3ObjectiveUnderstand the role of federal, state, and local government agencies in food safety.
4Government’s Role in Food Safety Many government agencies are involved in keeping the US food supply safe and preventing foodborne illness.The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are the two federal agencies that play key roles.continued
5Government’s Role in Food Safety State and local agencies enforce regulations and perform inspections inrestaurantsgrocery storescorrectional facilitiesvending operationsschoolsday-care centersnursing homeshospitals
6ObjectiveApply time and temperature control when handling food.
7Time and Temperature Control Time and temperature must be controlled to keep food safeTime. Limit the time food is in the temperature danger zone to no more than four cumulative hoursTemperature. Make sure food is either above or below the temperature danger zone [41°F–135°F (5°C–57°C)] whenever possiblecontinued
8Thawing The FDA suggests three ways to safely thaw food Thaw the product under cold running waterThaw the product in the refrigeratorCook product directly from a frozen state without first thawing
9CookingFood must be cooked to internal temperatures high enough to kill pathogensPlace an instant-read thermometer in the center, or the thickest part of the food to read temperaturecontinued
10Cooking The FDA recommends the following minimum internal temperatures 165°F (74°C) for poultry, stuffings/stuffed food products, and leftovers155°F (68°C) for hot-held eggs, and ground meats and fish145°F (63°C) for whole muscle meats and fish, and raw eggs that are broken and immediately cooked to order
11Hot HoldingAccording to the FDA, food must be held at an internal temperature of at least 135°F (57°C)Warming ovens and steam tables are designed for hot holding
12CoolingCooked foodsCool from 135°F (57°C) to 70°F (21°C) in two hours or lessIn less than a total of six hours, the food must be cooled to 41°F (5°C) or lessFoods prepared from ingredients at room temperatureCool to 41°F (5°C) within four hourscontinued
13Cooling Techniques for chilling food safely and rapidly include placing food in shallow pans for cooling in refrigeratorplacing the container of hot food in an ice water bath and stir the ingredients frequentlyplacing food in a blast chiller or other rapid cooling equipment
14Storing Store potentially hazardous food at or below 41°F (5°C) Freezer temperatures below 0°F (−18°C) stop pathogen growthcontinued
15StoringRoutinely verify cooler and freezer temperatures to ensure food is being stored at a safe temperatureDo not overload or otherwise restrict airflow in coolers and freezers
16ReheatingReheated food must be heated to an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C) within two hoursFood may be reheated only once
17ObjectiveSummarize how cross-contamination occurs and how to prevent it.
18Cross-ContaminationCross-contamination is one of the largest sources of foodborne illnesscontinued
19Cross-Contamination Ways to prevent cross-contamination include washing hands properly and often throughout the workdaycleaning and sanitizing utensils between tasksnever storing raw products above cooked or prepared productscontinued
20Cross-Contamination Ways to prevent cross-contamination (continued) store foods in covered, leak-proof containers labeled with the item name and datestore the food with the lowest minimum internal cooking temperature at top, if foods must be stored together
21ObjectiveExplain the difference between clean and sanitary.
22Clean Versus Sanitary There is a difference between clean and sanitary Biological hazards are often not visible to the naked eyeA kitchen can look clean and still be unsanitarycontinued
23Clean Versus SanitaryFood-contact surfaces must be cleaned and sanitized regularlyOtherwise, food-contact surfaces can harbor pathogens and lead to cross-contamination
24Step One: Cleaning Remove any visible dirt, grime, or pieces of food Use hot water and detergents or grease cuttersClean all food-contact surfaces after completing a task and before starting a new one
25Step Two: Sanitizing Sanitizing kills pathogens Two sanitizing strategies areHeat sanitizing: food-contact surfaces must be heated to at least 171°F (77°C) for 30 seconds and rinsed in water at least 180°F (82°C)Chemical sanitizing: uses a variety of chemicals to kill pathogens, but can be dangerous if used improperly
26ObjectiveApply proper procedures when cleaning and sanitizing food-contact surfaces in the kitchen.
27Cleaning and Sanitizing the Entire Kitchen Each type of food-contact surface requires a slightly different technique for cleaning and sanitizingCategories of food-contact surfaces includework surfacessmall equipment and disheslarge equipment
28Work Surfaces Clean and sanitize counters and workstations when a task is completedafter four hours of continuous workafter an item such as a box of produce has contaminated the worktableChemical sanitizers are commonly used on work surfaces
29Technique: Sanitizing a Counter or Worktable Clear table or countertop for cleaning. Dirty objects must be cleaned and sanitized separately.continued
30Technique: Sanitizing a Counter or Worktable Wash table with hot water and detergent. Apply pressure to remove any dirt or stuck-on food.continued
31Technique: Sanitizing a Counter or Worktable Rinse table using hot water and a clean towel.continued
32Technique: Sanitizing a Counter or Worktable Apply sanitizer using either a spray bottle or a sanitizing bucket. Dilute the sanitizer following manufacturer’s specifications.Allow to air-dry.
