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Prevention of Communicable Diseases  by Dr. TK Au of UHS  MBChB, MRCP(UK), DPD(Cardiff), DCH(Syd)

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Presentation on theme: "Prevention of Communicable Diseases  by Dr. TK Au of UHS  MBChB, MRCP(UK), DPD(Cardiff), DCH(Syd)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Prevention of Communicable Diseases  by Dr. TK Au of UHS  MBChB, MRCP(UK), DPD(Cardiff), DCH(Syd)

2 Communicable diseases  Definition: diseases that can be transmitted and make people ill  Statutory notifiable diseases  According to the law, a doctor has to notify the Department of Health when he/she has the reasons to suspect his patient is suffering from the disease  Eg. Chickenpox, tuberculosis, avian flu, SARS

3 Communicable diseases  Diseases that can cause outbreak in institutions  Influenza-like illness  Acute gastroenteritis  Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD)  Acute conjunctivitis

4 Chain of Propagation of Communicable diseases Contact Droplet Air-borne Food/water-borne Vector-borne Blood-body fluid Susceptible population, eg Young children Elderly People with chronic diseases Pregnant women Human Livestock Insects Soil Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite Infective agent Source of infection Mode of trasmission Host

5 Contact transmission  Through direct body contact with the infected persons  Indirect through contact with objects contaminated by infective agents, eg sharing towels, combs and clothes  Example  Hand, foot, mouth disease  Acute conjunctivitis  Head lice  Scabies  Chickenpox

6 Droplet transmission  Inhale or contact of droplets expelled from the sick during sneezing, coughing, spitting and speaking  Subsequent touching of mucous membranes of the mouth, nose and the eyes with hands contaminated with infective agents  Eg. Influenza, common cold, pneumonia

7 Air-borne transmission  The infective agents float in the air for some time  Enter the body through the respiratory tract  E.g. Chickenpox, measles, pulmonary tuberculosis

8 Food/water-borne transmission  Through ingestion of contaminated food or water, or use of contaminated utensils  E.g. Viral gastroenteritis, cholera, hepatitis A

9 Break the Chain Contact Droplet Air-borne Food/water-borne Vector-borne Blood-body fluid Susceptible population, eg Young children Elderly People with chronic diseases Pregnant women Human Livestock Insects Soil Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite Infective agent Source of infection Mode of trasmission Host X X Disinfection Build up Personal Immunity by Immunization and Healthy Lifestyle Good Personal and Environment & Food Hygiene Early Detection, Isolation, and Treatment of patients

10 Personal Hygiene  The most important part of infection control as many diseases are transmitted through contact or droplet 1. Hand hygiene 2. Cough etiquette

11 Hand Hygiene – When? 1. Before touching the eyes, nose and mouth 2. Before eating or handling food 3. After using the toilet 4. When hands are contaminated by respiratory secretions, e.g. after coughing or sneezing 5. After touching public installations or equipment  e.g. escalator handrails, elevator control panels or door knobs 6. Before and after visiting hospitals 7. After making contact with animals or poultry 8. After handling garbage

12 Hand Hygiene – How?  Handwashing with soup and water  When hands are visibly soiled  When hands are likely contaminated with body fluid e.g. after using the toilet, after coughing or sneezing  Use of 70-80% alcohol-based hand rub

13 Use of 70-80% alcohol-based handrub  Apply a palmful of handrub  Use at least 20s to rub all surfaces of hands and fingers  Until the hands are dry

14 Personal Hygiene  The most important part of infection control as many diseases are transmitted through contact or droplet 1. Hand hygiene 2. Cough etiquette 3. Other

15 Cough Etiquette  Cover both the nose and mouth with tissue paper when coughing or sneezing  Do not spit  Wrap up sputum with tissue paper and discard it into garbage bin with lid or flush it away in the toilet  Wash hand immediately  Put on a surgical mask if you have respiratory infection symptom

16 Environment hygiene  Regular cleansing and disinfection  Maintain good indoor ventilation – open windows widely  Keep worktops n the kitchen clean  Cover garbage bins  Wrap up rubbish properly before discarding it into garbage bins  Empty garbage bins at least once a day  Do not keep pets like dogs, cats, or birds in hall

17 To stop perpetuation of communicable diseases Contact Droplet Air-borne Food/water-borne Vector-borne Blood-body fluid Susceptible population, eg Young children Elderly People with chronic diseases Pregnant women Human Livestock Insects Soil Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite Infective agent Source of infection Mode of trasmission Host X X Disinfection Build up Personal Immunity by Immunization and Healthy Lifestyle Good Personal, Environment & Food Hygiene Early Detection, Isolation, and Treatment of patients

