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Infection Control Principles & Practices Chapter 5 – 12’

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1 Infection Control Principles & Practices Chapter 5 – 12’

2 It is your duty to ensure that your clients receive their services in the safest possible environment It is your duty to ensure that your clients receive their services in the safest possible environment

3 Why Study This? To be a knowledgeable, successful and responsible professional you are required to understand the types of infections you may encounter. To be a knowledgeable, successful and responsible professional you are required to understand the types of infections you may encounter. Understanding the basics of cleaning and disinfecting and following state rules will ensure a long successful career. Understanding the basics of cleaning and disinfecting and following state rules will ensure a long successful career.

4 Understanding the chemistry of the cleaning and disinfecting products you use and how to use them will keep you, your clients, and the salon environment safe. Understanding the chemistry of the cleaning and disinfecting products you use and how to use them will keep you, your clients, and the salon environment safe.

5 Regulation Federal agencies set guidelines for Federal agencies set guidelines for –Manufacturing –Sale –Use of equipment –Chemical ingredients –Monitor Safety in the workplace –Place limits on types of services performed

6 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Created b y the US Department of Labor Created b y the US Department of Labor –Occupational Safety and Health Administration - OSHA HOME PAGE Occupational Safety and Health Administration - OSHA HOME PAGEOccupational Safety and Health Administration - OSHA HOME PAGE Regulate and enforce safety and health standards in the workplace Regulate and enforce safety and health standards in the workplace

7 Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 Regulating employee exposure to toxic substances Regulating employee exposure to toxic substances Informing about the dangers of materials used Informing about the dangers of materials used Hazard Communication Rule Hazard Communication Rule

8 Requires chemical mfg. and importers assess the hazards associated with their products Requires chemical mfg. and importers assess the hazards associated with their products MSDS and product labeling are important results of this law MSDS and product labeling are important results of this law

9 Products in salons Standards address: Standards address: –Handling –Mixing –Storing –disposing General safety in the workforce General safety in the workforce Your right to know the hazardous ingredients in the products you use Your right to know the hazardous ingredients in the products you use

10 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Federal law requires manufactures (mfg.) to provide Federal law requires manufactures (mfg.) to provide Contains important information about chemicals Contains important information about chemicals

11 –Hazardous ingredients –Safe use and handling procedures –Safety precautions to reduce the risk of harm and overexposure –Associated hazards –Combustion levels (flammability and data in case of fire) –Disposal guidelines – EPA fines –Medical information –Storage requirements etc. –Ingredients

12 OSHA and state regulatory agencies require MSDSs be kept available OSHA and state regulatory agencies require MSDSs be kept available State Inspectors can issue fines for not having MSDSs available State Inspectors can issue fines for not having MSDSs available

13 Material Safety Data Sheet

14 Not having an MSDS Poses a health risk to all exposed to hazardous materials Poses a health risk to all exposed to hazardous materials Is a violation of federal regulations Is a violation of federal regulations

15 Take time to read all of the information to be certain that you are protecting yourself and your clients to the best of your ability Take time to read all of the information to be certain that you are protecting yourself and your clients to the best of your ability

16 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Two types of disinfectants used in salons Two types of disinfectants used in salons 1. Hospital - products are safe for cleaning blood and body fluids 2. Tuberculocidal – proven to kill the bacteria that causes tuberculosis

17 It is against FEDERAL LAW to use any disinfecting product contrary to its labeling It is against FEDERAL LAW to use any disinfecting product contrary to its labeling If you do not follow the instructions for mixing, contact time and the type of surface the disinfecting product can be used on, you have broken a federal Law. If you do not follow the instructions for mixing, contact time and the type of surface the disinfecting product can be used on, you have broken a federal Law.

18 State Regulatory Agencies Exist to protect the consumer’s health, safety, and welfare while receiving services Exist to protect the consumer’s health, safety, and welfare while receiving services Everyone working in a salon/spa must follow specific procedures Everyone working in a salon/spa must follow specific procedures

19 Enforcement through inspections and investigations of consumer complaints Enforcement through inspections and investigations of consumer complaints Issue penalties against both the salon and the operator (designer/technician) Issue penalties against both the salon and the operator (designer/technician) –Warnings to fines –Probation –Suspension or revocation of licenses –Jail time

20 Laws/Rules – What is the difference? Laws are written by legislature Laws are written by legislature –Determine the scope of practice (what each license is allowed to do) –Establish guidelines for regulatory agencies to make rules Laws/statutes Laws/statutes

21 Rules/Regulations are written by the regulatory agency or board Rules/Regulations are written by the regulatory agency or board –Determines how the law will be applied Rules establish specific standards of conduct, can be changed and updated Rules establish specific standards of conduct, can be changed and updated FYI Pp. 72 FYI Pp. 72

22 Principles of Infection One careless action could cause injury or infection

23 (write in side notes) We are not seeking to treat any disease or conditions We are not seeking to treat any disease or conditions We are taking steps so that the tools and equipment we use are safe to use on clients We are taking steps so that the tools and equipment we use are safe to use on clients

24 Infection Control Methods used to eliminate or reduce the transmission of infectious organisms Methods used to eliminate or reduce the transmission of infectious organisms 4 types of potentially harmful organisms 4 types of potentially harmful organisms –Bacteria- Fungi –Viruses- Parasites