33Small Equipment and Dishes Clean and sanitize dishes and small equipment after each use or every four hours of continuous useDishes and small equipment are cleaned and sanitized in three-compartment sinks or in dishmachinescontinued
34Small Equipment and Dishes After they have been cleaned and sanitized, small equipment and dishes must be properly storedat least six inches from the flooron or in cleaned and sanitized drawers, trays, or cartswith handles of utensils and flatware facing upupside down (glassware and cups)
35Technique: Using a Dishmachine Presoak flatware to loosen encrusted food.continued
36Technique: Using a Dishmachine Scrape or use a high-powered sprayer to remove any visible pieces of food off dishes, equipment, flatware, or glassware before placing into the machine.continued
37Technique: Using a Dishmachine Place the items to be washed in the appropriate dish rack.continued
38Technique: Using a Dishmachine Load the rack into the dishmachine.When the cleaning and sanitizing cycles are complete, remove from the dishmachine and allow to air-dry.
39Technique: Using a Three-Compartment Sink Scrape large food particles from dirty equipment into a garbage can or disposal. If needed, wipe excess grease from item with disposable towels first.continued
40Technique: Using a Three-Compartment Sink Fill first compartment with hot water and detergent. Wear protective gloves if the hot water or detergent irritates the skin. Change water once it becomes dirty, greasy, or cool.continued
41Technique: Using a Three-Compartment Sink Fill middle sink with hot water. Rinse equipment from the first sink in the middle sink. Change water once it becomes slightly dirty or cool.continued
42Technique: Using a Three-Compartment Sink Fill third sink with a chemical sanitizer and water dilution following manufacturer’s instructions. Leave equipment in the sanitizing sink for the specified time. Heat sanitizing is rarely used in the three-compartment sink since it is difficult to keep the water at the proper temperature and can be dangerous for workers.continued
43Technique: Using a Three-Compartment Sink Place sanitized equipment on the drain board next to the sanitizing sink to air-dry. A drying rack may be necessary for certain items.Never leave knives, glass, or sharp objects in a sink since serious injury can result.
44Large EquipmentClean and sanitize large equipment after each use or after four hours of continual useYou should receive training before cleaning large equipment for the first timeWhen not in use, cover large equipment to protect it from contamination until next use
45Technique: Cleaning and Sanitizing Large Equipment Do not clean any equipment until you have been trained on its use and cleaning.Unplug electrical equipment before beginning to clean.continued
46Technique: Cleaning and Sanitizing Large Equipment Wear cut-resistant gloves if washing a sharp piece of machinery like a slicer or grinder.continued
47Technique: Cleaning and Sanitizing Large Equipment Disassemble equipment as needed. Clean and sanitize small parts in a dishmachine or three-compartment sink.continued
48Technique: Cleaning and Sanitizing Large Equipment Wash with hot water and detergent to remove visible grime and pieces of food.continued
49Technique: Cleaning and Sanitizing Large Equipment Rinse with hot water.Dry using a clean towel or paper towels.Sanitize using sanitizing solution. Follow manufacturer’s instructions to determine dilution.
50Cleaning and Sanitation Schedule Cleaning schedules help ensure the entire kitchen is cleanA cleaning schedule listsareas and equipment to be cleanedwhen the cleaning should be donewho performs the cleaningprocedures to followMany kitchens do regular self-inspections
51ObjectiveExplain the various aspects of personal hygiene that are important in foodservice.
52Personal HygieneGood personal hygiene must be practiced in the kitchen to avoid contamination and should address the following:hands and hairbathingclothingsmoking, drinking, and eatingillness
53HandsFoodservice professionals must pay close attention to their handsAvoid contamination byproperly washing your hands with soapwearing disposable gloveskeeping hand injuries bandaged and coveredkeeping fingernails shortcleaning fingernails with a fingernail brush
54Technique: Proper Handwashing Use water that is as hot as is comfortable—at least 110°F (43°C).continued
55Technique: Proper Handwashing Roll up sleeves and wet your hands. Add soap and lather hands, including the backs and wrists, and up to the elbows.continued
56Technique: Proper Handwashing Scrub for 20 seconds and use a nailbrush to scrub under fingernails. Wash well between fingers.continued
57Technique: Proper Handwashing Rinse under hot, running water.continued
58Technique: Proper Hand Washing Dry hands and arms with a single-use paper towel or air dryer. Do not dry hands on a communal towel or apron.Use paper towel to turn water off and open bathroom door, then throw towel away.
