium is the same.When a waves travels through a different medium it’s speed and wavelength change.At the boundary between the 2 media, some reflection occurs. It is called partial reflection.The phase of transmitted waves is unaffected in all partial reflections, but inversion of the reflected wave occurs when the wave passes from a fast medium to a slow medium.
16Speed of Waves The Universal Wave Equation When we create a transverse wave with a rope we must perform one complete vibration to have one complete wave.The wave travels one complete wavelength (λ) in the time it takes to complete one period of vibration (T).
17We already know.If we substitute λ for ∆d and T for ∆t we get .We can also express in terms of frequency as well:
19(At normal atmospheric pressures) Speed of SoundAt normal atmospheric pressure and at 0° C, it is 331 m/s (about 1200km/h).If the atmospheric pressure remains constant, the speed of sound increases as the temperature increases. The speed changes by 0.6m/s for each degree Celsius.(At normal atmospheric pressures)Facts: sound travels 15 times faster in steel than it does in airsound travels 4 times faster in water than air(pg 278 for more)
21Mach NumberWe use Mach number rather than kilometres per hour for high speed aircraft like a Concorde jet.It is the ratio of the speed of the object to the speed of sound.Therefore to travel Mach 1 you must travel the speed of sound 1200km/hr.Top 50 Fastest Aircraft
22The Sound Barrier Subsonic Speeds: slower than the speed of sound. Air molecules are pushed forward by the leading edge of the wing. Compressions travel forward, faster than the wing.As a result, compressions push other air molecules out of the way.Sonic or Supersonic Speeds: at the speed of sound or greater.The compressions cannot move faster than the wing.Air molecules pile up at the front of the wing.Sometime a pile of air molecules would spill above or below the wing causing instability which resulted in many crashes.
24The Sonic Boom.This spillage of air molecules about the wing causes a shock wave to be produced.This shock wave continuously spreads out from its source. When you hear this boom it does not mean the sound barrier has just been broken rather an object in the area is flying at or faster than the speed of sound.Other examples include: flapping of a flag, crack of a whip or a wet towel.
25Doppler Effect Sound from a point source: Sound from a moving point source:Audio of a car horn.
26Once the moving source reaches the speed of sound, the wave fronts pile up on one another in the direction of motion.For any moving object the waves in the direction of motion will have a smaller wavelength and higher frequency.The trailing waves have a larger wavelength and a lower frequency.Austrian mathematician and physicist, Christian Doppler ( ) 1st noticed this effect hence the name, “The Doppler Effect”
27Interferencewhen two or more waves act simultaneously on the same particles in a medium.Principle of Superposition: The resultant displacement of a given particle is equal to the sum of the displacements that would have been produced by each individual wave acting independently.
28Constructive Interference Constructive Interference: when the resultant displacement is greater than the displacement that would be caused by either wave by itself.A crest that meets a crest produces a supercrest.A trough that interferes with a trough produces a supertrough
29Destructive Interference Destructive Interference: when the resultant displacement is smaller than the displacement that would be caused by one wave itself. WebWhen positive and negative pulses of equal amplitude and shape, traveling in opposite directions, interfere, there is a point that remains at rest throughout the interference. This we call a node or nodal point (N). 2 Speakers
30Special Interference Patterns Standing Waves2 Point SourceBeat Frequency
31*Standing WavesIn stationary, or standing waves, the shape, or profile of the wave stays fixed in a medium. Ex. plucking the string of a string instrument.When the string is plucked, a wave is caused to travel up and down it. Since both ends of the string are fixed, the waveform is reflected back up and down the string, or its path, causing a wave to stay constant within it.A sound is produced because the energy within the string that is used to create the standing wave is also creating a progressive wave, the sound wave you hear.
32Beat FrequencyAlternating constructive and destructive interference of sound waves can be heard as a change in sound pattern from loud to soft to loud, etc. These periodic changes in sound intensity are called beats.The maximum number of intensity points that occur per second is called the beat frequency.Beat Frequency = | f1 – f2 | (where f1 & f2 are the 2 sources)Web1, Web2
33When two sources have the same frequency that is f1 = f2 then no beats are heard and we can say they are in tune.As the beat frequency decreases when we adjust a source, as we would when tuning a guitar, the frequencies of each source get closer.
35*Standing WavesWhen we attach on end of a string to a stationary object and send a wave down the string the wave will return. If the returning wave is identical to the original wave a standing wave will be produced.each vibrating section is called a loop.loops alternate from being a supercrest to a supertroughit cannot be both at the same time and therefore represents half a wavelength
36Frequency and Wavelength We know that 1 loop represents half a wavelength.Therefore: λ1= 2L (L being the length of the string containing 1 loop)In terms of the universal wave equation:When 2 loops form in a string then λ2 = L. In wave equation terms:
37This would mean that the second harmonic has twice the frequency as the first harmonic. Also, the third harmonic has 3 x’s the frequency as the first.Standing wave patterns are called harmonics only if their frequencies are whole-number multiples of the first harmonic.
38What is Pitch?Pitch is a term that is often substituted for frequency in musical references.
39Standing wave patterns in a string. Number of LoopsScientific NameMusical Name1first harmonicfundamental2second harmonicfirst overtone3third harmonicsecond overtone4fourth harmonicthird overtone
40Sound quality of a musical note depends on the number and relative intensity of the overtones it produces, along with the fundamental.The pitch of a note being played on, say, a guitar depends on:The length of the string.The tension of the string.The material the string is made of.
41ResonanceThe frequency or frequencies at which an object tends to vibrate with when hit, struck, plucked, strummed or somehow disturbed is known as the natural frequency of the object. Ex. Pushing a friend on a swing.When the frequency of forced vibrations on an object matches the object's natural frequency, a dramatic increase in amplitude occurs. This phenomenon is called resonance . Ex. The rattling dash in a car. Radio waves & antenna. 2 Tuning forks demo
42When the resonance involves mechanical systems like pendulums or springs, it is known as mechanical resonance.Resonance can be destructive. Tacoma Narrows, Washington State (1940). A 64km/h wind matched the natural frequency of a suspension bridge. As time passed the bridge began to resonate and within and hour was torn apart in the middle.A similar event happened to a pedestrian bridge in London, England (2000)
43Acoustical ResonanceWhen a resonance involves sound waves we call it acoustical resonance. Ex. Blowing over the mouth of an empty bottle.Resonance can occur tube-like structures if a standing wave is setup involving air molecules.
44Closed Air ColumnsA close end air column will produce a fixed end reflection and a standing wave will result.The bottom of the column will always be a nodal point.If the length is such that the column ends in the middle of a loop, the sound will be amplified.
45Open Air ColumnsAn open column will produce a free end reflection causing a standing wave to be produced.The end of the column will always be a antinode and the sound will be amplified.