25 Infectious disease –caused by pathogenic organisms that enter the body Infectious disease –caused by pathogenic organisms that enter the body Clean – mechanical process using soap and water or detergent and water to remove all visible dirt, debris and germs from tools, implements and equipment Clean – mechanical process using soap and water or detergent and water to remove all visible dirt, debris and germs from tools, implements and equipment

26 Disinfection – destroys most harmful organisms on environmental surfaces Disinfection – destroys most harmful organisms on environmental surfaces

27 Disinfectants Bactericidal – kills bacteria Bactericidal – kills bacteria Virucidal – kills virus Virucidal – kills virus Fungicidal – kills fungus Fungicidal – kills fungus

28 Dirty salon tools and equipment may spread infection from client to client. Dirty salon tools and equipment may spread infection from client to client. You have an OBLIGATION to provide safe services and prevent consumers from harm You have an OBLIGATION to provide safe services and prevent consumers from harm

29 You may be found legally responsible for not correctly performing services!

30 Bacteria Minute one-celled organisms Minute one-celled organisms Known as germs or microbes (write in) Known as germs or microbes (write in) Can exist almost everywhere Can exist almost everywhere Can be only seen with aid of a microscope Can be only seen with aid of a microscope 1,500 rod-shaped will fit on the head of a pin (write in) 1,500 rod-shaped will fit on the head of a pin (write in)

31 Types of Bacteria Nonpathogenic Nonpathogenic –Helpful or harmless; not disease producing –Help metabolize food –Protect against infectious microorganisms –Stimulate immune response –Saprophytes – lives on dead matter

32 Pathogenic Pathogenic –Harmful; disease producing –Parasites – require living matter for their growth

33 Classifications of Pathogenic Bacteria Cocci – round shape, appear singly or alone Cocci – round shape, appear singly or alone –Staphylococci – pus-forming, grow in bunches/clusters (like grapes), cause boils, abscesses and pustules

34 Streptococci – pus-forming, arranged in curved lines (like a string of beads), strep throat, blood poisoning Streptococci – pus-forming, arranged in curved lines (like a string of beads), strep throat, blood poisoning Diplococci – grow in pairs, cause pneumonia Diplococci – grow in pairs, cause pneumonia

35 Bacilli – short, rod-shaped, most common, cause tetanus and tuberculosis Bacilli – short, rod-shaped, most common, cause tetanus and tuberculosis Spirilla – spiral, corkscrew shaped, cause Lyme disease Spirilla – spiral, corkscrew shaped, cause Lyme disease

36 Movement of Bacteria Motility – self movement Motility – self movement Cocci – Cocci – – transmitted in the air, in dust or within the substance in which they settle Bacilli and Spirilla – motile – Bacilli and Spirilla – motile – –use slender hairlike extensions called flagella or cilia –Whip like motion propels bacteria through liquid

37 Important Tables in Book Table 5-1 Definitions relating to causes of disease – pp. 75 Table 5-1 Definitions relating to causes of disease – pp. 75 Table 5-2 General terms relating to disease – pp. 78 Table 5-2 General terms relating to disease – pp. 78

38 Bacterial Growth and Reproduction Bacteria Bacteria –Manufacture their own food from the surrounding environment –Give off waste –Grow and reproduce Protoplasm – outer cell wall containing liquid Protoplasm – outer cell wall containing liquid

39 Active Stage Warm, dark, damp or dirty places where food is available Warm, dark, damp or dirty places where food is available Mitosis/Binary Fission Mitosis/Binary Fission –Bacteria reach largest size - divide into two (2) new cells –Daughter cells Unfavorable conditions they die or become inactive Unfavorable conditions they die or become inactive

40 Mitosis: An Interactive Animation Mitosis: An Interactive Animation Mitosis: An Interactive Animation Mitosis: An Interactive Animation Mitosis Mitosis Mitosis Mitosis Mitosis Mitosis

41 Inactive or Spore – Forming Stage Spherical spores with tough waxy outer coverings/shells Spherical spores with tough waxy outer coverings/shells Withstand periods of famine, dryness, and unsuitable temperatures Withstand periods of famine, dryness, and unsuitable temperatures Can be blown about and not harmed by disinfectants, heat or cold Can be blown about and not harmed by disinfectants, heat or cold

42 Spores are dangerous if they enter the body Spores are dangerous if they enter the body Pose little to no risk to clients in the salon Pose little to no risk to clients in the salon

43 Bacterial Infections Inflammation – the body reacts to injury, irritation, or infection Inflammation – the body reacts to injury, irritation, or infection Inflammation is characterized Inflammation is characterized –Redness –Heat –Pain –swelling

44 Infection – occurs when body tissues are invaded by pathogenic bacteria Infection – occurs when body tissues are invaded by pathogenic bacteria Pus – is a fluid product of inflammation and contains white blood cells, dead cells, and bacteria Pus – is a fluid product of inflammation and contains white blood cells, dead cells, and bacteria The presence of pus is a sign of infection The presence of pus is a sign of infection

45 Local Infection – is one confined to a particular part of the body and is indicated by a lesion containing pus Local Infection – is one confined to a particular part of the body and is indicated by a lesion containing pus General Infection – results when the bloodstream carries the bacteria or virus and their toxins to all parts of the body General Infection – results when the bloodstream carries the bacteria or virus and their toxins to all parts of the body

