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Sanitation Procedures

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Presentation on theme: "Sanitation Procedures"— Presentation transcript:


2 Sanitation Procedures

3 Objective Understand the role of federal, state, and local government agencies in food safety.

4 Government’s Role in Food Safety
Many government agencies are involved in keeping the US food supply safe and preventing foodborne illness. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are the two federal agencies that play key roles. continued

5 Government’s Role in Food Safety
State and local agencies enforce regulations and perform inspections in restaurants grocery stores correctional facilities vending operations schools day-care centers nursing homes hospitals

6 Objective Apply time and temperature control when handling food.

7 Time and Temperature Control
Time and temperature must be controlled to keep food safe Time. Limit the time food is in the temperature danger zone to no more than four cumulative hours Temperature. Make sure food is either above or below the temperature danger zone [41°F–135°F (5°C–57°C)] whenever possible continued

8 Thawing The FDA suggests three ways to safely thaw food
Thaw the product under cold running water Thaw the product in the refrigerator Cook product directly from a frozen state without first thawing

9 Cooking Food must be cooked to internal temperatures high enough to kill pathogens Place an instant-read thermometer in the center, or the thickest part of the food to read temperature continued

10 Cooking The FDA recommends the following minimum internal temperatures
165°F (74°C) for poultry, stuffings/stuffed food products, and leftovers 155°F (68°C) for hot-held eggs, and ground meats and fish 145°F (63°C) for whole muscle meats and fish, and raw eggs that are broken and immediately cooked to order

11 Hot Holding According to the FDA, food must be held at an internal temperature of at least 135°F (57°C) Warming ovens and steam tables are designed for hot holding

12 Cooling Cooked foods Cool from 135°F (57°C) to 70°F (21°C) in two hours or less In less than a total of six hours, the food must be cooled to 41°F (5°C) or less Foods prepared from ingredients at room temperature Cool to 41°F (5°C) within four hours continued

13 Cooling Techniques for chilling food safely and rapidly include
placing food in shallow pans for cooling in refrigerator placing the container of hot food in an ice water bath and stir the ingredients frequently placing food in a blast chiller or other rapid cooling equipment

14 Storing Store potentially hazardous food at or below 41°F (5°C)
Freezer temperatures below 0°F (−18°C) stop pathogen growth continued

15 Storing Routinely verify cooler and freezer temperatures to ensure food is being stored at a safe temperature Do not overload or otherwise restrict airflow in coolers and freezers

16 Reheating Reheated food must be heated to an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C) within two hours Food may be reheated only once

17 Objective Summarize how cross-contamination occurs and how to prevent it.

18 Cross-Contamination Cross-contamination is one of the largest sources of foodborne illness continued

19 Cross-Contamination Ways to prevent cross-contamination include
washing hands properly and often throughout the workday cleaning and sanitizing utensils between tasks never storing raw products above cooked or prepared products continued

20 Cross-Contamination Ways to prevent cross-contamination (continued)
store foods in covered, leak-proof containers labeled with the item name and date store the food with the lowest minimum internal cooking temperature at top, if foods must be stored together

21 Objective Explain the difference between clean and sanitary.

22 Clean Versus Sanitary There is a difference between clean and sanitary
Biological hazards are often not visible to the naked eye A kitchen can look clean and still be unsanitary continued

23 Clean Versus Sanitary Food-contact surfaces must be cleaned and sanitized regularly Otherwise, food-contact surfaces can harbor pathogens and lead to cross-contamination

24 Step One: Cleaning Remove any visible dirt, grime, or pieces of food
Use hot water and detergents or grease cutters Clean all food-contact surfaces after completing a task and before starting a new one

25 Step Two: Sanitizing Sanitizing kills pathogens
Two sanitizing strategies are Heat sanitizing: food-contact surfaces must be heated to at least 171°F (77°C) for 30 seconds and rinsed in water at least 180°F (82°C) Chemical sanitizing: uses a variety of chemicals to kill pathogens, but can be dangerous if used improperly

26 Objective Apply proper procedures when cleaning and sanitizing food-contact surfaces in the kitchen.

27 Cleaning and Sanitizing the Entire Kitchen
Each type of food-contact surface requires a slightly different technique for cleaning and sanitizing Categories of food-contact surfaces include work surfaces small equipment and dishes large equipment

28 Work Surfaces Clean and sanitize counters and workstations
when a task is completed after four hours of continuous work after an item such as a box of produce has contaminated the worktable Chemical sanitizers are commonly used on work surfaces

29 Technique: Sanitizing a Counter or Worktable
Clear table or countertop for cleaning. Dirty objects must be cleaned and sanitized separately. continued

30 Technique: Sanitizing a Counter or Worktable
Wash table with hot water and detergent. Apply pressure to remove any dirt or stuck-on food. continued

31 Technique: Sanitizing a Counter or Worktable
Rinse table using hot water and a clean towel. continued

32 Technique: Sanitizing a Counter or Worktable
Apply sanitizer using either a spray bottle or a sanitizing bucket. Dilute the sanitizer following manufacturer’s specifications. Allow to air-dry.

