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8 Sanitation Procedures Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Understand the role of federal,

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Presentation on theme: "8 Sanitation Procedures Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Understand the role of federal,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 8 Sanitation Procedures

3 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Understand the role of federal, state, and local government agencies in food safety.

4 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Government’s Role in Food Safety Many government agencies are involved in keeping the US food supply safe and preventing foodborne illness. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are the two federal agencies that play key roles. continued

5 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Government’s Role in Food Safety State and local agencies enforce regulations and perform inspections in –restaurants –grocery stores –correctional facilities –vending operations –schools –day-care centers –nursing homes –hospitals

6 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Apply time and temperature control when handling food.

7 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Time and Temperature Control continued

8 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Thawing The FDA suggests three ways to safely thaw food 1.Thaw the product under cold running water 2.Thaw the product in the refrigerator 3.Cook product directly from a frozen state without first thawing

9 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cooking Food must be cooked to internal temperatures high enough to kill pathogens Place an instant-read thermometer in the center, or the thickest part of the food to read temperature continued

10 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cooking

11 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hot Holding

12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cooling continued

13 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cooling Techniques for chilling food safely and rapidly include –placing food in shallow pans for cooling in refrigerator –placing the container of hot food in an ice water bath and stir the ingredients frequently –placing food in a blast chiller or other rapid cooling equipment

14 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Storing continued

15 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Storing Routinely verify cooler and freezer temperatures to ensure food is being stored at a safe temperature Do not overload or otherwise restrict airflow in coolers and freezers

16 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Reheating

17 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Summarize how cross-contamination occurs and how to prevent it.

18 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cross-Contamination Cross-contamination is one of the largest sources of foodborne illness continued

19 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cross-Contamination Ways to prevent cross-contamination include –washing hands properly and often throughout the workday –cleaning and sanitizing utensils between tasks –never storing raw products above cooked or prepared products continued

20 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cross-Contamination Ways to prevent cross-contamination (continued) –store foods in covered, leak-proof containers labeled with the item name and date –store the food with the lowest minimum internal cooking temperature at top, if foods must be stored together

21 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Explain the difference between clean and sanitary.

22 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Clean Versus Sanitary There is a difference between clean and sanitary Biological hazards are often not visible to the naked eye A kitchen can look clean and still be unsanitary continued

23 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Clean Versus Sanitary Food-contact surfaces must be cleaned and sanitized regularly Otherwise, food-contact surfaces can harbor pathogens and lead to cross-contamination

24 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Step One: Cleaning Remove any visible dirt, grime, or pieces of food Use hot water and detergents or grease cutters Clean all food-contact surfaces after completing a task and before starting a new one

25 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Step Two: Sanitizing

26 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Apply proper procedures when cleaning and sanitizing food-contact surfaces in the kitchen.

27 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cleaning and Sanitizing the Entire Kitchen Each type of food-contact surface requires a slightly different technique for cleaning and sanitizing Categories of food-contact surfaces include –work surfaces –small equipment and dishes –large equipment

28 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Work Surfaces Clean and sanitize counters and workstations –when a task is completed –after four hours of continuous work –after an item such as a box of produce has contaminated the worktable Chemical sanitizers are commonly used on work surfaces

29 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 1.Clear table or countertop for cleaning. Dirty objects must be cleaned and sanitized separately. Technique: Sanitizing a Counter or Worktable continued

30 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 2.Wash table with hot water and detergent. Apply pressure to remove any dirt or stuck-on food. Technique: Sanitizing a Counter or Worktable continued

31 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 3.Rinse table using hot water and a clean towel. Technique: Sanitizing a Counter or Worktable continued

32 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 4.Apply sanitizer using either a spray bottle or a sanitizing bucket. Dilute the sanitizer following manufacturer’s specifications. 5.Allow to air-dry. Technique: Sanitizing a Counter or Worktable

33 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Small Equipment and Dishes Clean and sanitize dishes and small equipment after each use or every four hours of continuous use Dishes and small equipment are cleaned and sanitized in three-compartment sinks or in dishmachines continued

34 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Small Equipment and Dishes After they have been cleaned and sanitized, small equipment and dishes must be properly stored –at least six inches from the floor –on or in cleaned and sanitized drawers, trays, or carts –with handles of utensils and flatware facing up –upside down (glassware and cups)

