27 “Key recommendations” for food safety The 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines give five “Key Recommendations” for food safety. Source:
28 Key recommendation 1: CLEAN
29 The 10 most common causes of infection
30 Handwashing is the most effective way to stop the spread of illness. 5 handwashing steps to follow...
31 Wet hands with WARM water.
32 Soap and scrub for 20 seconds.
33 Rinse under clean, running water.
34 Dry completely using a clean cloth or paper towel.
35 Turn off water with paper towel.
36 Wash hands after …
37 Handling pets
38 Using the bathroom or changing diapers
39 Sneezing, blowing nose, and coughing
40 Touching a cut or open sore
41 Before AND after eating and handling food
42 CLEAN during food preparation Wash cutting boards, knives, utensils, and countertops in hot soapy water after preparing each food and before going on to the next.
43 Avoid spreading bacteria Use paper towels or clean cloths to wipe up kitchen surfaces or spills. Wash cloths often in the hot cycle of your washing machine and dry in a hot dryer.
44 Dirty dishcloths spread bacteria Wet or damp dishcloths are ideal environments for bacterial growth. Have a good supply of dishcloths to avoid reusing them before laundry day. We like warmth, moisture, and any food particles remaining in a dish cloth!
45 There are more germs in the average kitchen than the bathroom. Sponges and dishcloths are the worst offenders. ~research by Dr. Charles Gerba
46 Key recommendation 2: SEPARATE
47 Use different cutting boards Use one cutting board for raw meat, poultry, and seafood … … and a separate one for fresh produce.
48 Replace cutting boards if they become excessively worn or develop hard-to-clean grooves. When groovy isn’t a good thing
49 Use clean plates NEVER serve foods on a plate that previously held raw meat, poultry, or seafood unless the plate has first been washed in hot, soapy water.
50 Key recommendation 3: COOK
51 Cook chicken and turkey (both whole birds and poultry parts, such as wings, breasts, legs, and thighs, etc.) to 165°F.
52 Cook pork, egg dishes, hamburger, and ground meats to 160°F. Cook ground poultry to 165°F.
53 Cook beef, lamb, and veal steaks and roasts to 160°F for medium doneness (145°F for medium rare).
54 Reheat leftovers until a temperature of 165°F is reached throughout the food.
55 Scrambled, poached, fried, and hard-cooked eggs are safe when cooked so both yolks and whites are firm, not runny. Image source: National Cancer Institute/Renee Comet (photographer)
57 Which ground beef patty is cooked to a safe internal temperature?
58 This IS a safely cooked hamburger (internal temperature of 160ºF) even though pink inside. This is NOT a safely cooked hamburger. Though brown inside, it is undercooked.
59 1 out of 4 hamburgers turns brown before it has been cooked to a safe internal temperature.
60 Research shows some ground beef patties look done at internal temperatures as low as 135ºF. A temperature of 160ºF is needed to destroy E. coli.
61 Types of food thermometers digital instant-read dial oven-safe oven probe with cord disposable temperature indicators thermometer fork combination dial instant-read
62 DIGITAL instant-read Reads in 10 seconds Place at least 1/2 inch deep (or as directed by manufacturer) Gives fast reading Can measure temperature in thin and thick foods Not designed to remain in food during cooking Check internal temperature of food near the end of cooking time Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions Available in “kitchen” stores Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
63 DIAL instant-read Reads in seconds Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of food Can be used in roasts, casseroles, and soups Temperature is averaged along probe, from tip to 2-3 inches up the stem Cannot measure thin foods unless inserted sideways Not designed to remain in food while it is cooking Use to check the internal temperature of a food at the end of cooking time Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions Readily available in stores Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
64 Dial oven-safe Reads in 1-2 minutes Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of food Can be used in roasts, casseroles, and soups Not appropriate for thin foods Can remain in food while it's cooking Heat conduction of metal stem can cause false high reading Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
65 Can be used in most foods Can also be used outside the oven Designed to remain in the food while it is cooking in oven or in covered pot Base unit sits on stovetop or counter Cannot be calibrated Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service Oven probe with cord
66 Disposable temperature indicators (Single-use) Reads in seconds Place approximately ½ inch deep (follow manufacturer's directions) Designed to be used only once Designed for specific temperature ranges Should only be used with food for which they are intended Temperature-sensitive material changes color when the desired temperature is reached Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
67 Thermometer-fork combination Reads in 2-10 seconds Place at least ¼ inch deep in thickest part of food Can be used in most foods Not designed to remain in food while it is cooking Sensor in tine of fork must be fully inserted Check internal temperature of food near end of cooking time Cannot be calibrated Convenient for grilling Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
68 How to use a food thermometer 1.Wash thermometer with hot soapy water before and after use. 2.Use before the food is expected to be “done.” 3.Place in the thickest part of the food, not touching bone, fat, or gristle. 4.Compare reading to USDA recommended safe minimum internal temperatures.
