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**Scientific Process for 5th Grade**

The Nature of Science Scientific Process for 5th Grade

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**Investigations Leading Students Through Scientific Inquiry**

Rubber Band Shoot Glubber Formula Paper Towel Test Swinging Bears Grow Toys Loop Plane Ideas for investigations taken from 2004 AIMS Education Foundation

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**Rubber Band Shoot Key Question: In this investigation you will:**

If you stretch a rubber band, how far will it fly? In this investigation you will: relate the potential energy of a stretched rubber band to its kinetic energy by measuring the distance it flies. create a line graph of data to display and interpret the results. Key Vocabulary: Mechanical Energy: The energy an object has because of its position or motion. The two types of mechanical energy are potential and kinetic. Potential Energy: The energy an object has because of its position. Kinetic Energy: The energy an object has because of its motion.

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**Rubber Band Shoot Hypothesis: Materials: Procedure:**

I think that if I….. then…. Materials: centimeter ruler, rubber band, paper pencil Procedure: Measure the length of the rubber band with all the slack pulled out of it. This is “L”. Stretch your rubber band on a ruler by 10 mm (L+10 mm) and release it. Measure the distance it traveled in cm, record the data. Repeat the process, each time stretching the rubber band by 10 mm more. Use a table to collect data.

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**Rubber Band Shoot 10 20 30 40 50 Results: Total Stretch (mm)**

Using excel, create a data chart to organize your data The sample table below will help you get started. Using chart wizard, create a bar graph or a line graph to display your data. Print your table and graph. Use it to answer the questions on the next slide. Total Stretch (mm) 10 20 30 40 50 Total Distance (mm)

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Rubber Band Shoot For which rubber band stretch did it travel the furthest? How far did it travel? Did all groups get similar results? How do you know? What do you know about the relationship between the stretch length and the distance the rubber band travels? What are some variables that might affect the distance the rubber band travels? Answer these questions in your science journal.

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**Glubber Formula Key Question: In this investigation you will:**

What is the best formula to use to make Glubber? In this investigation you will: compare and contrast properties of matter. recommend a product formula based on experimental data. Key Vocabulary: Chemical Change: The interaction with substances combine to form a new substance. Precipitate: A new solid that forms when two liquids are mixed together. Polymer: A polymer is a chemical compound formed from long chains of the same molecule group, repeating over and over. Graduate: to separate equally (graduated cylinder)

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**Glubber Formulas Materials:**

Prepare three different formulas of Glubber, using water, glue and a saturated Borax solution - one liter of water add powdered borax while stirring until no more will dissolve in the water. Inexpensive containers, zip lock baggies, graduated cylinders, paper cups marked with following lines 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml to use as a graduated measuring cups, plastic spoons to stir mixtures. Once formulas are mixed, put each one in a separate baggie and mark the baggies A, B, or C depending upon the formula used. Allow free exploration with each formula. Write observations down in your science journals. FORMULA A 20 ml glue 20 ml water 40 ml of borax solution FORMULA B 30 ml glue 10 ml water FORMULA C 40 ml glue 0 ml water

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**Glubber Formula Problem:**

Which formula is best for a new product. Conduct the tests to find out. Bounce Test Drop each Glubber from a height of 100 cm. How high does the Glubber bounce? Sequence the formulas from highest bounce (1) to lowest (3). Shape Test Roll Glubber into a ball. Does it retain its shape? Sequence the formulas from best shape retention (1) to least shape retention (3). Imprint Test Use large paper clips to make an imprint in the Glubber. How long does the imprint last? Sequence Glubber from longest (1) to shortest (3). Stretch Test Roll the Glubber into a 20 cm rope. Pull the rope until it snaps. How long was each rope. Sequence formulas from longest rope (1) to shortest rope (3). Print Transfer Test Draw three simple marker designs on white paper. Press Glubber on the designs. Which formula transferred the design the best. Sequence formulas from best (1) to poorest (3). Record Create a data chart in excel to record your findings. Use your results to answer questions on slide 11 in your science journal.

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**Glubber Formula A B C Average Bounce Test Shape Test Imprint Test**

Stretch Test Transfer Test Create a chart in excel similar to the one pictured above. Once you have collected the data, create a graph to help you decide upon the best formula. Remember the smallest number/shortest bar is the best formula.