35 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 1.Presoak flatware to loosen encrusted food. Technique: Using a Dishmachine continued

36 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 2.Scrape or use a high- powered sprayer to remove any visible pieces of food off dishes, equipment, flatware, or glassware before placing into the machine. Technique: Using a Dishmachine continued

37 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 3.Place the items to be washed in the appropriate dish rack. Technique: Using a Dishmachine continued

38 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 4.Load the rack into the dishmachine. 5.When the cleaning and sanitizing cycles are complete, remove from the dishmachine and allow to air-dry. Technique: Using a Dishmachine

39 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 1.Scrape large food particles from dirty equipment into a garbage can or disposal. If needed, wipe excess grease from item with disposable towels first. Technique: Using a Three-Compartment Sink continued

40 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 2.Fill first compartment with hot water and detergent. Wear protective gloves if the hot water or detergent irritates the skin. Change water once it becomes dirty, greasy, or cool. Technique: Using a Three-Compartment Sink continued

41 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 3.Fill middle sink with hot water. Rinse equipment from the first sink in the middle sink. Change water once it becomes slightly dirty or cool. Technique: Using a Three-Compartment Sink continued

42 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 4.Fill third sink with a chemical sanitizer and water dilution following manufacturer’s instructions. Leave equipment in the sanitizing sink for the specified time. Heat sanitizing is rarely used in the three- compartment sink since it is difficult to keep the water at the proper temperature and can be dangerous for workers. Technique: Using a Three-Compartment Sink continued

43 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 5.Place sanitized equipment on the drain board next to the sanitizing sink to air-dry. A drying rack may be necessary for certain items. Never leave knives, glass, or sharp objects in a sink since serious injury can result. Technique: Using a Three-Compartment Sink

44 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Large Equipment Clean and sanitize large equipment after each use or after four hours of continual use You should receive training before cleaning large equipment for the first time When not in use, cover large equipment to protect it from contamination until next use

45 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Cleaning and Sanitizing Large Equipment Do not clean any equipment until you have been trained on its use and cleaning. 1.Unplug electrical equipment before beginning to clean. continued

46 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 2.Wear cut-resistant gloves if washing a sharp piece of machinery like a slicer or grinder. Technique: Cleaning and Sanitizing Large Equipment continued

47 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 3.Disassemble equipment as needed. Clean and sanitize small parts in a dishmachine or three-compartment sink. Technique: Cleaning and Sanitizing Large Equipment continued

48 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 4.Wash with hot water and detergent to remove visible grime and pieces of food. Technique: Cleaning and Sanitizing Large Equipment continued

49 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 5.Rinse with hot water. 6.Dry using a clean towel or paper towels. 7.Sanitize using sanitizing solution. Follow manufacturer’s instructions to determine dilution. Technique: Cleaning and Sanitizing Large Equipment

50 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cleaning and Sanitation Schedule Cleaning schedules help ensure the entire kitchen is clean A cleaning schedule lists –areas and equipment to be cleaned –when the cleaning should be done –who performs the cleaning –procedures to follow Many kitchens do regular self-inspections

51 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Explain the various aspects of personal hygiene that are important in foodservice.

52 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Personal Hygiene Good personal hygiene must be practiced in the kitchen to avoid contamination and should address the following: –hands and hair –bathing –clothing –smoking, drinking, and eating –illness

53 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hands Foodservice professionals must pay close attention to their hands Avoid contamination by –properly washing your hands with soap –wearing disposable gloves –keeping hand injuries bandaged and covered –keeping fingernails short –cleaning fingernails with a fingernail brush

54 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Proper Handwashing continued

55 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 2.Roll up sleeves and wet your hands. Add soap and lather hands, including the backs and wrists, and up to the elbows. Technique: Proper Handwashing continued

56 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 3.Scrub for 20 seconds and use a nailbrush to scrub under fingernails. Wash well between fingers. Technique: Proper Handwashing continued

57 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 4.Rinse under hot, running water. Technique: Proper Handwashing continued

58 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 5.Dry hands and arms with a single-use paper towel or air dryer. Do not dry hands on a communal towel or apron. 6.Use paper towel to turn water off and open bathroom door, then throw towel away. Technique: Proper Hand Washing