18 Build up Immunity  Vaccination  Tuberculosis (BCG vaccine)  Hepatitis A & B  Diphtheria, Pertusis, Tetanus  Measles, Mumps, Rubella  Chickenpox  Pneumococcal  HPV  Others – before travel  Healthy lifestyle

19 Build up Immunity  Healthy lifestyle  Enough rest/sleep  Regular exercise  Balanced diet  Maintain a normal body weight, i.e. BMI  Do not smoke

20 To stop perpetuation of communicable diseases Contact Droplet Air-borne Food/water-borne Vector-borne Blood-body fluid Susceptible population, eg Young children Elderly People with chronic diseases Pregnant women Human Livestock Insects Soil Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite Infective agent Source of infection Mode of trasmission Host X X Disinfection Build up Personal Immunity by Immunization and Healthy Lifestyle Good Personal, Environmental, Food Hygiene Early Detection, Isolation, and Treatment of patients

21 Bleach  Active ingredient: sodium hypochlorite ( 次氯酸鈉 )  Action: denatures protein in virus, bacteria and fungus  Pros: Works quickly, widely available, low cost  Cons:  Irritates mucous membranes, skin and airway  Decomposed under heat or light  Reacts readily with other chemicals

22 Use of Bleach – Tools and Equipment  Cleansing tools: brush, mop, towel, spray can and bucket  Cleansers/disinfectants: bleach and water  Measuring tools: tablespoon and measuring cup  Protective gear: mask, rubber gloves, plastic apron and googles (recommended)

23 Use of Bleach - Procedures  Keep windows open, ensure good ventilation  Wear protective gear  Use COLD WATER for dilution  hot water decomposes the active ingredient of bleach  Bleach with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite  1 in 99: mixing 10ml of bleach with 990ml of water, for general household cleaning  1 in 49: 10ml of bleach with 490ml of water, disinfect surfaces or articles contaminated with vomitus, excreta and secretion

24 Use of Bleach - Procedures  Rinse disinfected articles with water and wipe dry  Cleansing tools  soak in diluted bleach for 30mins  rinse thoroughly before reuse  Wash hands with liquid soap, dry hands with a clean towel or disposable towel

25 Use of Bleach - Precautions  If bleach gets into the eyes, immediately rinse with water for at least 15 minutes and consult a doctor  Bleach should not be used together or mixed with other household detergents  Reduce effectiveness  If mixed with acidic detergents -> toxic gas  Bleached should be stored in a cool and shaded place  Undiluted bleach liberates a toxic gas when exposed to sunlight

26 Disinfection  Regular cleansing and disinfection of  Rooms, kitchen, toilets, bathrooms  Door knobs and lift buttons  Frequently touched surfaces – furniture, computer keyboards  For obvious contaminants e.g. respiratory secretions, vomitus or excreta  Wipe away with disposable towels  Disinfect the surface and neighboring areas with appropriate disinfection Non-metalic surface – 1:49 bleach Metalic surfaces – 70% alcholol

27 To stop perpetuation of communicable diseases Contact Droplet Air-borne Food/water-borne Vector-borne Blood-body fluid Susceptible population, eg Young children Elderly People with chronic diseases Pregnant women Human Livestock Insects Soil Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite Infective agent Source of infection Mode of trasmission Host X X Disinfection Build up Personal Immunity by Immunization and Healthy Lifestyle Good Personal, Environmental, Food Hygiene Early Detection, Isolation, and Treatment of patients

28 Early Treatment  Seek and follow medical advice immediately if you feel unwell

29 Early Isolation  Stay at home and do not attend school if your doctor tell you to do so. This is usually when one is  Febrile (Ear temperature ≥ 38˚C)  Suffering from chickenpox, hand-foot-mouth diseases, measles, certain form of tuberculosis  Minimize contact with other people as far as possible. Avoid group activities.  Maintain good personal hygiene  People with respiratory infection symptoms and their close contacts should wear surgical mask

30 Early Detection  Inform the Hall Management if you suspect that there is clustering of diseases, e.g.  Gastroenteritis  Influenza-like illness  Hand-foot-mouth disease  Acute conjunctivitis

31 Summary  Chain of Propagation of Communicable Diseases  Break the Chain  Good personal, environment and food hygiene Hand washing and alcohol handrub  Build up immunity by vaccination and healthy lifestyle  Disinfection  Early detection, isolation and treatment of patients

32 References  Infection Control Corner, Centre for Health Protection  ml ml  Hand washing video, from the University of Leicester 


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