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Glubber Formula 1. What evidence do you have that a chemical reaction has taken place when you mixed the glue and borax solutions? 2. How did your group decide upon the best formula? 3. Why is it important to base product decisions on experimental data? 4. The Glubber you made is a polymeric solid. It is made up of long chains of molecules wrapped around each other. What evidence did you observe while mixing the two solutions that chains were forming? Answer these questions in your science journal.

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Glubber Summary Use a file folder. On the left hand side, give a written summary on which formula you recommend based on the results of the experiments. Ad On the right side of the folder, design an ad to sell your product. Use the properties of the Glubber as a selling feature.

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**Paper Towel Tests Key Questions: In this investigation you will:**

Which brand of paper towels absorb more water? Which brand of wet paper towels is the strongest? Is the brand that is the most absorbent the strongest? In this investigation you will: follow the scientific method to check which brand of paper towels absorb the most water follow the scientific method to check which brand of paper towels, when wet, is the strongest. recommend a product based upon experimental data. Key Vocabulary: Control: a neutral "reference point" for comparison that allows you to see what changing a variable does by comparing it to not changing anything. Variables are things that affect the system you want to investigate.

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**Paper Towel Tests Hypothesis: Materials:**

I think that … is the strongest wet paper towel. I think that … retains the most water. Materials: 4 different brands of paper towels A jar of pennies, washers, or cubes (they must all be the same) Bowl of water Teaspoon Group members to hold the towel Record sheet and pencil Clear plastic cups Graduated cylinders marked in milliliters In research laboratories, papermakers test the paper they make for physical properties such as strength, absorbency, stretch, tear resistance, and stiffness. They also test for optical properties such as transparency, brightness, color and gloss.

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**( The highest amount of coins gets the lowest rating.)**

Paper Towel Tests Testing Wet Strength (the amount of weight that a wet paper towel can support) Procedure: First design a sheet in excel to record your data. Brand Name Results (Number of coins) Rating (1,2,3,4)…1 is most coins) Brand A Brand B Brand C Brand D ( The highest amount of coins gets the lowest rating.)

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Paper Towel Tests Record the four brands of paper towels on your sheet. Tear or cut equal pieces from each brand. Your four sheets must be exactly the same size. Be sure to measure each sheet and trim off excess. Ask team members to hold the Brand A paper towel at each of the four corners over a container. Pour 5 teaspoons of water onto the middle of the paper towel. One by one, carefully place the coins onto the wet area of the paper towel. Record how many coins the paper towel will hold before tearing. Repeat with the other three brands. Record your results. Rate the four brands of paper towels according to the number of coins they held. The brand holding the most number of coins receives a rating of 1.

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**Paper Towel Tests Brand A Brand B Brand C Brand D**

Testing absorbency (the amount of liquid a paper towel retains) Procedure: First, design an excel sheet to record your data. Brand Name Results (ml of water retained) Rating (1,2,3,4)…1 most water Brand A Brand B Brand C Brand D

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Paper Towel Tests Cut equal pieces from each brand. Your four sheets must be exactly the same size. Measure the sheets and trim. Put 30 ml of water into 4 clear plastic cups labeled A,B,C,D Soak each piece of towel into the plastic cup matching its letter. Squeeze the water out of Brand A into another plastic cup. Pour this water into a graduated cylinder to measure. Subtract this measurement from 30 ml to get the amount of water retained by the towel. Repeat this procedure for each brand, record your data and rate the towel 1,2,3,4 – 1 being the towel that retained the most water.

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**Paper Towel Tests Results:**

Present the results in chart and graph form. Using your results create a commercial to sell your brand of paper towels.

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**Swinging Bears Key Question: In this investigation you will:**

How many cycles will your bear pendulum make in 30 seconds? In this investigation you will: Investigate the variables that affect a pendulums’ swing Display data on a real graph Make a line graph of the data Draw conclusions from the data Key Vocabulary: Period is the time it takes to make one complete in, out cycle. Frequency is the number of in, out cycles in a minute Pendulum is a body that swings back and forth from a fixed point.

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**Swinging Bears Hypothesis: Materials:**

I think that the bear attached to the …. String will have the highest frequency in 30 seconds. Materials: Number line from 1-50 clock with a second hand push pins, bear counters, strings for bears cut ahead of time to random lengths between 10 cm and 70 cm Students should work in groups of three or four.