46 Staphylococci Among the most common human bacteria and carried by 1/3 of the population Among the most common human bacteria and carried by 1/3 of the population

47 Picked up – Picked up – –Doorknobs, countertops, other surfaces –Skin to skin contact – shaking hands, unclean implements

48 Some Staph infections are now resistant to antibiotics Some Staph infections are now resistant to antibiotics –Symptoms – skin infections, pimples and boils Greatest need for proper infection control measures Greatest need for proper infection control measures

49 Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus MRSA MRSA –Weakened immune system –Medical procedures Appears as skin infection that can be difficult to cure Appears as skin infection that can be difficult to cure

50 You owe it to yourself and your clients to clean and disinfect tools, implements and equipment You owe it to yourself and your clients to clean and disinfect tools, implements and equipment Do not perform any service if signs of abrasions or infection! Do not perform any service if signs of abrasions or infection!

51 Contagious – communicable – a disease spread from one person to another by contact Contagious – communicable – a disease spread from one person to another by contact Spread most commonly by Spread most commonly by –Dirty hands – especially under fingernails or webs between fingers

52 Chief Sources of contagion Unclean hands and implements Unclean hands and implements Open sores, pus, mouth and nose discharges Open sores, pus, mouth and nose discharges Shared drinking cups and towels Shared drinking cups and towels Telephone receivers Telephone receivers Uncovered coughing or sneezing and spitting in public Uncovered coughing or sneezing and spitting in public Infected nails Infected nails

53 Viruses Parasitic submicroscopic particle that infects and resides in the cells of a biological organism. Parasitic submicroscopic particle that infects and resides in the cells of a biological organism. Capable of infecting almost all plants and animals, including bacteria Capable of infecting almost all plants and animals, including bacteria Seen only with the most sophisticated and powerful microscopes Seen only with the most sophisticated and powerful microscopes

54 Cause Common colds and other respiratory and gastrointestinal infections Common colds and other respiratory and gastrointestinal infections Measles, mumps, chicken pox, smallpox, rabies, yellow fever, hepatitis, polio, influenza, and HIV Measles, mumps, chicken pox, smallpox, rabies, yellow fever, hepatitis, polio, influenza, and HIV

55 Differences Virus – can live and reproduce only by penetrating other cells and becoming part of them Virus – can live and reproduce only by penetrating other cells and becoming part of them Bacteria – can live and reproduce on their own Bacteria – can live and reproduce on their own

56 Antibiotics Antibiotics –Bacteria – treated –Viruses – not affected by Vaccination can prevent viruses from growing in the body Vaccination can prevent viruses from growing in the body

57 Bloodborne Pathogens Disease causing bacteria that are transmitted through the body in the blood or body fluids Disease causing bacteria that are transmitted through the body in the blood or body fluids Use great care to avoid damaging the client’s skin during any type of service Use great care to avoid damaging the client’s skin during any type of service

58 Spread anytime skin is broken Hair cutting Hair cutting Shaving Shaving Nipping Nipping Clipping Clipping Facial treatments Facial treatments Waxing/tweezing Waxing/tweezing Chemical burns Chemical burns

59 Federal law - Cutting skin is allowed by qualified medical professionals Federal law - Cutting skin is allowed by qualified medical professionals Cutting hardened cuticle and removing callus are both considered medical procedures Cutting hardened cuticle and removing callus are both considered medical procedures

60 Hepatitis Blood borne pathogen that damages the liver Blood borne pathogen that damages the liver Easier to contract than HIV Easier to contract than HIV Present in all body fluids of infected person Present in all body fluids of infected person

61 Can live on a surface outside the body for a long time Can live on a surface outside the body for a long time Vital all surfaces are thoroughly cleaned Vital all surfaces are thoroughly cleaned Be sure to clean hands after coughing or sneezing Be sure to clean hands after coughing or sneezing

62 Types A, B, C A, B, C Hepatitis B – most difficult to kill on a surface – check label of disinfectant Hepatitis B – most difficult to kill on a surface – check label of disinfectant Public workers should be vaccinated Public workers should be vaccinated

63 HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Breaks down the body’s immune system Breaks down the body’s immune system Person to person through blood and other body fluids Person to person through blood and other body fluids

64 Infected many years without symptoms Infected many years without symptoms Testing can tell if infected within 6 months of exposure Testing can tell if infected within 6 months of exposure

65 Spread Needles – intravenous drug users Needles – intravenous drug users Unprotected sexual contact Unprotected sexual contact Accidents with needles in the healthcare field Accidents with needles in the healthcare field Less likely to enter the bloodstream through cuts and sores Less likely to enter the bloodstream through cuts and sores

66 Not Spread Holding hands Holding hands Hugging Hugging Kissing Kissing Sharing food or household items Sharing food or household items Currently no documented cases of food handlers, insects, or casual contact or hair, skin, or nail services Currently no documented cases of food handlers, insects, or casual contact or hair, skin, or nail services

67 How Pathogens Enter the Body FYI page 81: FYI page 81: Enter the body: Enter the body: –Break in the skin –Mouth –Nose –Eyes and ears –Unprotected sex

