OBJECTIVES Define the key terms listed in this chapter Explain why grooming is important Identify the factors that affect hair care Explain how to care for matted and tangled hair Describe how to shampoo hair Describe the measures practiced when shaving a person Explain why nail and foot care are important Describe the rules for changing gowns and clothing Perform the procedures described in this chapter
Alopecia means hair loss. –Male pattern baldness occurs with aging and is the result of heredity. –Hair also thins in some women. –Hair loss also occurs from –cancer treatments –skin disease –Stress –poor nutrition –Pregnancy –some drugs and hormone changes.
Hirsutism is excessive body hair in women and children. –results from heredity and abnormal amounts of male hormones. Dandruff –excessive amount of dry, white flakes from the scalp. –Itching often occurs. –Sometimes eyebrows and ear canals are involved. –Medicated shampoos correct the problem.
Pediculosis=infestation of lice. –Lice bites cause severe itching in the affected area. –Pediculosis capitis the infestation of the scalp with lice. –Pediculosis pubis infestation of the pubic hair with lice Medicated shampoos, lotions, and creams are used to treat lice.
HAIR CARE –When giving hair care, place a towel across the shoulders. –If the person is in bed, give hair care before changing the pillowcase, or place a towel across the pillow.
Shampooing –removes oils and dirt –frequency may vary, follow the residents’ choice –Method may vary depending on the resident’s abilities –Frequent shampooing is often necessary.
Focus on older persons: shampooing –Older persons have dry hair. –may shampoo less often than younger adults. Focus on long-term care: shampooing –Shampooing is usually done weekly on the person’s bath or shower day. –If a woman’s hair is done in the beauty shop, do not shampoo her hair.
Facial hair of a male resident –part of most men’s’ daily grooming –contributes to general comfort and self- esteem –part of personal preference, ethnic background –never shave a resident unless instructed –use of electric razors or disposable safety razors ******NEVER USE ELECTRIC RAZOR FOR RESIDENT ON OXYGEN********
Focus on older persons: shaving –Some older persons have dementia. – Do not use safety razors to shave them. –They may resist care and move quickly –Serious nicks and cuts can occur. Safety Alert: Shaving” on page 356 in the textbook
APPLICATION SHAVING A DEPENDENT RESIDENT
NAIL AND FOOT CARE –Nail and foot care prevent infection, injury, and odors. –Skin breaks are portals of entry for microbes. –Skin breaks are caused from: 1. Hangnails 2. Ingrown toenails 3. Nails torn away from the skin 4. Scratches from long or broken nails
The feet are easily injured and infected. –Dirty feet, socks, or stockings can harbor microbes and cause odors. –Injuries occur from stubbing toes, stepping on sharp objects, or being stepped on. –Shoes that fit poorly cause blisters.
Poor circulation prolongs the healing process. Diabetes and vascular diseases are common causes of poor circulation. Infections or foot injuries are very serious for older persons and persons with circulatory disorders. –Gangrene and amputation are serious complications (Chapter 33).
Nails are easier to trim and clean after soaking or bathing. Use nail clippers to cut fingernails. 1. Never use scissors. 2. Use extreme caution to prevent tissue damage. Some agencies do not allow nursing assistants to cut or trim toenails. Follow agency policy.
Focus on home care: nail and foot care 1. The feet soak during a tub bath. 2. Or the person can sit on the side of the tub and soak the feet. –If the person cannot get into and out of the tub, soak the feet in a basin or a whirlpool foot bath. 3. The person can soak fingers in the sink or use a basin or a bowl.
APPLICATION NAIL CARE
CHANGING GOWNS AND CLOTHING –Gowns or pajamas are changed after the bath and when wet or soiled. –People who wear regular clothes dress in the morning and change into sleepwear for bed. –Incontinent persons may change more often.
Follow these rules: –Provide for privacy. Do not expose the person. –Encourage the person to do as much as possible. –Let the person choose what to wear. –Remove clothing from the strong or “good” side first. –Put clothing on the weak side first. –Support the arm or leg when removing or putting on a garment.
Changing gowns –If there is injury or paralysis, remove the gown from the strong arm first. –Support the weak arm while removing the gown. –Put the clean gown on the weak arm first. –Some agencies have special gowns for IV therapy.
APPLICATION #4: CHANGING A GOWN WITH IV
Resident clothing –encourage independence in dressing –residents were street clothes, patient’s gowns –treat with respect: always fold neatly, put away, and keep in good repair
Dressing and undressing The rules listed on page 361 in the textbook are followed for dressing and undressing. Focus on long-term care: dressing and undressing Most residents wear street clothes during the day. Some dress and undress themselves. Personal choice is a resident right.
Focus on home care: dressing and undressing Patients may wear street clothes, sleepwear, or robes during the day. The procedures apply to sleepwear, robes, and street clothes.