33 Small Equipment and Dishes
Clean and sanitize dishes and small equipment after each use or every four hours of continuous use Dishes and small equipment are cleaned and sanitized in three-compartment sinks or in dishmachines continued

34 Small Equipment and Dishes
After they have been cleaned and sanitized, small equipment and dishes must be properly stored at least six inches from the floor on or in cleaned and sanitized drawers, trays, or carts with handles of utensils and flatware facing up upside down (glassware and cups)

35 Technique: Using a Dishmachine
Presoak flatware to loosen encrusted food. continued

36 Technique: Using a Dishmachine
Scrape or use a high-powered sprayer to remove any visible pieces of food off dishes, equipment, flatware, or glassware before placing into the machine. continued

37 Technique: Using a Dishmachine
Place the items to be washed in the appropriate dish rack. continued

38 Technique: Using a Dishmachine
Load the rack into the dishmachine. When the cleaning and sanitizing cycles are complete, remove from the dishmachine and allow to air-dry.

39 Technique: Using a Three-Compartment Sink
Scrape large food particles from dirty equipment into a garbage can or disposal. If needed, wipe excess grease from item with disposable towels first. continued

40 Technique: Using a Three-Compartment Sink
Fill first compartment with hot water and detergent. Wear protective gloves if the hot water or detergent irritates the skin. Change water once it becomes dirty, greasy, or cool. continued

41 Technique: Using a Three-Compartment Sink
Fill middle sink with hot water. Rinse equipment from the first sink in the middle sink. Change water once it becomes slightly dirty or cool. continued

42 Technique: Using a Three-Compartment Sink
Fill third sink with a chemical sanitizer and water dilution following manufacturer’s instructions. Leave equipment in the sanitizing sink for the specified time. Heat sanitizing is rarely used in the three-compartment sink since it is difficult to keep the water at the proper temperature and can be dangerous for workers. continued

43 Technique: Using a Three-Compartment Sink
Place sanitized equipment on the drain board next to the sanitizing sink to air-dry. A drying rack may be necessary for certain items. Never leave knives, glass, or sharp objects in a sink since serious injury can result.

44 Large Equipment Clean and sanitize large equipment after each use or after four hours of continual use You should receive training before cleaning large equipment for the first time When not in use, cover large equipment to protect it from contamination until next use

45 Technique: Cleaning and Sanitizing Large Equipment
Do not clean any equipment until you have been trained on its use and cleaning. Unplug electrical equipment before beginning to clean. continued

46 Technique: Cleaning and Sanitizing Large Equipment
Wear cut-resistant gloves if washing a sharp piece of machinery like a slicer or grinder. continued

47 Technique: Cleaning and Sanitizing Large Equipment
Disassemble equipment as needed. Clean and sanitize small parts in a dishmachine or three-compartment sink. continued

48 Technique: Cleaning and Sanitizing Large Equipment
Wash with hot water and detergent to remove visible grime and pieces of food. continued

49 Technique: Cleaning and Sanitizing Large Equipment
Rinse with hot water. Dry using a clean towel or paper towels. Sanitize using sanitizing solution. Follow manufacturer’s instructions to determine dilution.

50 Cleaning and Sanitation Schedule
Cleaning schedules help ensure the entire kitchen is clean A cleaning schedule lists areas and equipment to be cleaned when the cleaning should be done who performs the cleaning procedures to follow Many kitchens do regular self-inspections

51 Objective Explain the various aspects of personal hygiene that are important in foodservice.

52 Personal Hygiene Good personal hygiene must be practiced in the kitchen to avoid contamination and should address the following: hands and hair bathing clothing smoking, drinking, and eating illness

53 Hands Foodservice professionals must pay close attention to their hands Avoid contamination by properly washing your hands with soap wearing disposable gloves keeping hand injuries bandaged and covered keeping fingernails short cleaning fingernails with a fingernail brush

54 Technique: Proper Handwashing
Use water that is as hot as is comfortable—at least 110°F (43°C). continued

55 Technique: Proper Handwashing
Roll up sleeves and wet your hands. Add soap and lather hands, including the backs and wrists, and up to the elbows. continued

56 Technique: Proper Handwashing
Scrub for 20 seconds and use a nailbrush to scrub under fingernails. Wash well between fingers. continued

57 Technique: Proper Handwashing
Rinse under hot, running water. continued

58 Technique: Proper Hand Washing
Dry hands and arms with a single-use paper towel or air dryer. Do not dry hands on a communal towel or apron. Use paper towel to turn water off and open bathroom door, then throw towel away.

