一.Seed processing content Seed processing involves cleaning the seed samples of extraneous materials, drying them to optimum moisture levels, testing their germination and packaging them in appropriate containers for conservation and distribution.
1. 1.Seed cleaning The cost of maintaining an accession in a genebank is high and space is limited. Debris and damaged seeds can spread infection. Therefore, place only good quality viable seeds in storage. Seed cleaning involves removal of debris, low quality, infested or infected seeds and seeds of different species (weeds).
2. 2. Seed moisture testing Methods prescribed by the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) are used for determining the seed moisture content in genebanks.
ISTA has prescribed two kinds of oven- drying methods for determining moisture content: Low-constant temperature oven method for groundnut (oily seeds). High-constant temperature oven method for sorghum, millets, chickpea and pigeonpea (non-oily seeds). Grinding is required for determination of moisture content in all ICRISAT mandate crops, except millets.
Equipment used to determine seed moisture content
Seed drying using silica gel at ICRISAT genebank.
4. 4. Seed viability testing （ 1 ） （ 1 ） Germination test Complete germination can be achieved only under optimum conditions of light, temperature and water. The requirements for germination vary with species as shown in Table.
Recommended conditions for germinating seeds of ICRISAT mandate crops.
Two methods are used for testing germination: Two methods are used for testing germination: A. Top of paper method for millets. A. Top of paper method for millets. B. Between paper (Rolled towel) method for sorghum, chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut. B. Between paper (Rolled towel) method for sorghum, chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut. Paper towel is used as substrate for germination in both these methods. Paper towel is used as substrate for germination in both these methods.
A. Top of paper method Quality of paper towel: The paper used as substrate should not be toxic to developing seedlings. It should be able to absorb and supply sufficient moisture to the seeds to germinate. It should be strong enough not to fall apart when handled and not to be penetrated by the roots of developing seedlings.
Top of paper method: Place the paper in 9-cm petri dishes. Moisten it with about 4 ml of distilled water. Put a label in the petri dish with accession number, number of replicate and date of the test. Spread the seeds at regular distance on the surface of the paper. Cover the petri dishes and keep them in a plastic bag to prevent drying. Place the petri dishes in an incubator maintained at the recommended optimum temperature.
12 3 4 Testing germination of seeds on the top of filter paper.
B. Between paper (Rolled towel) method Cut the paper to a convenient size to hold one replicate of the seeds (1). Label the paper on the outside at one end with the accession number, replicate number and the date of testing (2). Moisten the paper towels with water. Arrange the seeds in rows at regular intervals 4 cm from the top edge, leaving 3 – 4 cm gap on the sides (3).
Cover the seeds with another sheet of dry paper towel (4). Roll the paper loosely from the label end (5). Put a paper clip to hold the rolled paper towels from falling apart (6). Keep the rolls in a plastic tray (7). Add sufficient quantity of distilled water (covering the bottom 3-cm of rolls) to the tray. Place the tray in an incubator maintained at recommended temperature.
Test germination of seeds of between moist paper towels.
Trays containing rolled paper towels placed in an incubator.
C. C. Evaluation of germination tests : Seedlings with the following defects are classified as abnormal : Roots primary root stunted, stubby, missing, broken, split from the tip, spindly, trapped in the seed coat, with negative geotropism, glassy, decayed due to primary infection, and with less than two secondary roots.
Shoot (hypocotyl, epicotyl and mesocotyl) short and thick, split right through, missing, constricted, twisted, glassy, and decayed due to primary infection. Terminal bud/leaves deformed, damaged, missing, and decayed due to primary infection Cotyledons swollen, deformed, necrotic, glassy, separated or missing, and decayed due to primary infection
ab Normal and abnormal seedlings of sorghum (a) and pearl millet (b).
a b c Normal (left) and abnormal (right) seedlings in chickpea (a), pigeonpea (b) and groundnut (c).
（ 2 ） （ 2 ） Topographical tetrazolium test for viability The tetrazolium test can be used as a backup procedure to germination tests in genebanks. It can be applied to firm seeds, which have failed to germinate at the end of germination test.
The tetrazolium test procedure includes the following steps: Preconditioning Remove the seed covering structures (glumes, etc). Precondition the seeds by first soaking in water or by placing them on a moist medium at 30°C.
Staining Bisect the seeds longitudinally through the embryo with a razor blade. Discard one-half of the seed and place the other half in the staining solution at recommended concentration (Table 4D.2.1) in a glass vial. Place the vials in an incubator maintained in the dark at recommended temperatures and duration (Table 4D.2.1).
After staining, wash the seeds several times in distilled water to remove excess stain. Immerse the seeds in lactophenol (1 L of lactophenol prepared from 200 ml phenol, 200 ml lactic acid, 400 ml glycerine, and 200 ml water) solution for 1 – 2 h before evaluation of the seeds. Evaluate the seeds for staining pattern under a low power binocular microscope. Viable tissues stain bright red. Pink and very dark red stains are indicative of dead tissue.
Classify the seeds into three categories depending on staining pattern: completely stained and viable seeds, completely unstained seeds that are nonviable, and partially stained seeds.