68 Body Fights Infection Unbroken skin Unbroken skin Body secretions Body secretions White cells White cells antitoxins antitoxins

69 Human Disease Carrier A person who is personally immune to a disease, yet can transmit germs to other people A person who is personally immune to a disease, yet can transmit germs to other people (write in on PP 81) (write in on PP 81)

70 Fungi Vegetable (plant) parasites Vegetable (plant) parasites –Molds –Mildews –Yeasts –Produce contagious diseases Ringworm Ringworm

71 Areas affected Tinea Barbae – barber’s itch – superficial fungal infection - Mustache/beard Tinea Barbae – barber’s itch – superficial fungal infection - Mustache/beard Around neck or scalp Around neck or scalp –Usually older adolescents and adult men Tinea Capitis – fungal infection on the scalp Tinea Capitis – fungal infection on the scalp

72 Cleaning clippers of all visible hair Cleaning clippers of all visible hair Disinfecting properly reduces the risk of spreading skin and scalp infections Disinfecting properly reduces the risk of spreading skin and scalp infections Using compressed air to clean clipper blades – effective and saves time Using compressed air to clean clipper blades – effective and saves time

73 Nail Fungus Implements not properly disinfected Implements not properly disinfected Not properly preparing surface of the natural nail before enhancement products are applied Not properly preparing surface of the natural nail before enhancement products are applied Moisture trapped under nail enhancements Moisture trapped under nail enhancements Chronic and localized 1 or 2 fingers or toes Chronic and localized 1 or 2 fingers or toes

74 Can be spread to other nails and clients if implements are not disinfected before and after each client Can be spread to other nails and clients if implements are not disinfected before and after each client FDA determined topical treatment applied directly to the affected area is NOT effective FDA determined topical treatment applied directly to the affected area is NOT effective

75 FDA prohibits sale of antifungal products for finger or toenails without a medical prescription FDA prohibits sale of antifungal products for finger or toenails without a medical prescription Refer to a physician Refer to a physician

76 Parasites Vegetable or animal organisms that live on another living organism and draw their nourishment from that organism Vegetable or animal organisms that live on another living organism and draw their nourishment from that organism

77 Animal Parasites Pediculosis Capitis Pediculosis Capitis –Head lice Scabies Scabies –Itch mite – burrows under the skin Both extremely contagious Both extremely contagious

78 NEVER treated or work on in a salon!!! NEVER treated or work on in a salon!!! Refer to a physician Refer to a physician Clean contaminated areas with pesticide or insecticide – mfg. directions Clean contaminated areas with pesticide or insecticide – mfg. directions

79 Parasites Vegetable Vegetable Animal Animal

80 Immunity The ability of the body to destroy any bacteria that have gained entrance and resist infection in general The ability of the body to destroy any bacteria that have gained entrance and resist infection in general Natural immunity Natural immunity –Partly inherited –Partly developed through hygienic living

81 Acquired immunity Acquired immunity –The body develops after it overcomes a disease –Through inoculation (chicken Pox)

82 Principles of Prevention Proper care must be taken to meet rigorous health standards Proper care must be taken to meet rigorous health standards Controlling infection and disease is a vitally important aspect of the salon industry Controlling infection and disease is a vitally important aspect of the salon industry You must ensure the safety of your clients You must ensure the safety of your clients

83 Three main levels (write on page 82) Three main levels (write on page 82) –1 st – sterilization –2 nd – disinfection –3 rd - sanitation Only disinfection and sanitation are required in a salon Only disinfection and sanitation are required in a salon

84 Proper decontamination can prevent spread of disease caused by infectious material on a surface Proper decontamination can prevent spread of disease caused by infectious material on a surface Prevent exposure to blood and visible debris or residue Prevent exposure to blood and visible debris or residue

85 Decontamination Contaminants – substances that can cause contamination (write on PP 82) Contaminants – substances that can cause contamination (write on PP 82) –Hair in a comb, makeup on a towel, nail dust on a file A salon can never be completely free from all contamination A salon can never be completely free from all contamination It is YOUR responsibility as a professional to be constantly looking for disease causing contaminants It is YOUR responsibility as a professional to be constantly looking for disease causing contaminants

86 Decontamination The removal of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item’s surface and the removal of visible debris or residue The removal of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item’s surface and the removal of visible debris or residue

87 Disinfection Second level Second level Kills most microorganisms on hard nonporous surfaces Kills most microorganisms on hard nonporous surfaces

88 Decontamination Method 1 2 steps 2 steps –Cleaning –Disinfecting Step 1:Cleaning: Step 1:Cleaning: –Remove all visible dirt & debris –Wash with warm water & soap –Scrub with brush grooves and crevices

89 Surface is cleaned when number of contaminates is greatly reduced Surface is cleaned when number of contaminates is greatly reduced A surface must be properly cleaned before it can be disinfected A surface must be properly cleaned before it can be disinfected Properly clean and sanitize hands Properly clean and sanitize hands –Discussed later in chapter

90 3 ways to clean tools/implements Wash with soap and water Wash with soap and water –Scrub with brush Ultrasonic unit Ultrasonic unit Cleaning solvent Cleaning solvent

91 Step 2: Disinfection Step 2: Disinfection –Eliminates most microorganisms –Not effective against bacterial spores Disinfectant label must have: Disinfectant label must have: –EPA registration number –Specific organisms the solution is effective in killing –Use according to MFG directions!!!!!!!!!!!!

