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Submitting Samples for Diagnosis. Sample Security Communication: Early contact with diagnostic labs and regulatory officials Delivery details: Where,

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Presentation on theme: "Submitting Samples for Diagnosis. Sample Security Communication: Early contact with diagnostic labs and regulatory officials Delivery details: Where,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Submitting Samples for Diagnosis

2 Sample Security Communication: Early contact with diagnostic labs and regulatory officials Delivery details: Where, How, When Confidentiality Accuracy of source data Chain of custody

3 Sample Quality Diagnosis or identification is only as good as the sample provided. ― Appropriate samples need to be submitted ―Digital images ―Fresh and in good condition ―Rapid delivery may be critical Diagnosis or identification is only as good as the information provided. ―Fill out the clinic form fully

4 Samples Should Contain ALL Plant Parts Photo credit: PowerPoint clipart Foliage diseases Root problems Lesions / Damage on stem?

5 Fraser Fir: Phytophthora root rot Photo credit: Left - Linda Haugen, USDA Forest Service, # ; right - Tom Jordan, Purdue University Corn: Herbicide Injury Submitting Plant Samples Field patterns may provide clues to things like: ―Root disease, nematodes, chemical injury, etc.

6 Submitting Plant Samples Incidence vs. Severity Incidence: Percent of the crop affected Severity: a measure of impact on a plant or the crop Photo credit: Left - Andrej Kunca, National Forest Centre - Slovakia, # ; right - Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series, #

7 Submitting Plant Samples Avoid dead plants Choose plants which show a range of symptoms: moderate to severe Photo credit: Left - Oliver T. Neher, University of Idaho, # ; Right - Ron Jones, North Carolina State University, #

8 Submitting Plant Samples When collecting plant samples: ―Keep samples fresh in a cooler with ice packs ―Have plastic bags, dry paper towels or newspaper, and ties available ―Bring labels and permanent markers

9 Submitting Plant Samples When the plant sample is too big to submit: ―Include digital images of the site and symptoms observed ―Include affected branches with healthy and diseased tissue ―Include feeder roots and soil Photo credit: Karen Rane, University of Maryland Cytospora canker

10 Digital image submission of suspect select agents or exotics ―Can assist with secure identification ―May allow for rapid detection of possible suspect exotic agents Submitting Plant Samples Photo credit: R.Zachmann, APS digital CD, Fundamental Fungi 2002.

11 Submitting Plant Samples Packaging and shipping – Keep soil on roots – Do not add water Photo credit: Left - Gail Ruhl, Purdue University; right - Tom Creswell, Purdue University, #

12 Submitting Plant Samples Packaging and shipping – Place the entire plant in a zippered plastic bag – Add a dry paper towel or newspaper to protect leaves from contact with plastic bag/moisture Photo credit: Tom Creswell, Purdue University, #

13 Submitting Plant Samples Photo credit: Eric LeVeen, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida

14 Photo credit: Stephanie Stocks, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida Submitting Plant Samples Packaging and shipping – Suspect select agents, invasives and exotics should be double bagged – Exterior of the bag should be disinfected – Paperwork gets its own plastic bag

15 Submitting Plant Samples Paperwork information should include: ―Who? ―What? ―When? ―Where? ―How?

16 Submitting Plant Samples Photo credit: Gail Ruhl, Purdue University Packaging and shipping

17 Submitting Plant Samples Good Intentions Actual Results Photo credits: Tom Creswell, North Carolina State University Packaging and shipping

18 Packaging and Shipping Blunders Photo credit: Tom Creswell, North Carolina State University

19 Submitting Insect Samples Digital photos of damage and insect assist with identification Describe the level of infestation on the plant Photo credit: left: Tom Creswell, North Carolina State University, # ; right - William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, #

20 Submitting Insect Samples Killing and preserving insects – Include multiple representatives and as many life stages as possible Photo credit: Beetle - Scott Bauer, USDA Agricultural Research Service, # ; grasshopper - Russ Ottens, University of Georgia, # ; wasp - Russ Ottens, University of Georgia, # ; stink bug nymph - Herb Pilcher, USDA Agricultural Research Service, # ; planthopper - Kevin D. Arvin, # ; containers - Tom Creswell, North Carolina State University

21 Submitting Insect Samples Soft bodies larvae should be placed in boiling water for one minute prior to preservation Do not microwave the specimens! Include example of host plant foliage Photo credit: Fly larva - Sturgis McKeever, Georgia Southern University, # ; Caterpillar - Herbert A. 'Joe' Pase III, Texas Forest Service, # ; Beetle larva - Stephanie Sopow, Natural Resources Canada, #

