# Experimental Design and Engineering Design

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Experimental Design and Engineering Design
Keeping It Cool SLED Summer Institute 2014 Introduction to Experimental Design and Engineering Design Start off with a little quiz On the next slide I have several statements to share with you. You must decided if the statement is: True or False

Warming Water Two friends put a bowl of very cold water outside on a hot sunny day. The Sun warmed the water. They wondered about the energy of the water. This is what they thought: Ted: “The very cold water had energy. The Sun provided additional energy to warm the water.” Anna: “The very cold water did not have energy. The energy in the warm water came from the Sun.” Which friend has the best idea? Explain why you agree with one friend and not the other. The purpose of this assessment is to elicit children’s ideas about thermal energy. Do students think cold things have energy? Ted is the correct answer. Under ordinary conditions, all objects, materials, and substances “possess” an internal energy called thermal energy. Even cold objects like ice cubes, have thermal energy. Thermal energy represents the total of all kinetic (due to molecular motion) and potential energy in the bowl of water. Molecules are in constant motion, even in cold water. The difference is…the molecules in cold water move slower than the molecules in warm water. The cold water has less thermal energy before it is warmed by the Sun, but nevertheless is still has some thermal energy. The Sun warms the water by transferring energy from the Sun to the cold water. The gain in energy changes the amount of thermal energy the water has. As the water molecules gain energy, they move faster and the water temperature increases.

Temperature, Heat, and Thermal Energy
Temperature is the measure of average kinetic energy of the particles that make up the object, substance, or material. Heat is the amount of thermal energy that is transferred between two objects. Thermal energy is the amount of kinetic and potential energy in an object or material.

Which has more thermal energy?
The thermal energy of a massive iceberg will be much larger than that of a kettle of boiling water, despite its much lower temperature, simply because it has more molecules.

Children’s Alternative Conceptions about Heat and Heat Transfer
Cold is a substance that moves. Heat is a substance that rises. Heat is a substance like a fluid, made of particles. Larger ice cubes are colder than smaller ones. Metal is cold, plastic and wood are warmer. Aluminum traps “coldness”; metals hold “cold”. Sweaters warm things. By statement 7 – poll the audience for their responses. If you answers True to any of these statements you are incorrect All of the statements are False From where do you think these statements come? These are children’s alternative, if not mis-, conceptions about heat and heat transfer (Albert, 1978; Clough & Driver, 1985; Erickson, 1979; Erickson, 1980)

What elementary school students need to know about heat?
Students can: Observe how heat spreads from one object to another and can consider ways to increase or decrease the spreading of heat. Wonder where the energy comes from that makes things happen.

You are going on a field trip and must pack a lunch to take with you
You are going on a field trip and must pack a lunch to take with you. You put a bottle of cold water in your lunch bag in the morning, but when you opened your lunch later that day the drink was warm! What happened? “Keeping the Cold In” Misconception: A teacher may believe coldness escapes from the can. To address this misconception, remind them that only heat (not cold) transfers. If only heat can transfer, what is happening? Heat is transferring from the outside to the lunch bag and then to the cold bottle, warming it.

Guiding question Which materials can keep a cup of cold water cold?
Materials include: Aluminum foil Bubble wrap Wool felt Newspaper

Notebook entry Guiding question Prediction Procedure Data Results
Word Bank Heat Cold(er) Warm(er) Temperature Increase Decrease Transfer Guiding question Prediction Procedure IV, DV, Control Data Results Conclusion What data will you collect? How will you collect this data? How will you organize this data?

Present results What were your team’s predictions?

Design Challenge The Boiler Treat Company (BTC) has started an ice cream flavor of the month club. Each month they will send club members a cup of their latest flavor of ice cream. The ice cream will be shipped overnight to the customer (taking up to 24 hours). BTC would like you to design a way to insulate a box that would keep the ice cream cups (represented by ice cubes) from melting. Also, they would like you to calculate the cost to insulate the box. Design constraints include: The size of the box The materials available

Notebook Entry Problem (goal, criteria, constraints, client, end user)
Individual Plan Team Plan Data Table Results from testing with an explanation Re-design Word Bank Heat Cold(er) Warm(er) Temperature Increase Decrease Transfer

Organizing your data * Remove any water from cup(s) Description
Mass (g) A Mass of two empty cups B Mass of two cups with ice C Mass of ice [B – A] D Mass of two cups with ice* E Mass of remaining ice [D – A] * Remove any water from cup(s)

Communicate Results Present your team plan
Share results from performance testing Did your team meet the client’s needs? Based on what evidence? What is one strength of your design? What is one weakness of your design?