（ 3 ） （ 3 ） Seed vigor tests Vigor is the sum total of all those properties in seed which upon sowing result in rapid and uniform production of healthy seedlings under a wide range of environments, including both favorable and stress conditions. Vigor tests supplement information about seed quality.
Selected tests for vigor ： Speed of germination Speed of germination is an important measure of vigor. It depends on the time taken to reach 50% germination at constant temperature. Seeds with low vigor take longer time to germinate. Place 25 – 50 seeds over filter paper (Whatman No. 1) moistened with 4 ml distilled water inside a petri dish. Count and remove the germinated seeds every 12 h. Germination is considered to have occurred when the radicle protrudes by 2 – 4 mm. Calculate germination index using the equation Σ(t × n)/Σn, where n is the number of germinated seeds and t is the number of hours from the beginning of the germination test.
Seedling growth test Measurements of seedling growth (root and shoot) at specific number of days after sowing give an indication of their vigor (Annexure 4D.3.1). Slow seedling growth (shorter roots and shoots) indicates low vigor. Conduct the germination test as described earlier and measure the length of the root and shoot. The seedlings may be cut and dried at 110°C for 17 h to record their dry weights, which is more for better quality seeds.
Membrane integrity The test is based on measuring the concentration of leachates by electrical conductivity (Annexure 4D.3.1). Low – vigor seeds generally possess poor membrane structure. When such seeds are soaked in water, greater electrolyte loss occurs, leading to higher conductivity of water. The test is mainly used for grain legumes. Soak 10 seeds in 50 ml of distilled water in a beaker at room temperature. Measure leachate conductivity after 24 h using a digital conductivity bridge. Record the reading in μS ml-1 water g-1 dry weight of the seed sample. A lower reading indicates seeds with higher vigor and vice versa. It is important to note that many species (eg, legumes) have seeds that are impermeable or only slowly permeable to water. This can affect the leaching of electrolytes from seeds in a conductivity test.
5. 5. Seed health testing Seed borne fungi such as Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Rhizopus spp. affect longevity during storage. Curators should ensure that seeds prepared for long-term conservation are free from the seed borne pathogens. The methods employed to detect the pathogens are referred to as seed health testing methods.
（ 1 ） （ 1 ） Visual examination Seeds are examined under an illuminated magnifying lens (2×) or under low – power stereo – binocular microscope (Fig. 4E.1.1). By this method, it is possible to detect sclerotia, smut balls, fungal spores and other fructifications such as pycnidia, perithecia, etc.
Seed health testing in laboratory using binocular microscope.
（ 2 ） （ 2 ） Blotter test Blotter tests are similar to germination tests in that seeds are placed on moistened layers of blotter paper and incubated under conditions that promote fungal growth.
Line the lower lid of the petri dishes with three layers of blotter paper moistened with sterile water. Drain off excess water and place 20 – 25 seeds manually with a forceps. Evenly space the seeds to avoid contact with each other. Incubate the seeds under near ultraviolet light in alternating cycles of 12-h light/darkness for 7 days at 20 + 2°C. Examine the petri dishes under a stereo-binocular microscope for fungi developing on the seeds. Profuse seedling growth may make interpretations difficult. This may be overcome by adding 2,4-D sodium salt to provide a 0.2% moistening solution.
（ 3 ） （ 3 ） Agar plate method This is the most common method used for identification of seed borne fungi. Prepare the medium by mixing Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) powder with appropriate quantity of water. Sterilize the mixture in an autoclave at 121°C for 15 – 20 minutes with 15 lb pressure and cool to about 50°C. Carefully pour the mixture into petri dishes by lifting the lid enough only to pour in the agar to avoid contamination.
Allow it to cool and solidify for 20 min. Surface-disinfect the seed by pre-treating for 1 min in a 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution prepared by diluting 20 parts of laundry bleach (5.25% NaOCl) with 85 parts of water. Place about 10 seeds (depending on size) on the agar surface with a forceps. Incubate the petri dishes at 20 – 25°C for about 5 – 8 days. Identify the seed borne pathogens on the basis of colony and spore characteristics. Sometimes, bacterial colonies develop on the agar and inhibit fungal growth making identification difficult. This can be overcome by adding an antibiotic such as streptomycin to the autoclaved agar medium after it cools to 50 – 55°C.
（ 4 ） （ 4 ） Seed health standard Examine each seed for the presence of pathogens.. If the percentage of seeds infected by one or more of the following fungi is >5%, the seeds are unsuitable for conservation as base collection.
二. 二. Management techniques Management objective The basic management objective in a seed extractory is the attainment of quality seed.Quality is defined as good vigor, high purity percent, and germination percent. The management process to achieve this objective, or any objective, may be separated into five parts: PLANNING, ORGANIZATION, MOTIVATION, CONTROL, AND INNOVATION (Batten 1969). Each part is dependent upon the other. Seed extraction easily fits into these five areas.
Planning By the extraction year a fair estimate of crop size should be available to the manager. With this information it is then possible to plan budgeting data: cost,length of time to accomplish the job, size of crew, equipment needs, and contingencies.These items are the very least required of a good extraction plan.