69 Dial thermometers & thin foods On an “instant-read” dial thermometer, the probe must be inserted in the side of the food so the entire sensing area (usually 2-3 inches) is positioned through the center of the food.
70 Digital thermometers & thin foods When possible, use a digital thermometer to measure the temperature of a thin food. The sensing area is only ½- to 1-inch long and easier to place in the center of the food.
71 Digital and dial thermometers in thin foods Digital thermometerDial thermometer Photo courtesy of the Nebraska Beef Council
72 Key recommendation 4: CHILL
73 Refrigerate perishable foods within two hours at a refrigerator temperature of 40°F or lower. The TWO-hour rule Perishable foods include...
74 What foods are “perishable” and spoil more readily? Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, tofu Image source: National Cancer Institute
75 Cooked rice, pasta, and vegetables Rice photo source: National Cancer Institute/ Renee Comet (photographer) Pasta photo source: National Cancer Institute/ Daniel Sone (photographer)
76 Fresh, peeled, and/or cut fruits and vegetables Fruit photo source: National Cancer Institute/ Renee Comet (photographer)
77 Dairy products
78 On a hot day (90°F or higher), food should not sit out for more than one hour.
79 Bacteria multiply rapidly between 40°F and 140°F
80 Though food may be safe after cooking, it may not be safe later. Just one bacteria in the food can double in 20 minutes!
81 How many bacteria will grow from one bacteria left at room temperature for 7 hours?
83 Cool food in shallow containers
84 How to be cool – part 1 Using a shallow container, limit depth of food to two inches or less. Place very hot foods on a rack at room temperature for about 20 minutes before refrigeration.
85 How to be cool – part 2 Leave container cover slightly cracked until the food has cooled. It’s OK to refrigerate foods while they’re still warm.
86 Recommended refrigerator & freezer temperatures Set refrigerator at 40°F or below. Set freezer at 0°F.
87 Monitor refrigerator and freezer temperatures Place thermometer in an easy-to-read location. Check temperature regularly – at least weekly.
88 The THAW LAW Plan ahead to defrost foods. The best way to thaw perishable foods is in the refrigerator.
89 When to leave your leftovers Refrigerated leftovers may become unsafe within 3 to 4 days. If in doubt, toss it out!
90 Time to toss … “If it walks out, let it go!” ~ seen on a refrigerator magnet
91 Key Recommendation 5: AVOID... Raw (unpasteurized) milk or milk products Raw or partially cooked eggs and foods containing raw eggs Raw and undercooked meat and poultry Unpasteurized juices Raw sprouts Raw (unpasteurized) milk or milk products Raw or partially cooked eggs and foods containing raw eggs Raw and undercooked meat and poultry Unpasteurized juices Raw sprouts Most at risk are infants, young children, pregnant women, older adults, and the immunocompromised.
93 The 2005 MyPyramid gives specific food safety recommendations for each food group. Food safety recommendations for MyPyramid food groups
94 Fruits & Vegetables
95 5 steps for cleaning fruits & veggies...
96 1. Remove and discard outer leaves.
97 2. Rinse under clean, running water just before preparing or eating. Don’t use soap or detergent as it can get into produce and make you sick.
98 Wash fruits with peels, such as melons and citrus fruits. Even if peel is removed, bacteria can transfer from the outside to the inside.
99 3. Rub briskly — scrubbing with a clean brush or hands — to clean the surface.
Dry with a clean cloth or paper towel. Moisture left on fruits and vegetables helps bacteria grow. Dry them if you won’t eat or cook them right away.
Cut away bruised and damaged areas.
102 Cover and refrigerate cut/peeled fruits and vegetables. TOSS cut/peeled fresh produce if left at room temperature longer than TWO hours.