92 Disinfectants are not for use on human skin, hair or nails! Disinfectants are not for use on human skin, hair or nails! Never use as hand cleaners! Never use as hand cleaners!

93 Read carefully before using! Read carefully before using! Disinfectants can be dangerous if used improperly Disinfectants can be dangerous if used improperly Must be approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and each individual state Must be approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and each individual state

94 All disinfectants clearly state on the label to avoid skin contact All disinfectants clearly state on the label to avoid skin contact Do not put your fingers directly into any disinfectant solution Do not put your fingers directly into any disinfectant solution These are pesticides These are pesticides All bottles must be labeled! All bottles must be labeled! Caution boxes on page 84 Caution boxes on page 84

95 Decontamination Method 2 2 steps: 2 steps: –Cleaning –Sterilization

96 Sterilization Highest level Highest level Completely destroys all microbial life on a surface Completely destroys all microbial life on a surface Kills bacterial spores (inactive stage) – most resistant form of life Kills bacterial spores (inactive stage) – most resistant form of life Dentist and surgeons use Dentist and surgeons use

97 Methods – Methods – –high-pressure steam –dry heat autoclave Less effective, require longer times at higher temperatures Less effective, require longer times at higher temperatures –chemicals Texas – manicurists Texas – manicurists

98 Autoclaves Pressurized Pressurized Steam penetrates spore coats of pathogens Steam penetrates spore coats of pathogens Require regular maintenance and testing Require regular maintenance and testing Color strips on bags are indicators not verifiers Color strips on bags are indicators not verifiers

99 CDC requires autoclaves to be tested weekly CDC requires autoclaves to be tested weekly –Spore test –Send to contracted lab –Find on internet If intended temps are not reached – creates a breeding ground for pathogens (warm, moist, dark) If intended temps are not reached – creates a breeding ground for pathogens (warm, moist, dark)

100 Follow mfg. directions!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Follow mfg. directions!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! –Cleaning –changing water –Service visits –Replacement parts –Required maintenance Keep a logbook Keep a logbook

101 Cannot sterilize the skin or nail plate without killing it Cannot sterilize the skin or nail plate without killing it If estheticians use needles and probes that lance the skin - they must also use sterilization processes If estheticians use needles and probes that lance the skin - they must also use sterilization processes Best to use disposable Best to use disposable

102 Only non porous surface can be sterilized Only non porous surface can be sterilized Metal implements can be sterilized but wood cannot Metal implements can be sterilized but wood cannot Sterilization in a salon is impractical and unnecessary Sterilization in a salon is impractical and unnecessary Unless exposed to blood Unless exposed to blood

103 Choosing a Disinfectant Read the label! to use properly and safely Read the label! to use properly and safely Follow mfg. directions! Follow mfg. directions! Mixing precautions Mixing precautions Exposure times Exposure times What the disinfectant has been tested for What the disinfectant has been tested for

104 Disinfectants Chemical agents used to destroy most Chemical agents used to destroy most –bacteria –Fungi –Some viruses and to disinfect implements and surfaces Does not kill bacterial spores Does not kill bacterial spores

105 Mixing chemicals stronger than recommended by the manufacturer counteracts their effectiveness Mixing chemicals stronger than recommended by the manufacturer counteracts their effectiveness The use of goggles and gloves is usually recommended The use of goggles and gloves is usually recommended

106 Mixing ratios are & contact time are VERY important Mixing ratios are & contact time are VERY important If concentrate is NOT on the label it is ready to use without mixing If concentrate is NOT on the label it is ready to use without mixing Contact time – amount of time the surface must stay moist with disinfectant to be effective Contact time – amount of time the surface must stay moist with disinfectant to be effective

107 Efficacy The ability to produce an effect The ability to produce an effect Effectiveness with which solution will kill organisms Effectiveness with which solution will kill organisms To meet salon requirements To meet salon requirements –Bacteria –Fungi –viruses

108 Ideal disinfectant Ideal disinfectant See list page 85 See list page 85 “Did you Know” box - pp.. 85 “Did you Know” box - pp.. 85 Caution box - pp.. 85 Caution box - pp.. 85

109 When salon implements come into contact blood, body fluids or unhealthy conditions: When salon implements come into contact blood, body fluids or unhealthy conditions: –Cleansed –Completely immersed in an EPA- Registered hospital disinfectant solution –Effective against HIV, hepatitis, tuberculosis –10% bleach solution

110 Always wear gloves Always wear gloves Follow Universal Precautions Follow Universal Precautions

111 Proper Use of Disinfectants Any item that is used on a client must be disinfected or discarded Any item that is used on a client must be disinfected or discarded All implements must be thoroughly cleansed before soaking to avoid contaminating the disinfection solution All implements must be thoroughly cleansed before soaking to avoid contaminating the disinfection solution “Did you Know” box – pp.. 86 “Did you Know” box – pp.. 86

112 Implements be completely submerged for proper disinfection Implements be completely submerged for proper disinfection Complete immersion – cover all surfaces of the item Complete immersion – cover all surfaces of the item