Organization Organizing the job is where crew deployment takes place. A manager should know the people in the crew and how to best deploy them; i.e., what they are best suited to do.Not all crew members function at the same levels. This is where skillful managers can best organize the utilization of their crew.
Motivation Motivation is a very fragile word. The concept is not that difficult to understand. Webster defines motivate as some inner drive, impulse, intention, et cetera, that causes a person to do something or act in a certain way; incentive, goal.Dwight Eisenhower is quoted as saying "Leadership is the ability to get a person to do what you want him to do when you want it done, in a way you want it done, because he wants to do it." I feel this is the core of seed extraction management.
Control Control can be obtained in a few ways. As a manager you can be in the extractory checking on the crew's work constantly, or you can establish checks at various points in the process. If an accountability system is established, the spot check works rather well.
Innovation In seed extracting this is, and must be, an on-going process. There is no single best method of cleaning seed. Each seedlot is slightly different. The size, weight, and shape of seed differs not only between lots but also within lots.The crew often times can be the best source of new ideas.
MANAGEMENT METHODS AT COEUR D'ALENE The Coeur d'Alene Nursery is as follows: The Nursery has established minimum purity standards for each species which we clean (Table 1). These standards are made known to each crew member before the start of extraction (the standards are re-evaluated each year to reflect the state of the art). In doing this I accomplish two points: The Coeur d'Alene Nursery is as follows: The Nursery has established minimum purity standards for each species which we clean (Table 1). These standards are made known to each crew member before the start of extraction (the standards are re-evaluated each year to reflect the state of the art). In doing this I accomplish two points:
(1) Management objectives are explained to the crew, and (2) A quantitative goal is presented. It is also explained that when each new seedlot is tested for purity and falls below the standard, it will be tagged with yellow flagging and must be recleaned. This, coupled with the fact that as a seedlot is processed from tumblers to scalper to dewinger to fanning mill to pneumatic separator, the operators of each piece of equipment sign off on the lot,instills quite a bit of pride in work as well as a sense of accomplishment. When the system was first instituted on those few lots that needed further processing, crew members took it as a personal affront to receive a yellow flag. That's a nice type of management problem to deal with. (1) Management objectives are explained to the crew, and (2) A quantitative goal is presented. It is also explained that when each new seedlot is tested for purity and falls below the standard, it will be tagged with yellow flagging and must be recleaned. This, coupled with the fact that as a seedlot is processed from tumblers to scalper to dewinger to fanning mill to pneumatic separator, the operators of each piece of equipment sign off on the lot,instills quite a bit of pride in work as well as a sense of accomplishment. When the system was first instituted on those few lots that needed further processing, crew members took it as a personal affront to receive a yellow flag. That's a nice type of management problem to deal with.
How does our crew accomplish the task of cleaning seed to a predetermined purity? The obvious answer is training and communication. This does not mean providing information. Often managers tend to equate information with understanding. This can lead to problems. Managers must communicate for the purpose of obtaining a level of understanding by crew members (Miller and Steinberg 1975). In 1978 the Coeur d'Alene Nursery processed 14M bushels of cones yielding 10M pounds of seed. This was accomplished with a neophyte crew. They had never cleaned seed before.
Each piece of equipment was explained as to its function and how it worked. Crew members were given instructions as to their equipment operations and after a short break in period told to clean seed. On those machines with different screens, starting points were established for each species and crew members were told to experiment for themselves to decide which other screens would work best, again keeping in mind the production goals. This free reign further installed a sense of accomplishment and pride in work.
As notes were compared crew members began to agree with my statement that each seedlot is different regardless of species, and certain standards began to be established as starting points for cleaning. Often times they were not in agreement with my original suggestions. Innovation or new methods to clean seed are often brought out by crew members. I feel it is important that they are given the freedom to try these techniques once they have been discussed with management. A successful process which we use for pitch removal on western larch came about after such a discussion.
It was also necessary to explain to crew members what to look for in seed cleaning, which trash could be removed in certain ways, and to explain that while seed cleaning is not hard work, it does require patience. One must accept each seedlot as a challenge to clean it to a certain standard. At Coeur d'Alene the crew members also participate in both bareroot and container sowing operations and therefore have the opportunity to see the fruits of their labors or past errors as well as an understanding of where they fit in the scheme of things. Monitoring is accomplished with an X-Ray unit at various points in the process. It is done not to criticize the operators of equipment but as an instructional tool to help them accomplish management's goal of high quality seed.
三.HACCP Quality management system HACCP ： Hazard analysis and critical control point Concept: The hazard analysis and critical control point is a guarantee food security preventive technology management system. It uses food technology, microbiology, chemistry and physics, quality control and risk assessment, and other aspects of the theory and method, To the whole food chain real dangers in the risk assessment, and finally find out the quality of the final product may impact on the key point, and take preventive measures to control the harm in before they happen to control, to make the food achieve higher levels of security.
quality management system to make steps : HACCP quality management system to make steps : 1 ）. hazard analysis 2 ）. Determine key control 3 ）. To make sure that each key point of critical value 4 ）. Sure monitoring program 5 ）. Make rectification measures 6 ）. Verification Procedures