59HairHair restraintsprevent foodservice workers from touching their hair while workingkeep hair out of foodcan be anything from a chef hat to a hairnetBeards should be well trimmed or covered with a beard net
60Bathing and ClothingFoodservice workers should bathe daily before coming to workWhen they arrive at work, foodservice employees should put on a clean uniformIf uniforms become heavily soiled throughout the day, uniforms should be changed
61Smoking, Drinking, and Eating Smoking, drinking, and eating are not allowed in the professional kitchenWash hands after smoking, eating, or drinkingTo taste food as part of the cook’s job, use a disposable or sanitized spoon
62IllnessFoodservice workers should not work if they have a contagious illnessNotify your supervisor if you are illIllnesses resulting from certain foodborne pathogens should be reported to local health departments
63ObjectiveUnderstand the importance of proper pest control and waste management to food safety.
64Insect and Rodent Control The most important step in pest control is to keep a clean and sanitized facilityInsects and rodents spread biological hazards through their urine and feces and with their feet and bodiesMany city or county health departments require regular visits from a pest control operator (PCO)
65Waste ControlGarbage is a breeding ground for bacteria and attracts insects and rodentsGarbage containers must be routinely emptied and cleanedAlways wash your hands after handling garbagecontinued
66Waste ControlMany kitchens separate materials and items for recycling or compostingComposting makes use of food scraps, which naturally decompose, to be reused as fertilizerRecycling and compost containers should be covered and cleaned regularly
68Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan analyzes food-handling procedures in order to reduce the risk of contaminationHACCP tracks potentially hazardous foods from delivery to consumptioncontinued
69Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Critical control points (CCP) in food handling must be identifiedCCPs are oftenthe cooking step at which sufficiently high internal temperatures kill pathogensthe length of time a product is held in storage and at what temperaturecontinued
70Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point A HACCP plan includes seven pointsAnalyze how foods move through the establishmentDetermine which steps are critical control points (CCP)Define the limits for each CCP needed to achieve safetyEstablish monitoring procedures for employees to implement and record CCP datacontinued
71Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Establish plan for corrective action when limits for CCP are not metEstablish procedures to verify the HACCP plan is workingEstablish record keeping and documentation procedures
72ObjectiveUnderstand the role of the health inspector.
73The Health Inspection A health inspector periodically inspects all commercial foodservice establishmentsensures that the public is being served safe food by making unannounced inspectionsis an expert resourcecontinued
74The Health InspectionThe frequency of visits from a health inspector depends onsize of the foodservice establishmentoperation’s prior inspection resultsrisk level of customer baseworkload of the health department
75ReviewExplain the principles of time and temperature when handling foodFood should not be in the temperature danger zone for more than 4 cumulative hoursFood should be either above or below the temperature danger zone whenever possiblecontinued
76Review How does cross-contamination occur? It occurs when harmful microorganisms are transferred from one product to another by hands, utensils, equipment, or other physical contactcontinued
77Review Explain the difference between cleaning and sanitizing. Cleaning removes visual dirt, grime, and grease; sanitizing eliminates pathogenscontinued
78ReviewDescribe proper cleaning procedures for cleaning and sanitizing food-contact surfaces and equipment.Heat and chemicals are commonly used to sanitize surfaces. Small equipment is cleaned and sanitized in a three-compartment sink or dishmachine. Dishes are cleaned and sanitized in a dishmachine. Large equipment is cleaned and sanitized in place.continued
79ReviewExplain the various aspects of personal hygiene that are important in foodservice.Hands must be washed properly, fingernails kept short, and hair restrained. Employees must bathe daily. Uniforms must be clean. Drinking, eating, and smoking are not allowed in the kitchen. Employees should not work when ill.continued
80Review Why is proper pest control important? Insects and rodents spread biological hazardscontinued
81Review Explain the importance of proper waste disposal If not disposed of properly, garbage could become a breeding ground for bacteria or an attraction to insects and rodentscontinued
82ReviewWhat is the purpose of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan?A HACCP plan identifies and manages key steps in food handling where contamination is most likely to occurcontinued
83Review What is the purpose of a health department inspection? Health inspectors examine foodservice establishments to make sure the public is being served safe food