59 Hair Hair restraints prevent foodservice workers from touching their hair while working keep hair out of food can be anything from a chef hat to a hairnet Beards should be well trimmed or covered with a beard net

60 Bathing and Clothing Foodservice workers should bathe daily before coming to work When they arrive at work, foodservice employees should put on a clean uniform If uniforms become heavily soiled throughout the day, uniforms should be changed

61 Smoking, Drinking, and Eating
Smoking, drinking, and eating are not allowed in the professional kitchen Wash hands after smoking, eating, or drinking To taste food as part of the cook’s job, use a disposable or sanitized spoon

62 Illness Foodservice workers should not work if they have a contagious illness Notify your supervisor if you are ill Illnesses resulting from certain foodborne pathogens should be reported to local health departments

63 Objective Understand the importance of proper pest control and waste management to food safety.

64 Insect and Rodent Control
The most important step in pest control is to keep a clean and sanitized facility Insects and rodents spread biological hazards through their urine and feces and with their feet and bodies Many city or county health departments require regular visits from a pest control operator (PCO)

65 Waste Control Garbage is a breeding ground for bacteria and attracts insects and rodents Garbage containers must be routinely emptied and cleaned Always wash your hands after handling garbage continued

66 Waste Control Many kitchens separate materials and items for recycling or composting Composting makes use of food scraps, which naturally decompose, to be reused as fertilizer Recycling and compost containers should be covered and cleaned regularly

67 Objective Summarize how a HACCP plan works.

68 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan analyzes food-handling procedures in order to reduce the risk of contamination HACCP tracks potentially hazardous foods from delivery to consumption continued

69 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
Critical control points (CCP) in food handling must be identified CCPs are often the cooking step at which sufficiently high internal temperatures kill pathogens the length of time a product is held in storage and at what temperature continued

70 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
A HACCP plan includes seven points Analyze how foods move through the establishment Determine which steps are critical control points (CCP) Define the limits for each CCP needed to achieve safety Establish monitoring procedures for employees to implement and record CCP data continued

71 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
Establish plan for corrective action when limits for CCP are not met Establish procedures to verify the HACCP plan is working Establish record keeping and documentation procedures

72 Objective Understand the role of the health inspector.

73 The Health Inspection A health inspector
periodically inspects all commercial foodservice establishments ensures that the public is being served safe food by making unannounced inspections is an expert resource continued

74 The Health Inspection The frequency of visits from a health inspector depends on size of the foodservice establishment operation’s prior inspection results risk level of customer base workload of the health department

75 Review Explain the principles of time and temperature when handling food Food should not be in the temperature danger zone for more than 4 cumulative hours Food should be either above or below the temperature danger zone whenever possible continued

76 Review How does cross-contamination occur?
It occurs when harmful microorganisms are transferred from one product to another by hands, utensils, equipment, or other physical contact continued

77 Review Explain the difference between cleaning and sanitizing.
Cleaning removes visual dirt, grime, and grease; sanitizing eliminates pathogens continued

78 Review Describe proper cleaning procedures for cleaning and sanitizing food-contact surfaces and equipment. Heat and chemicals are commonly used to sanitize surfaces. Small equipment is cleaned and sanitized in a three-compartment sink or dishmachine. Dishes are cleaned and sanitized in a dishmachine. Large equipment is cleaned and sanitized in place. continued

79 Review Explain the various aspects of personal hygiene that are important in foodservice. Hands must be washed properly, fingernails kept short, and hair restrained. Employees must bathe daily. Uniforms must be clean. Drinking, eating, and smoking are not allowed in the kitchen. Employees should not work when ill. continued

80 Review Why is proper pest control important?
Insects and rodents spread biological hazards continued

81 Review Explain the importance of proper waste disposal
If not disposed of properly, garbage could become a breeding ground for bacteria or an attraction to insects and rodents continued

82 Review What is the purpose of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan? A HACCP plan identifies and manages key steps in food handling where contamination is most likely to occur continued

83 Review What is the purpose of a health department inspection?
Health inspectors examine foodservice establishments to make sure the public is being served safe food

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