Presentation on theme: "The Gas Laws -_________ ________ provides a ______ that explains the properties of ________, _________, and ______ in terms of __________ that are always."— Presentation transcript:
The Gas Laws -_________ ________ provides a ______ that explains the properties of ________, _________, and ______ in terms of __________ that are always in ________ and the ________ that exist between them I. Kinetic Theory -actual gases don’t always obey, but ___________ the ____________made by the _________ ________
The Gas Laws II. Boyle’s Law-the _______ of a gas _________ _________ with the _________, providing the ___________ is held ________ If a sample of Argon gas occupies a volume of 10.0 liters at a pressure of 200 kilopascals, at what pressure would the same sample of gas occupy 5.0 liters, if the temperature remains constant?
The Gas Laws II. Boyle’s Law If a sample of Carbon dioxide gas occupies a volume of 35.0 liters at a pressure of 1.10 atmospheres, what volume would the same sample of gas occupy at 1.25 atmospheres, if the temperature remains constant?
The Gas Laws III. Charles’s Law-the _______ of a gas _________ _________ with the ___________, providing the _________ is held ________ If a sample of Chlorine gas occupies a volume of 250 milliliters at a temperature of 22°C, what volume would the same sample of gas occupy at -22°C, if the pressure remains constant?
The Gas Laws III. Charles’s Law 1. Hypothesis: What is the relationship between volume and temperature of a gas? 2. Prediction: 3. Gather Data: A. Safety: 1. Be careful not to drip or splash hot vegetable oil on yourself. Goggles mandatory, aprons recommended. 2. Capillary tubes break easily. Be cautious of broken, jagged ends.
The Gas Laws III. Charles’s Law 3. Gather Data: 1. Assemble thermometer/capillary tube apparatus by carefully wrapping rubber bands around both to hold the capillary tube to the thermometer, arranging the open end toward the bulb of the thermometer, just short of the end. B. Procedure:
The Gas Laws III. Charles’s Law 3. Gather Data: 2. Immerse the capillary tube on the thermometer completely under the surface of the hot oil bath. Allow the temperature on your thermometer to reach 140°C. Then, lift the thermometer from the oil bath, pausing for 5 seconds to allow oil to rise up into the tube. B. Procedure: 3. Carry the tube/thermometer assembly back to your lab table, being careful to catch the drips of hot oil on a paper towel. Lay the thermometer on a sheet of paper towel. Mark the position of the oil plug. Take note of the temperature. As the air in the tube cools, mark the position of the oil plug as it moves along the tube on the
The Gas Laws III. Charles’s Law 3. Gather Data: B. Procedure: 3. paper towel. With each mark on the paper towel recording the position of the oil plug, record the temperature at the time the mark was made. Take as many position/temperature readings as possible, until the thermometer reads room temperature (about 23°C). 4. Plot data on Excel spreadsheet and graph results.
The Gas Laws III. Charles’s Law 4. Analyze Data: Temperature (in °C)Length (in mm)
The Gas Laws III. Charles’s Law 4. Analyze Data: Temperature (in °C)Length (in mm) 5. Draw Conclusions:
The Gas Laws III. Charles’s Law-_________ _____ is the _______ possible theoretical temperature, equal to _________, and is the ___________ at which the ________ of a sample of gas is _____, and all ________, __________ movement of particles ________ -the coldest _______ temperature is _______, or _________, the temperature of ______ _______
The Gas Laws III. Charles’s Law If a sample of methane gas occupies a volume of 14.75 liters at a temperature of 68°F, at what temperature, in °F, would the same sample of gas occupy 16.00 liters, if the pressure remains constant?
The Gas Laws IV. Gay-Lussac’s Law-the _______ of a gas _________ _________ with the ___________, providing the _________ is held ________ If the pressure in a propane tank is 965 mm Hg at a temperature of 25°C, what would the pressure in the tank be at 50°C, if the volume remains constant?
The Gas Laws IV. Gay-Lussac’s Law If the air pressure in an autoclave is 833 torr at a temperature of 212°F, at what temperature, in °F, would the air pressure be 900 torr, if the volume remains constant?
The Gas Laws V. Combined Gas Law-the _______ of a gas is _________ proportional to ________ and directly proportional to ___________, and ________ is __________ proportional to ____________ If the volume of a sample of Hydrogen sulfide gas is 2.00 liters at a pressure of 110 kilopascals and a temperature of 30.0°C, what is the volume of the same sample of Hydrogen sulfide, in liters, at a temperature of 80.0°C and a pressure of 440 kilopascals?
The Gas Laws V. Combined Gas Law If a Helium-filled balloon at sea level has a volume of 2.1 liters at a pressure of 0.998 atmospheres and a temperature of 36°C, and it is released and rises to an elevation at which the temperature is 28°C and the pressure is 0.900 atmospheres, what will be the new volume of the balloon?
The Gas Laws VI. Avogadro’s Principle-______ ________ of gases at the same ____________ and _________ contain ______ numbers of ________ -one ______ of gas contains __________ particles and occupies _______ at _________ temperature and pressure, which is ______ and ________ How many molecules in 3.73 liters of ozone at STP?
The Gas Laws VI. Avogadro’s Principle What is the volume, in liters, of 0.881 moles of Fluorine gas at STP? How many moles of Nitrogen gas are in 2.00 liters at STP? What is the volume, in liters, of 5.0 kilograms of methane at STP? What mass, in grams, of Nitrogen dioxide occupies 15.50 liters at STP?
The Gas Laws VII. Ideal Gas Law-___________ Law, ________ Law, ________ Law, and _____________ Law can be combined into one mathematical statement called the ______________, which describes the relationship among _________, ________, ____________, and the number of ______ of a gas -______ gases, as opposed to ______ gases, is one in which the gas __________ take up no ______ and have no _______________ forces between them, and so obey all of the gas laws under all conditions -______ gases obey the gas laws, except at extreme conditions, like very ______ _______ and very ____ ____________, or when the gas is very ______, like water, or when _________ are very ______, like butane
The Gas Laws VII. Ideal Gas Law How many moles of Hydrogen gas are contained in a vessel with a volume of 3.0 liters at a temperature of 300 K and a pressure of 1.50 atmospheres? At what Celsius temperature would 2.49 moles of Helium gas occupy 1.00 liters if the pressure was 143 kPa?
The Gas Laws VII. Ideal Gas Law What is the density of Carbon dioxide at standard temperature and pressure? What is the molar mass of a gas that has a density of 1.09 g/L at a pressure of 1.02 atm and a temperature of 25°C? Which gas is it?
The Gas Laws VIII. Gas Stoichiometry What volume, in liters, of oxygen is required for the complete combustion of 4.00 liters of propane gas, if the pressure and temperature remain constant? What mass, in grams, of Ammonium nitrate is required to produce 0.100 liters of Dinitrogen monoxide at STP?