59 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hair Hair restraints –prevent foodservice workers from touching their hair while working –keep hair out of food –can be anything from a chef hat to a hairnet Beards should be well trimmed or covered with a beard net

60 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Bathing and Clothing Foodservice workers should bathe daily before coming to work When they arrive at work, foodservice employees should put on a clean uniform If uniforms become heavily soiled throughout the day, uniforms should be changed

61 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Smoking, Drinking, and Eating Smoking, drinking, and eating are not allowed in the professional kitchen Wash hands after smoking, eating, or drinking To taste food as part of the cook’s job, use a disposable or sanitized spoon

62 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Illness Foodservice workers should not work if they have a contagious illness Notify your supervisor if you are ill Illnesses resulting from certain foodborne pathogens should be reported to local health departments

63 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Understand the importance of proper pest control and waste management to food safety.

64 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Insect and Rodent Control The most important step in pest control is to keep a clean and sanitized facility Insects and rodents spread biological hazards through their urine and feces and with their feet and bodies Many city or county health departments require regular visits from a pest control operator (PCO)

65 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Waste Control Garbage is a breeding ground for bacteria and attracts insects and rodents Garbage containers must be routinely emptied and cleaned Always wash your hands after handling garbage continued

66 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Waste Control Many kitchens separate materials and items for recycling or composting Composting makes use of food scraps, which naturally decompose, to be reused as fertilizer Recycling and compost containers should be covered and cleaned regularly

67 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Summarize how a HACCP plan works.

68 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan analyzes food-handling procedures in order to reduce the risk of contamination HACCP tracks potentially hazardous foods from delivery to consumption continued

69 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Critical control points (CCP) in food handling must be identified CCPs are often –the cooking step at which sufficiently high internal temperatures kill pathogens –the length of time a product is held in storage and at what temperature continued

70 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point A HACCP plan includes seven points 1.Analyze how foods move through the establishment 2.Determine which steps are critical control points (CCP) 3.Define the limits for each CCP needed to achieve safety 4.Establish monitoring procedures for employees to implement and record CCP data continued

71 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point 5.Establish plan for corrective action when limits for CCP are not met 6.Establish procedures to verify the HACCP plan is working 7.Establish record keeping and documentation procedures

72 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Understand the role of the health inspector.

73 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Health Inspection A health inspector –periodically inspects all commercial foodservice establishments –ensures that the public is being served safe food by making unannounced inspections –is an expert resource continued

74 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Health Inspection The frequency of visits from a health inspector depends on –size of the foodservice establishment –operation’s prior inspection results –risk level of customer base –workload of the health department

75 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Explain the principles of time and temperature when handling food –Food should not be in the temperature danger zone for more than 4 cumulative hours –Food should be either above or below the temperature danger zone whenever possible continued

76 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review How does cross-contamination occur? –It occurs when harmful microorganisms are transferred from one product to another by hands, utensils, equipment, or other physical contact continued

77 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Explain the difference between cleaning and sanitizing. –Cleaning removes visual dirt, grime, and grease; sanitizing eliminates pathogens continued

78 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Describe proper cleaning procedures for cleaning and sanitizing food-contact surfaces and equipment. –Heat and chemicals are commonly used to sanitize surfaces. Small equipment is cleaned and sanitized in a three-compartment sink or dishmachine. Dishes are cleaned and sanitized in a dishmachine. Large equipment is cleaned and sanitized in place. continued

79 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Explain the various aspects of personal hygiene that are important in foodservice. –Hands must be washed properly, fingernails kept short, and hair restrained. Employees must bathe daily. Uniforms must be clean. Drinking, eating, and smoking are not allowed in the kitchen. Employees should not work when ill. continued

80 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Why is proper pest control important? –Insects and rodents spread biological hazards continued

81 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Explain the importance of proper waste disposal –If not disposed of properly, garbage could become a breeding ground for bacteria or an attraction to insects and rodents continued

82 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What is the purpose of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan? –A HACCP plan identifies and manages key steps in food handling where contamination is most likely to occur continued

83 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What is the purpose of a health department inspection? –Health inspectors examine foodservice establishments to make sure the public is being served safe food


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