# IDEOLOGY Lesson 2 Notes from Lectures of Dr. Sayed Fadhil Al-Milani International College of Islamic Studies (ICIS) Student Translator: Aous Asfar.

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IDEOLOGY Lesson 2 Notes from Lectures of Dr. Sayed Fadhil Al-Milani International College of Islamic Studies (ICIS) Student Translator: Aous Asfar

A. The Old Curriculum 1.The Proof of Necessary Existence and Unnecessary Existence (wujub wa imkaan) 2.The Proof of Motion (al-haraka) 3.The Proof of Impartiality (al-tajarrud) 4.The Proof of Occurrence (al-huduth) 5.The Proof of the Chosen Ones (al- siddeeqeen)

B. New Curriculum 1.Contemplating the Existence of the Universe 2.Descarte 3.Proof of Organization (al-nidhaam)

C. Ahlul Bayt (as) Here we will explore some proofs from Ahlulbayt (as).

A. Old Curriculum 1.The Proof of Necessary Existence & Unnecessary Existence Arabic: burhaan al-wujub wa al- imkaan/al-hukamaa’ al-ilaahiyyeen This proof explores proving God as the necessary existent Whose existence is essential and does not come from other than him.

Intro to Proof Everything that we immagine in our minds and realize with our senses can cease to exist and can change. Therefore, existence of such things is NOT essential or part of its essence. Rather, it is gained from something, Allah-the necessary existent.

Continued… 2. And if the existence of the cause is gained, we then ask: From where did it gain its existence? a)If it is said: From the Essential/Primary existent = Circular argument = FALSE - Because “a” is contingent on “b” and “b” is contingent on “a”.

Continued… b) If it is said: From another existent or another cause, We then say: a)Is the existence in the cause: I. Essential = proven our point II. Gained = we continue… b) If it is said: From another existent or another cause,… and we continue ad infinitum = argument is false

Conclusion In this proof we can end up with one of the following conclusions: a.There is an essential existent that is necessary and is the first cause of all things (Allah). b.An infinite series argument that is logically false.

Question But how does man (a gained existent) relate to the Necessary Existent? A: Take some oil, pour it on a glass table top, pour some flour on it, let the oil soak in the flour, then place your hand in the flour and take a paper towel and wipe your hand with it…

Continued… Place the paper towel infront of someone who is naturally curious. This person will ask you: From where did this towel get its oiliness? You answer: From my hand. He says: And from where did your hand get it oiliness?

Continued… You say: From the flour. He says: Where did the flour get its oiliness from? You say: From the table top. He says: Where did the table top get its oiliness? You say: From the oil. At this point he stops asking any questions because there is no point in asking about where the oil got its oiliness from.

Conclusion Did you see how the oiliness was gained by the towel, your hand, the flour and the table top? Therefore, these things needed a cause to provide it with its oiliness. As for the oil, oiliness is essential to it. And this is corollary to how gained existence gains its existence from an essential necessary existent.

Summary Our existence either ends up being a result of: 1.Circular argument 2.Infinite argument in series 3.The Necessary Existent Since 1 & 2 are false (through logic), 3 must be true.

2. Proof of Motion Arabic: burhaan al-haraka History: By Aristotle

Continued… 1.Motion requires a mover 2.The mover and the motion are related in time (difference is not in time but order) 3.Every mover is either in motion or static 4.Every body is changing and in motion 5.Infinite argument in changing things is impossible 6.Therefore, the series of motions must go back to a static mover (the first mover).

3. Proof of Detachment Arabic: burhan al-tajarud/al-hukamaa’ This proof is based on a study of the truth of the soul, for the intellectual soul is detached in essence from materialism And it is impossible for the first cause to to be a body, for if it was a body, it would not differ from other bodies and may have limitations. Therefore, the first cause must be metaphysical, essentially detached, absolutely unlimited, and that is Allah.

4. Proof of Occurrence 1.The world is changing 2.Everything that changes is new in occurrence. 3.Therefore: The world is new in occurrence.

Continued… Now we take the result and make it the first premise: 1.The world is new in occurrence. 2.Everything that is new in occurrence is in need of a creator. 3.Result: The world needs a creator.

Continued… This creator can NOT be newly occurring, because it would need a creator itself. If the creator of that occurrence needs a creator then we have a circular argument = false. Infinite creators = infinite argument = false.

Conclusion Therefore, the creator of this universe must be old in existence, whose existence does not accept non- existence. Meaning always and necessary in existence. He is Allah, The First Cause.

Question Why do all occurring things require a creator of that action? A. If things were based on coincidence: Story of blind man and papers. 100 page book: 1: 1/100 2: 1/99 3: For p.1 & 2 to occur at once: 1/99 X 1/100 4: For p. 1-2-3: 1/98 X 1/99 X 1/100 = 1/970200 etc.

Conclusion Coincidence is impossible with respect to creation.

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