22 Submitting Insect Samples Scales, mealybugs and immature whiteflies may be submitted on the host Wrap plant material in dry paper towel before placing in bag Double bag the live sample Photo credits: Whiteflies - Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series, # ; Mealybugs - Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, # ; Scales - United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs Archive, USDA Agricultural Research Service, # ; Mites - Frank Peairs, Colorado State University, #

23 Photo credit: Eric LeVeen, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida Submitting Insect Samples Packaging and shipping – Suspect select agents, invasives and exotics should be double bagged – Exterior of the bag should be disinfected – Paperwork gets its own plastic bag

24 Submitting Insect Samples Paperwork information should include: ―Who? ―What? ―When? ―Where? ―How?

25 Piercing/Sucking Boring Leaf mining Skeletonizing Photo credits: Piercing/sucking - Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series, # ; Leaf mining - William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, # ; Boring - James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, # ; Skeletonizing - Bradford Walker, Vermont Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation, # Submitting Insect Samples

26 Photo credit:Top and bottom left - Lyle Buss, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida; Right - : Tom Creswell, North Carolina State University, # Packaging and shipping

27 Submitting Weed Samples Submit fresh samples Collect whole, intact specimens Preserve and package sample properly Exotics? Seal box inside and out, double bag Photo credit: Jeffrey Mullahey, University of Florida, #

28 Submitting Weed Samples Include: flowers, fruits, stems, leaves, roots May preserve samples by pressing and drying in newspaper Photo credit: Florida Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry

29 Submitting Weed Samples Stems Root structures Whole leaves attached to the stem Flowers, fruits, or seeds Photo credit: John D. Byrd, Mississippi State University, # , # , and #

30 Submitting Weed Samples Paperwork information should include: ―Who? ―What? ―When? ―Where? ―How?

31 Summary of Sample Delivery Client Extension Educator Delivery Service Regional Center Diagnostician External Expert(s)

32 Useful Sample Submission Videos Submitting a plant sample Submitting an insect sample in preservative Submitting a soft bodied insect sample Submitting a sample of an insect attached to a plant

33 Questions? Contact – Gail Ruhl, Plant & Pest Diagnostic Lab, ‪ Purdue University, To find your local NPDN lab or for more information on the NPDN – NPDN First Detector Training Website –

34 Author Authors: – T. Creswell, C. Thomas, R. Cullen, L. Buss, A. C. Hodges, C. L. Harmon, K. Wright, and T. Ailshie. December Updated by : – Gail Ruhl, M.S., Department of Plant Pathology, Purdue University – Eric LeVeen, B.S., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida – Stephanie Stocks, M.S., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida

35 Reviewers Richard Hoenisch M.S., WPDN, Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis Rachel L. McCarthy, NEPDN Education and Training Coordinator, Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Cornell University Amy Peterson Dunfee, NCPDN Teaching and Education Coordinator Dept. of Plant Pathology Michigan State University Sharon Dobesh, M.S., Associate Director, GPDN, Kansas State University

36 Publication Details This publication can be used for non-profit, educational use only purposes. Photographers retain copyright to photographs or other images contained in this publication as cited. This material was developed as part of the NPDN First Detector Training Course. Authors and the website should be properly cited. Images or photographs should also be properly cited and credited to the original source. Publication Date: December 2006 Updated January 2013

37 NPDN Partners United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA APHIS PPQ) Local and Regional Integrated Pest Management Programs Cooperative Agriculture Pest Survey Program (CAPS) National Plant board and State Departments of Agriculture Extension Disaster Education Network (EDEN) Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (Bugwood)

38 References Benson, E.P. and C.S. Gorsuch Submitting insect samples for identification. Accessed 5 January, – ral/submitting_insect_samples_for_identification_hs22.html Insect Sample Submissions. Accessed 6 January, – amples_for_identification.pdf Iowa State University Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic Submitting a plant sample. Accessed 6 January, – Jones, S.C., B. Bloetscher, and D. Rogers Submitting insect specimens for identification. Accessed 5 January, –

39 References Palmateer, A.J., C.M. Stiles, P.D. Roberts, R.E. Cullen, H. Dankers, R.J. McGovern, N. Peres, P.F. Harmon, and C.L. Harmon Sample submission guide for plant diagnostic clinics of the Florida plant diagnostic network. Accessed 5 January, – Plant Sample Submissions. Accessed 6 January, – Purdue University Plant and Pest Diagnostic Laboratory Submitting physical specimens for diagnosis. Accessed 6 January, – Ruppert, P.F. and L.J. Buss Insect identification form. Accessed 5 January, –


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