113 Disinfectant Tips: Pre-cleaned, hard, non-porous surfaces Pre-cleaned, hard, non-porous surfaces Wear gloves and safety glasses Wear gloves and safety glasses Dilute according to mfg. directions Dilute according to mfg. directions Immerse and soak according to the label Immerse and soak according to the label Spray and leave on for required mfg. time on label Spray and leave on for required mfg. time on label

114 If directions say to immerse – spraying will not work If directions say to immerse – spraying will not work Change solution according to mfg. directions Change solution according to mfg. directions Circulate in whirlpool spas for required mfg. time Circulate in whirlpool spas for required mfg. time Any other use than that on the label is a violation of Federal Law (write on page 86) Any other use than that on the label is a violation of Federal Law (write on page 86)

115 NOTE: absorbent nail files must be thrown out if break client’s skin or make contact with unhealthy skin or nails NOTE: absorbent nail files must be thrown out if break client’s skin or make contact with unhealthy skin or nails –Ex: nail with a fungus –Ex. infected hangnail

116 Types of Disinfectants QUATS – Quaternary Ammonium Compounds QUATS – Quaternary Ammonium Compounds –Considered non-toxic, odorless and fast- acting –Immerse implements for 10 minutes –Enough liquid to cover all surfaces of item

117 –Contain anti-rust ingredients –Leaving tools in solution too long can cause damage –Remove, rinse, dried, stored in clean covered container –Metal implements should be oiled regularly –Effective for countertops and tables

118 Phenols Phenols –Form of formaldehyde –Caustic poison – high pH –Can cause damage to skin and eyes, and some environments –Can be safe and effective if used according to instructions

119 –Harmful to environment of put down drain –Disadvantage – most rubber and plastic materials may be softened or discolored –Metal implements can rust

120 –Extra care to avoid skin contact – cause irritation – concentrated formulas can seriously burn the skin and burn the eyes –Some are poisonous if accidentally ingested –carcinogens

121 Alcohol and Bleach Alcohol and Bleach –Ethanol (70%) and Isopropyl (99%) alcohol are used sometimes to disinfect metal implements –Alcohol is NOT an EPA registered disinfectant – therefore not permitted for use on implements in states where hospital level disinfectants are required

122 –Disadvantages: Extremely flammable, evaporate quickly, slow-acting, less effective Extremely flammable, evaporate quickly, slow-acting, less effective Corrode implements and cause sharp edges to become dull Corrode implements and cause sharp edges to become dull They discolor and damage the surface of floors and countertops They discolor and damage the surface of floors and countertops Vapors can cause headaches and nausea when inhaled in high concentrations or after prolong exposure Vapors can cause headaches and nausea when inhaled in high concentrations or after prolong exposure

123 Bleach Bleach –Sodium Hypochlorite –Household bleach –Effective disinfectant –Some of the same disadvantages as alcohol –Not for use in most states –Effective additive for laundry

124 Follow mfg. directions Follow mfg. directions Store solution away from heat & light Store solution away from heat & light Mix every 24 hours Mix every 24 hours Can irritating to lungs Can irritating to lungs Do not inhale fumes Do not inhale fumes

125 Commercial cleansers Commercial cleansers –Lysol and pine-sol –Floors, bathrooms, sinks, waste cans –Not for use on salon implements –General household cleaners –Not for professional tools

126 Fumigants – Caution box pp.. 87 Formalin tablets – before EPA Formalin tablets – before EPA Formaldehyde vapors cause cancer Formaldehyde vapors cause cancer Allergic sensitivity for those who constantly breathe vapors Allergic sensitivity for those who constantly breathe vapors Kills one fungus in 24 hours Kills one fungus in 24 hours Vapors are poisonous Vapors are poisonous Irritating to eyes, nose, throat, lungs Irritating to eyes, nose, throat, lungs

127 Glutaraldehyde Dangerous chemical used to sterilize surgical instruments in hospitals Dangerous chemical used to sterilize surgical instruments in hospitals Not safe for salon use Not safe for salon use

128 Pseudomonacidal Formulated for hospitals and health care facilities Formulated for hospitals and health care facilities Hospital disinfectant Hospital disinfectant PP 86/87 – PP 86/87 – –Bactericidal –Fungicidal –Virucidal

129 Tuberculocidal EPA registered effective against HIV or HPV EPA registered effective against HIV or HPV Meet OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogens Standards Meet OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogens Standards –Write on page 87

130 Ultrasonic cleansers use high- frequency sound waves to create powerful cleansing bubbles in the liquid (write pp. 86) Ultrasonic cleansers use high- frequency sound waves to create powerful cleansing bubbles in the liquid (write pp. 86) –Reaches tiny crevices –Useful addition to your disinfection process, but not required –Saves time by eliminating cleaning by hand

131 Disinfectant Safety Pesticides - poison Pesticides - poison Can be hazardous if used incorrectly Can be hazardous if used incorrectly Poisonous if ingested Poisonous if ingested Can cause serious skin and eye damage Can cause serious skin and eye damage USE CAUTION! USE CAUTION! Follow mfg. directions Follow mfg. directions

132 List on pp. 88 List on pp. 88 Wet disinfectant jars – solutions changed daily – wear gloves Wet disinfectant jars – solutions changed daily – wear gloves kept free from debris kept free from debris Purpose is to disinfect – not clean Purpose is to disinfect – not clean Covered but not airtight Covered but not airtight Follow mfg. directions Follow mfg. directions

