### Similar presentations

3.2 Changes of State 3.3 The Behavior of Gases

Chapter Preview Questions
1. The space that matter fills is called a. pressure. b. area. c. volume. d. mass.

Chapter Preview Questions
1. The space that matter fills is called a. pressure. b. area. c. volume. d. mass.

Chapter Preview Questions
2. Which of the following describes a solid? a. definite volume but no definite shape b. definite shape and definite volume c. neither definite shape nor definite volume d. definite shape but no definite volume

Chapter Preview Questions
2. Which of the following describes a solid? a. definite volume but no definite shape b. definite shape and definite volume c. neither definite shape nor definite volume d. definite shape but no definite volume

Chapter Preview Questions
3. Which of the following describes a liquid? a. definite volume but no definite shape b. definite shape and definite volume c. neither definite shape nor definite volume d. definite shape but no definite volume

Chapter Preview Questions
3. Which of the following describes a liquid? a. definite volume but no definite shape b. definite shape and definite volume c. neither definite shape nor definite volume d. definite shape but no definite volume

Chapter Preview Questions
4. Which of the following describes a gas? a. definite volume but no definite shape b. definite shape and definite volume c. neither definite shape nor definite volume d. definite shape but no definite volume

Chapter Preview Questions
4. Which of the following describes a gas? a. definite volume but no definite shape b. definite shape and definite volume c. neither definite shape nor definite volume d. definite shape but no definite volume

How do solids, liquids, and gases differ in the motion
of their particles? Suppose you leave a towel out on the beach on a hot, sunny day. After a few hours, you return to get the towel. How would the temperature of the towel have changed?

Suffix Meaning Part of Speech Example Sentence Vaporization, evaporation, condensation, sublimation -ation State of, process of, act of Noun

Suffix Meaning Part of Speech Example Sentence -ine Consisting of Adjective Crystalline

Suffix Meaning Part of Speech Example Sentence -sion State of, process of, act of Noun Surface tension

Apply It! Vapor is another word for gas. Use the chart above to predict the meaning of vaporization. Revise your definition as needed. When you come across an unfamiliar word, look at the suffix to help you determine the meaning. Then check the definition in the glossary or a dictionary. Sample answer: Vaporization means the process or act of vaporizing or changing something into vapor.

End of Chapter Preview

Section 1: States of Matter
How can you describe the motion of particles in a solid? How can you describe the motion of particles in a liquid? How can you describe the motion of particles in a gas?

Solids The particles in a solid are closely locked in position and can only vibrate.

Solids Solids that are made up of crystals are called crystalline solids. In amorphous solids, the particles are not arranged in a regular pattern.

Liquids Compared to particles in a solid, the particles in a liquid are more loosely connected and can collide with and move past one another.

Gases In gases, the atoms and molecules are free to move independently, colliding frequently.

Click the Video button to watch a movie about viscosity.

End of Section: States of Matter

Section 2: Changes of State
What happens to a substance during changes between solid and liquid? What happens to a substance during changes between liquid and gas? What happens to a substance during changes between solid and gas?

Changes Between Solid and Liquid
The change in state from a solid to a liquid is called melting.

Changes Between Solid and Liquid
The change from a liquid to a solid is called freezing.

Changes Between Liquid and Gas
The change from a liquid to a gas is called vaporization.

Temperature and Changes of State
A beaker of ice at –10ºC was slowly heated to 110ºC. The graph shows how the temperature of the water changed over time.

Temperature and Changes of State
Reading Graphs: What two variables are plotted on the graph? Temperature (ºC) on the y-axis, time (minutes) on the x-axis

Temperature and Changes of State
Reading Graphs: What is happening to the temperature of the water during segment C of the graph? The temperature is rising from 0ºC to 100ºC.

Temperature and Changes of State
Interpreting Data: What does the temperature value for segment B represent? For segment D? Segment B: melting point of ice; segment D: boiling point of water

Temperature and Changes of State
Drawing Conclusions: What change of state is occurring during segment B of the graph? During segment D? Change from solid to liquid; change from liquid to gas

End of Section: Changes of State

Section 3: The Behavior of Gases
What types of measurements are useful when working with gases? How are the volume, temperature, and pressure of a gas related?

A Change in Pressure A punctured basketball deflates as gas particles begin to escape.

Temperature and Volume
When the temperature of a gas increases at constant pressure, its volume increases.

Pressure and Volume As weights are added, the gas particles occupy a smaller volume. The pressure increases.

Pressure and Temperature
When a gas is heated, the particles move faster and collide more often with each other and with the walls of their container. The pressure of the gas increases.

Gas Laws Activity Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about gas laws.

Graphing Gas Behavior In an experiment, the temperature of a gas at a constant volume was varied. Gas pressure (in kilopascals) was measured after each 5-kelvin change in temperature. The data from the experiment are shown in the table.

Graphing Gas Behavior Graphing
Use the data to make a line graph. Plot temperature on the horizontal axis with a scale from 270 K to 300 K. Plot pressure on the vertical axis with a scale from 0 kPa to 25 kPa. (1 kPa = 1,000 Pa)

Graphing Gas Behavior Interpreting Data
What was the manipulated variable in this experiment? Changing the temperature of a gas at constant volume changes its pressure in a similar way.

Graphing Gas Behavior Interpreting Data
What kind of trend do the data show? Pressure increases with temperature.

Graphing Gas Behavior Drawing Conclusions
What happens to the pressure of a gas when temperature is increased at constant volume? Gas pressure increases.