103 Separate fruits & vegetables from other foods Keep fruits and vegetables separate from raw meat, poultry and seafood while shopping, preparing, or storing them.
104 Read labels Read labels on bagged produce to determine if it is ready-to-eat. Ready-to-eat, prewashed, bagged produce can be used without further washing if kept refrigerated and used by the “use-by” date.
105 Dairy Products
106 Dairy do’s and don’ts Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or milk products such as some soft cheeses. Refrigerate dairy foods promptly. Discard dairy foods left at room temperature for more than two hours – even if they look and smell good. Do NOT drink milk directly from the carton.
107 Meat & Beans
108 Avoid washing raw meat & poultry Do NOT wash raw meat and poultry. Washing is not necessary. Washing increases the danger of cross-contamination, spreading bacteria present on the surface of meat and poultry to ready-to-eat foods, kitchen utensils, and counter surfaces.
109 Refrigerator storage Store raw meat, poultry and seafood on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator so juices don’t drip onto other foods.
110 Signs of safely cooked seafood..
111 Fin fish Slip point of sharp knife into flesh; pull aside. Edges should be opaque, the center slightly translucent with flakes beginning to separate. Let stand 3 to 4 minutes to finish cooking. Source: United States Food & Drug Administration
112 Shrimp, lobster & crab Turn red and flesh becomes pearly opaque. Source: United States Food & Drug Administration
113 Scallops Turn milky white or opaque and firm. Source: United States Food & Drug Administration
114 Clams, mussels & oysters Watch for their shells opening to know they’re done. Toss those that stay closed. Source: United States Food & Drug Administration
115 Mercury and fish These groups should avoid some types of fish and eat types lower in mercury: Pregnant women and those who may become pregnant Nursing mothers Young children
116 EPA and FDA advice for vulnerable groups Don’t eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, or tilefish. Eat up to 12 ounces (2 average meals) weekly of a variety of fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury. 5 most commonly eaten fish low in mercury are shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, pollock, catfish. Albacore (“white”) tuna has more mercury than canned light tuna. Limit intake to 6 ounces (one average meal) per week. Check local advisories about safety of fish caught locally. If no advice is available, eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) weekly of fish caught from local waters, but don't consume any other fish that week. Follow these same recommendations when feeding fish and shellfish to your young child, but serve smaller portions.
117 Listeriosis, deli meats, and frankfurters Pregnant women, older adults, and the immunocompromised should only eat deli meats and frankfurters that have been reheated to steaming hot to avoid the risk of listeriosis.
118 A final reminder....
119 When in doubt... TOSS IT OUT!!!
120 Resources used: Alabama Cooperative Extension System. The Food Spoilers: Bacteria and Viruses. (Accessed June 15, 2010). CDC. Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States. (Accessed June 21, 2010). USDA. “Is it done yet?” (Accessed June 21, 2010).http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/IsItDoneYet_Magnet.pdf USDA. MyPyramid. (Accessed July 15, 2010)http://www.mypyramid.gov USDA. Safe Food Handling – How Temperatures Affect Food. (Accessed June 15, 2010). USDA. Thermometers are Key. (Accessed June 21, 2010).http://origin- USDA. Why Does USDA Recommend Using a Food Thermometer? (Accessed June 21, 2010). U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services. Dieteary Guidelines for Americans, (Accessed July 15, 2010) U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Bad Bug Book: Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook – Onset, Duration, and Symptoms of Foodborne Illness. Toxins/BadBugBook/ucm htm (Accessed June 15, 2010). Toxins/BadBugBook/ucm htm U.S. Food and Drug Administration. What You Need to Know about Mercury in Fish and Shellfish. (Accessed July 15, 2010) Source of images: Microsoft Image and Media Library, USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Image Library, National Cancer Institute Image library, original graphics created by UNL Lancaster County Extension Office, original photos by Alice Henneman.
121 Thank you to the following people for reviewing this slide set... Julie Albrecht, Ph.D, R.D. Cindy Brison, M.S., R.D. Zainab Rida, M.S., R.D. David Palm, Ph.D., public health official Amy Stalp, Dietetic Student Vicki Jedlicka, Extension Media Assistant
122 Extension is a Division of the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln cooperating with the Counties and the United States Department of Agriculture. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension educational programs abide with the nondiscrimination policies of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln and the United States Department of Agriculture.