What is the Engineering Design Process?
Design is the approach engineers use to solve engineering problems—generally, to determine the best way to make a device or process that serves a particular purpose. Design is not a linear, step-by-step process. Design is an iterative process. Brenda

SLED Model for Engineering Design
IDENTIFY PROBLEM SHARE AND DEVELOP A PLAN CREATE AND TEST COMMUNICATE RESULTS IMPROVE AND RETEST Brenda This model is an iterative process

SHARE AND DEVELOP A PLAN

Essential Features of Design-based Instruction
Client-driven and goal-oriented Constraints Authentic and has a social context Use of materials, tools, and equipment that are familiar to students Allows for many different possible solutions that require students to use evidence to explain their solutions Solutions include either an artifact or process Promotes student-centered, collaborative learning Brenda Distribute Cards (Beneson, 2001; Crismond, 2001; Lewis, 2006)

Today’s Big Ideas Heat transfers in predictable ways.
Heat transfers from areas of high temperatures to areas of lower temperature. Insulators slow down the rate of heat transfer. Materials affect the rate of heat transfer. Different materials vary in their ability to reduce heat transfer. Materials can be used in conjunction with one another to affect the rate of heat transfer.

Today’s Science Content
Heat Temperature Heat transfer Insulator

Deconstructing Today’s Lesson
To what extent did we engage in practices similar to the work of a scientist? To what extent did we engage in practices similar to the work of an engineer?

Instructional Activities
Engineering Design (Engineering Practices) Identified the problem Goal-oriented Worked within constraints Set criteria Brainstormed solutions Developed an individual and team plan Constructed, tested, and analyzed the performance of your prototype Communicated results Re-designed Experimental Design (Science Practices) Guiding question Developed an experimental procedure Identified variables (independent and dependent) Gathered, organized, and presented data Analyzed and interpreted the data Made claims based on evidence

Heat Transfer Assessment
1. You pick up a can of soda off of the countertop. The countertop underneath the can feels colder than the rest of the counter. Which explanation do you think is the best? A. The cold has been transferred from the soda to the counter. B. There is no heat energy left in the counter beneath the can. C. Some heat has been transferred from the counter to the soda. D. The heat beneath the can moves away into other parts of the countertop.

Answer 1. You pick up a can of soda off of the countertop. The countertop underneath the can feels colder than the rest of the counter. Which explanation do you think is the best? A. The cold has been transferred from the soda to the counter. B. There is no heat energy left in the counter beneath the can. C. Some heat has been transferred from the counter to the soda. D. The heat beneath the can moves away into other parts of the countertop. This is based on the principle that heat transfers from areas of higher temperature to areas of lower temperature.

2. After cooking an egg in boiling water, you cool the egg by putting it into a bowl of cold water. Which of the following explains the egg’s cooling process? A. Temperature is transferred from the egg to the water. B. Cold moves from the water into the egg. C. Energy is transferred from the water to the egg. D. Energy is transferred from the egg to the water.

Answer 2. After cooking an egg in boiling water, you cool the egg by putting it into a bowl of cold water. Which of the following explains the egg’s cooling process? A. Temperature is transferred from the egg to the water. B. Cold moves from the water into the egg. C. Energy is transferred from the water to the egg. D. Energy is transferred from the egg to the water. This is based on the principle that heat transfers from areas of higher temperature to areas of lower temperature.

3. Why do we wear sweaters in cold weather?
A. To keep cold out. B. To generate heat. C. To reduce heat loss. D. All of the above.

Answer 3. Why do we wear sweaters in cold weather?
A. To keep cold out. B. To generate heat. C. To reduce heat loss. D. All of the above.

4. Amy wraps her dolls in blankets but can’t understand why they don’t warm up. Why don’t they warm up? A. The blankets she uses are probably poor insulators. B. The blankets she uses are probably poor conductors. C. The dolls are made of materials which don’t hold heat well. D. None of the above.

Answer  4. Amy wraps her dolls in blankets but can’t understand why they don’t warm up. Why don’t they warm up? A. The blankets she uses are probably poor insulators. B. The blankets she uses are probably poor conductors. C. The dolls are made of materials which don’t hold heat well. D. None of the above.

5. As water in a freezer turns into ice,
A. The water absorbs energy from the air in the freezer. B. The water absorbs the coldness from the air in the freezer. C. The freezer air absorbs heat from the water. D. The water neither absorbs nor releases energy

Answer 5. As water in a freezer turns into ice,
A. The water absorbs energy from the air in the freezer. B. The water absorbs the coldness from the air in the freezer. C. The freezer air absorbs heat from the water. D. The water neither absorbs nor releases energy

6. You have a can of soda in your lunchbox that you want to keep cold
6. You have a can of soda in your lunchbox that you want to keep cold. Which material will work best to keep it cold? A. Aluminum foil wrapped around the soda because metals transfer heat energy easily. B. A paper towel wrapped around the soda because paper soaks up the moisture. C. Wax paper wrapped around the soda because wax paper traps the moisture. D. Your wool sweater wrapped around the soda because wool traps air.

Answer 6. You have a can of soda in your lunchbox that you want to keep cold. Which material will work best to keep it cold? A. Aluminum foil wrapped around the soda because metals transfer heat energy easily. B. A paper towel wrapped around the soda because paper soaks up the moisture. C. Wax paper wrapped around the soda because wax paper traps the moisture. D. Your wool sweater wrapped around the soda because wool traps air.