133 Disinfect or Dispose Multi-use Multi-use –Cleaned –Disinfected –Used more than once “Disinfectable” “Disinfectable” –Items that can be disinfected

134 Multiuse: Multiuse: –Reusable –Cleaned & disinfected –Used on more than 1 person –Hard, nonporous surface

135 Single-use: Single-use: –Disposable –Cannot be used more than 1 time –Cannot properly be cleaned –Thrown out after each use

136 Porous Porous –Made or constructed of an absorbent material (has open pores or openings) Contact with broken skin, blood, body fluids, or any unhealthy conditions Contact with broken skin, blood, body fluids, or any unhealthy conditions MUST BE DISCARDED!!!!!!!!!!!! MUST BE DISCARDED!!!!!!!!!!!! Caution boxes pp. 89 Caution boxes pp. 89

137 Keep a logbook Keep a logbook –Follow mfg. directions –State may not require –Clients peace of mind & confidence in you

138 Disinfecting nonelectrical tools & equipment Multiuse tools & implements must be cleaned & disinfected before & after every service Multiuse tools & implements must be cleaned & disinfected before & after every service Mix according to mfg. directions! Mix according to mfg. directions! Remember to always add the disinfectant to the water Remember to always add the disinfectant to the water Pp. 96 Pp. 96

139 Disinfecting Implements Pre-clean 2. Rinse thoroughly and pat dry 3. gloves, goggles or safety glasses 4. Mix disinfectant according to mfg. directions 5. Use gloves or tongs, completely immerse implements or tools – soak for the required time

140 6. Remove from solution with tongs, basket, or gloves 7. Rinse thoroughly, and dry 8. Place disinfected implements in clean, dry, disinfected container (pictures PP 96)

141 Disinfecting Electrical Tools/Equipment Contact points cannot be immersed in a wet solution Contact points cannot be immersed in a wet solution Spray with EPA registered, hospital- grade disinfectant for electrical equipment Spray with EPA registered, hospital- grade disinfectant for electrical equipment Follow mfg. directions Follow mfg. directions

142 Disinfecting Work Surfaces Before and after each client spray with hospital-grade disinfectant Before and after each client spray with hospital-grade disinfectant Any surface client’s skin came into contact Any surface client’s skin came into contact Doorknobs, phones etc. - transferring germs Doorknobs, phones etc. - transferring germs Follow mfg. directions Follow mfg. directions –Usually 10 minutes

143 Disinfection Procedures Clean surface 2. Spray disinfectant 3. Let stand 10 minutes 4. Wipe dry (write on top/bottom of page 90 or 91)

144 Disinfecting Linens, Capes and Towels Laundered and bleached according to label directions Laundered and bleached according to label directions Completely dried Completely dried All capes and linens that come into contact with clients must be laundered according to mfg. directions All capes and linens that come into contact with clients must be laundered according to mfg. directions Use Sanex strips Use Sanex strips

145 Store soiled linens in covered close container Store soiled linens in covered close container Use disposable towels as much as possible (bathrooms) Use disposable towels as much as possible (bathrooms) Do not allow capes to touch client’s skin Do not allow capes to touch client’s skin Wash after each client Wash after each client

146 Disinfecting Pedicure Equipment & Foot Spas Read mfg. directions Read mfg. directions Write in page pp74 – follow state guidelines Write in page pp74 – follow state guidelines Improperly disinfected whirlpools can harbor bacteria Improperly disinfected whirlpools can harbor bacteria Procedures on page 97 Procedures on page 97 –Handout Caution boxes pp.. 91 Caution boxes pp.. 91

147 Detergents and Soap Chelating surfactants Chelating surfactants Work to breakdown debris Work to breakdown debris Important to remove residue from products Important to remove residue from products –Scrubs, salts, and masques

148 Work with all types of water Work with all types of water Low-sudsing Low-sudsing Specially formulated to work with hard water Specially formulated to work with hard water –Makes disinfectants less effective Ask distributor for hard water products Ask distributor for hard water products Information Information

149 Additives, Powders and Soaps You CANNOT replace proper cleaning and disinfection with a shortcut You CANNOT replace proper cleaning and disinfection with a shortcut Must use EPA registered disinfectant Must use EPA registered disinfectant Water sanitizers do not work for a salon environment Water sanitizers do not work for a salon environment Chloramine T – treat water & have limited value in salons Chloramine T – treat water & have limited value in salons

150 hloramine-T.htm hloramine-T.htm hloramine-T.htm hloramine-T.htm pling/data/CH_ html pling/data/CH_ html pling/data/CH_ html pling/data/CH_ html

151 Dispensary Must be kept clean and orderly Must be kept clean and orderly All containers labeled All containers labeled Store according to mfg. directions Store according to mfg. directions MSDS (s) kept on every chemical in stock MSDS (s) kept on every chemical in stock

152 Handling Single-use or Disposable Supplies All single use thrown out after use All single use thrown out after use Anything exposed to blood must be double-bagged Anything exposed to blood must be double-bagged Marked as bio-hazard Marked as bio-hazard Disposed of according to OSHA regulations Disposed of according to OSHA regulations –Separate from other waste

