22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Phases of Matter Four Phases of Matter: Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Change of phase occurs when we pass from one phase to another, such as water (liquid) boiling to change into vapor (gas). Ice Water Steam Plasma
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Evaporation Evaporation is a change of phase from liquid to gas that takes place at the surface of a liquid. GAS LIQUID A random molecule at the surface acquires enough energy to escape the attraction force among the molecules (which holds the liquid together).
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Evaporative Cooling Because only the most energetic molecules can escape the surface, evaporation removes internal energy from the liquid, that is, evaporation cools. WET CLOTH Wet towel cools head WET TONGUE Wet tongue cools dog WET BODY & TOWEL Wetness cools person Brr HEAT
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Condensation Condensation is the reverse of evaporation, a change of phase from gas to liquid that takes place at the surface of a liquid. GAS LIQUID A random molecule from the gas strikes the surface and sticks instead of bouncing back into the gas. Condensation heats.
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Hot and Humid A 90 degree day in a dry climate, like San Jose, is more comfortable than a 90 degree day in a humid place like New Orleans. In a dry climate you’re cooled by evaporation, in a wet climate you’re heated by condensation. Heat index is the apparent temperature a person feels for a given humidity.
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Demo: Wet/Dry Bulb Thermometer Pair of thermometers; one is kept dry while the other’s bulb is wrapped in wet cloth. Difference of their temperatures gives relative humidity. Large temperature difference indicates high or low humidity? Low humidity; evaporative cooling is significant. Dry bulb Wet bulb
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Fog & Clouds Warm air rises. As it rises, it expands. As it expands, it cools. As it cools, vapor molecules condense into water droplets. This forms a cloud (or fog if warm, moist air cools near the ground). Warm Cool Warm breath feels cool when it expands Water vapor (gas) is invisible As vapor expands, it cools and tiny, visible, water droplets (liquid) condense.
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Tiny bubbles grow due to evaporation at their surface Boiling When the temperature of a liquid is high enough that evaporation occurs everywhere, not just the surface, then the liquid boils. The temperature required depends on the pressure; lower the pressure, the lower the boiling temperature (boiling point).
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Liquid Nitrogen Liquid nitrogen boils at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Boiling point is -320 ºF and freezes at -346 ºF.
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Demo: Slowing Air Molecules Cool balloon using liquid nitrogen Air molecules slow down and lose kinetic energy Balloon slowly warms up, restoring energy Balloon returns to its original state
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Demo: Low Pressure Boiling Water boils at room temperature if the pressure is low. Cooking at high altitudes is difficult due to this effect; coffee brewed in the mountains always tastes lukewarm.
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Melting Melting is the change of phase from solid to liquid. Melting is a cooling process; the solid must absorb heat to melt.
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Sublimation Sublimation is change of phase from solid to gas without passing through liquid phase. Solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) sublimates at a chilly -109 °F. Put dry ice into warm water to create dense fog of tiny water droplets.
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Demo: Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide, released when dry ice sublimates, is heavier than air. Bubbles float on layer of dry ice. (a)Burning candle (b)Extinguished under CO2 layer (c) Scoop out some CO2 in a cup (d) Pour it on candle to extinguish
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Freezing Freezing is the opposite of melting, that is, the change of phase from liquid to solid. Heat must be removed from a liquid in order to freeze it into a solid. Lava (liquid) freezes into rock (solid), heating the seawater. Seawater (liquid) boils into vapor (gas), cooling the lava.
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Demo: Freeze Solid Materials become brittle when frozen solid. Organic materials appear solid but cells contain large amounts of liquid water.
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Energy & Changes of Phase
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Heats of Fusion & Vaporization Heating a gram of water 80 cal 100 cal 540 cal720 cal Heat of Fusion Heat Capacity Heat of Vaporization Total Energy
22-Apr-15 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Check Yourself Is boiling a cooling or a warming process? Boiling is a cooling process. So can you cool your hand by putting it in boiling water? NO! Ouch! So why is boiling a cooling process? Because when a liquid boils it cools by itself releasing its most energetic molecules, just as with cooling by evaporation.
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