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Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Table of Contents Chapter Preview 3.1 States of Matter 3.2 Changes of State 3.3 The Behavior of Gases.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Table of Contents Chapter Preview 3.1 States of Matter 3.2 Changes of State 3.3 The Behavior of Gases."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Table of Contents Chapter Preview 3.1 States of Matter 3.2 Changes of State 3.3 The Behavior of Gases

2 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Chapter Preview Questions 1. The space that matter fills is called a. pressure. b. area. c. volume. d. mass.

3 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Chapter Preview Questions 1. The space that matter fills is called a. pressure. b. area. c. volume. d. mass.

4 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Chapter Preview Questions 2. Which of the following describes a solid? a. definite volume but no definite shape b. definite shape and definite volume c. neither definite shape nor definite volume d. definite shape but no definite volume

5 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Chapter Preview Questions 2. Which of the following describes a solid? a. definite volume but no definite shape b. definite shape and definite volume c. neither definite shape nor definite volume d. definite shape but no definite volume

6 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Chapter Preview Questions 3. Which of the following describes a liquid? a. definite volume but no definite shape b. definite shape and definite volume c. neither definite shape nor definite volume d. definite shape but no definite volume

7 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Chapter Preview Questions 3. Which of the following describes a liquid? a. definite volume but no definite shape b. definite shape and definite volume c. neither definite shape nor definite volume d. definite shape but no definite volume

8 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Chapter Preview Questions 4. Which of the following describes a gas? a. definite volume but no definite shape b. definite shape and definite volume c. neither definite shape nor definite volume d. definite shape but no definite volume

9 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Chapter Preview Questions 4. Which of the following describes a gas? a. definite volume but no definite shape b. definite shape and definite volume c. neither definite shape nor definite volume d. definite shape but no definite volume

10 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Suppose you leave a towel out on the beach on a hot, sunny day. After a few hours, you return to get the towel. How would the temperature of the towel have changed? How do solids, liquids, and gases differ in the motion of their particles?

11 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases High-Use Academic Words SuffixMeaningPart of SpeechExample Sentence -ation State of, process of, act of Noun Vaporization, evaporation, condensation, sublimation

12 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases High-Use Academic Words SuffixMeaningPart of SpeechExample Sentence -ine Consisting ofAdjectiveCrystalline

13 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases High-Use Academic Words SuffixMeaningPart of SpeechExample Sentence -sion State of, process of, act of NounSurface tension

14 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Apply It! Vapor is another word for gas. Use the chart above to predict the meaning of vaporization. Revise your definition as needed. When you come across an unfamiliar word, look at the suffix to help you determine the meaning. Then check the definition in the glossary or a dictionary. Sample answer: Vaporization means the process or act of vaporizing or changing something into vapor.

15 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases End of Chapter Preview

16 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Section 1: States of Matter How can you describe the motion of particles in a solid? How can you describe the motion of particles in a liquid? How can you describe the motion of particles in a gas?

17 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Solids The particles in a solid are closely locked in position and can only vibrate.

18 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Solids Solids that are made up of crystals are called crystalline solids. In amorphous solids, the particles are not arranged in a regular pattern.

19 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Liquids Compared to particles in a solid, the particles in a liquid are more loosely connected and can collide with and move past one another.

20 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Gases In gases, the atoms and molecules are free to move independently, colliding frequently.

21 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Links on Solids Click the SciLinks button for links on solids.

22 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Viscosity Click the Video button to watch a movie about viscosity.

23 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases End of Section: States of Matter

24 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Section 2: Changes of State What happens to a substance during changes between solid and liquid? What happens to a substance during changes between liquid and gas? What happens to a substance during changes between solid and gas?

25 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Changes Between Solid and Liquid The change in state from a solid to a liquid is called melting.

26 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Changes Between Solid and Liquid The change from a liquid to a solid is called freezing.

27 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Changes Between Liquid and Gas The change from a liquid to a gas is called vaporization.

28 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Temperature and Changes of State A beaker of ice at – 10ºC was slowly heated to 110ºC. The graph shows how the temperature of the water changed over time.

29 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Temperature and Changes of State Temperature (ºC) on the y- axis, time (minutes) on the x- axis Reading Graphs: What two variables are plotted on the graph?

30 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Temperature and Changes of State The temperature is rising from 0ºC to 100ºC. Reading Graphs: What is happening to the temperature of the water during segment C of the graph?

31 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Temperature and Changes of State Segment B: melting point of ice; segment D: boiling point of water Interpreting Data: What does the temperature value for segment B represent? For segment D?

32 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Temperature and Changes of State Change from solid to liquid; change from liquid to gas Drawing Conclusions: What change of state is occurring during segment B of the graph? During segment D?

33 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Links on Changes of State Click the SciLinks button for links on changes of state.

34 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases End of Section: Changes of State

35 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Section 3: The Behavior of Gases What types of measurements are useful when working with gases? How are the volume, temperature, and pressure of a gas related?

36 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases A Change in Pressure A punctured basketball deflates as gas particles begin to escape.

37 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Temperature and Volume When the temperature of a gas increases at constant pressure, its volume increases.

38 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Pressure and Volume As weights are added, the gas particles occupy a smaller volume. The pressure increases.

39 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Pressure and Temperature When a gas is heated, the particles move faster and collide more often with each other and with the walls of their container. The pressure of the gas increases.

40 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Gas Laws Activity Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about gas laws.

41 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Graphing Gas Behavior In an experiment, the temperature of a gas at a constant volume was varied. Gas pressure (in kilopascals) was measured after each 5-kelvin change in temperature. The data from the experiment are shown in the table.

42 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Graphing Gas Behavior Graphing Use the data to make a line graph. Plot temperature on the horizontal axis with a scale from 270 K to 300 K. Plot pressure on the vertical axis with a scale from 0 kPa to 25 kPa. (1 kPa = 1,000 Pa)

43 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Graphing Gas Behavior Changing the temperature of a gas at constant volume changes its pressure in a similar way. Interpreting Data What was the manipulated variable in this experiment?

44 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Graphing Gas Behavior Pressure increases with temperature. Interpreting Data What kind of trend do the data show?

45 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Graphing Gas Behavior Gas pressure increases. Drawing Conclusions What happens to the pressure of a gas when temperature is increased at constant volume?

46 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Links on Gases Click the SciLinks button for links on gases.

47 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases End of Section: The Behavior of Gases

48 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases QuickTake Quiz Click to start quiz.


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