153 Individual Client Packs Each item must be cleaned, disinfected, and dried Each item must be cleaned, disinfected, and dried Do not store disposable items Do not store disposable items Client’s own tools must cleaned and disinfected before and after using Client’s own tools must cleaned and disinfected before and after using It is YOUR license at risk It is YOUR license at risk

154 Washing the Hands Is one of the most important actions that can be taken to prevent the transfer of microorganisms from one person to another Is one of the most important actions that can be taken to prevent the transfer of microorganisms from one person to another Before and after each client Before and after each client Removes germs from folds, grooves of skin, under nail free edge Removes germs from folds, grooves of skin, under nail free edge

155 Caution box pp.. 92 Caution box pp.. 92 Avoid touching Avoid touching –Bar soaps –towel dispenser –door handle/knob Use paper towel to open door Use paper towel to open door

156 Hand washing procedure pp Hand washing procedure pp Antimicrobial & antibacterial Antimicrobial & antibacterial –soaps can dry the skin –No more effective –Minimize use use moisturizers use moisturizers Very hot water can dry skin Very hot water can dry skin

157 Hand Washing Procedures Wet your hands with warm water 2. Using liquid soap lather hands for 15 – 20 seconds 3. Rinse with warm water 4. Dry with paper towel - not cloth –(page 102)

158 Waterless Hand Sanitizers Chemical germicides formulated for use on skin Chemical germicides formulated for use on skin Regulated by the FDA Regulated by the FDA Antibacterial soaps when overused can be harsh and drying and can eventually lead to eczema Antibacterial soaps when overused can be harsh and drying and can eventually lead to eczema

159 Alcohol-based no-rinse products are very drying to the skin Alcohol-based no-rinse products are very drying to the skin Benzalkonium Chloride – less drying Benzalkonium Chloride – less drying Cannot clean Cannot clean Not to be used as a disinfectant Not to be used as a disinfectant Caution boxes - page 92 Caution boxes - page 92

160 Antiseptics Can kill, retard, or prevent growth of bacteria Can kill, retard, or prevent growth of bacteria Not disinfectants Not disinfectants Weaker than disinfectants Weaker than disinfectants Safe for human skin Safe for human skin Classified as sanitizers – not for use on instruments and surfaces Classified as sanitizers – not for use on instruments and surfaces

161 Sanitation Cleaning - removing all visible dirt and debris Cleaning - removing all visible dirt and debris Third = lowest level of decontamination Third = lowest level of decontamination Cleaning Cleaning A surface must be properly cleaned or it cannot be properly disinfected A surface must be properly cleaned or it cannot be properly disinfected

162 Do not underestimate importance of cleaning. Do not underestimate importance of cleaning. Most powerful and important way to prevent spread of infection. Most powerful and important way to prevent spread of infection.

163 Universal Precautions Set of guidelines and controls Set of guidelines and controls Center for Disease Control and Prevention Center for Disease Control and Prevention Assume that ALL HUMAN BLOOD AND SPECIFIED HUMAN BODY FLUIDS ARE INFECTIOUS for HIV, HBV and other blood borne pathogens Assume that ALL HUMAN BLOOD AND SPECIFIED HUMAN BODY FLUIDS ARE INFECTIOUS for HIV, HBV and other blood borne pathogens

164 Asymptomatic Show no signs of symptoms or signs of infection Show no signs of symptoms or signs of infection May not even know they are infected May not even know they are infected Blood of all clients should be treated as if infected Blood of all clients should be treated as if infected

165 Precautions Hand washing Hand washing Gloving Gloving Personal protective equipment Personal protective equipment Goggles Goggles Proper handling and disposal of sharp implements and items that have been contaminated by blood and other body fluids. Proper handling and disposal of sharp implements and items that have been contaminated by blood and other body fluids.

166 Injury prevention Injury prevention Proper handling and disposal of needles and products that are contaminated by blood or other body fluids Proper handling and disposal of needles and products that are contaminated by blood or other body fluids

167 Exposure Incident: Contact with Blood or Body Fluid Exposure Incident: Contact with Blood or Body Fluid –Contact with nonintact (broken) skin, blood, body fluid, or other potentially infectious material –Caution Box pp.. 93

168 Blood Spill Disinfection 1. Stop, clean injury 2. Gloves 3. Apply antiseptic 4. Cover injury 5. Clean client and workstation

169 6. Discard all disposable objects 7. Remove gloves 8. Completely immerse all contaminated implements in an EPA registered, hospital-grade disinfectant that kills HIV and Hepatitis B “Did You Know” box pp.. 94 “Did You Know” box pp.. 94

170 The Professional Image Overall health, safety and cleanliness should be an integral part of your normal routine and all those who work around you Overall health, safety and cleanliness should be an integral part of your normal routine and all those who work around you Pages Pages

171 Your Professional Responsibility The most important responsibility you have is to protect your client’s health as well as you own The most important responsibility you have is to protect your client’s health as well as you own Never take short cuts! Never take short cuts! To be an effective cosmetologist you must learn and follow ALL the rules to the letter of the law To be an effective cosmetologist you must learn and follow ALL the rules to the letter of the law By doing so you, your peers and clients will maintain a sense of trust and respect for each other By doing so you, your peers and clients will maintain a sense of trust and respect for each other


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