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**Excel document to record data.**

Swinging Bears Procedure: Give each group two strings, two bears and tape. Students make a pendulum by taping the bear to one end of the string and tying a knot in the other end. Each group must count how many cycles (one complete out and back swing) their pendulum makes in 30 seconds. (The pendulum bobs should be started from about a 45 degree angle with the top of the pendulum (the knot) being held steady. After students finish counting the number of cycles; poke the pushpins through the knot, and hang the pendulums under the appropriate numbers on the number line. Students examine class graph to predict how many cycles their second pendulums will make in 30 seconds. After predictions have been made students should count the cycles of their second pendulum and hang the second pendulum on the graph. Excel document to record data.

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**Swinging Bears Connected Learning:**

What generalizations about pendulums can you make? 2. What patterns do you see in the class graph? 3. How did the graph help you in making your prediction for the second pendulum? 4. How long would you need to make a pendulum to give you ten cycles in 30 seconds? How could you find out? The weight at the bottom of a grandfather clock’s pendulum can be moved up and down. It the clock is running slow, what way should the weight be moved? Why? Answer these questions in your science journal.

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**Grow Toys Key Question: In this investigation you will: Background:**

Grow toy manufacturers advertise that toys grow seven times or 700%. How can you determine if the advertising is honest? In this investigation you will: Compare growth over time with measures of length, area, mass and volume found using a variety of methods. Check the validity of claims using the scientific process. Background: Grow toys are made of a material that expands as it absorbs water and shrinks as the water evaporates. Manufacturers of these toys often make misleading claims such as the toy will grow 700% or to seven times its original size. Most of us assume that the dimension being described is length. So we look for a toy to be seven times longer then the original length. In this investigation you will use the scientific process to see if the growth claims on these toys are valid.

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**Grow Toys Materials: Before you begin: Grow Toys Rulers**

250 mL graduated cylinders Balance and masses Plastic containers Paper towels Before you begin: Purchase the grow toys at a novelty supply store. Grow a toy prior to doing the activity so that you have an ideas of how often, how long and what graduated cylinder the measurements will be made. Students need to be in groups of 3 or 4. Volume must be measured by displacement. Students will need instruction in this calculation.

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Grow Toys Procedure: Have students read the advertisement on the capsules. Students list measurements the manufacturers might be talking about in their claims (length, width, height, area, volume, and weight/mass.) 3. Distribute a grow toy to each group. Use the following procedure: *Place the toy on a centimeter grid and trace the outline. *Use the tracing and a ruler to measure length of toy. *Estimate and record the toy’s area by counting square covered. *Place toy on a balance to measure its mass. *Measure and record the toy’ volume by using displacement method. Place toy in plastic tub filled with purified water. At regular intervals (three to six hours) over several days have students follow measurement procedures. Record in an excel document.

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Grow Toys Results: After all measurement have been recorded, and the toys have stopped growing, students can make a bar graph of each dimension’s change. Students can calculate how many times each dimension has increased by dividing the final measurement by the original measurement. Return to the advertisement on the package of Grow Toys. Respond in your journal about the manufacturers claims and whether these claims are misleading. Use data from your table to support your writing.

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**Loop Plane Key Question: In this investigation you will:**

How far will your loop plane fly? In this investigation you will: Make measurements of how far a paper loop plane flies and record these on a bar graph. Decide how to alter the plane in order to make it fly “better”. Draw conclusions as to what factors make for better flights. Key Vocabulary: Lift created by the airfoil is what allows the aircraft to fly. Thrust is the force which opposes drag, for the aircraft to move forward, thrust must be greater than drag. Gravity is the force that pulls the aircraft, and everything else, towards the earth. In order to fly, the force of lift has to exceed the force of gravity. Drag is the force which opposes the forward motion of the aircraft.

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**Loop Plane Materials: Procedure:**

Straws, loop pattern, transparent tape, measuring tape Procedure: First build a plane using a drinking straw and two loops of paper. (Loops made from 2 paper strips measuring ½ inch by 4½ inches, and ½ inch by 6½ inches. Working in pairs, one person launches a plane while the other marks the distance it flew. Measure each test flight from the rear loop to the starting line. Do five tests flights for each plane measuring in both centimeters and meters. Create an excel document to record your data. Finally create a flight distance graph.

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**Loop Plane Recording Data: Use the following chart as an example:**

Flight Number Distance Flown (centimeters) (meters) Changes made to plane 1 2 3 4 5 Total Average

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**Loop Plane Record your best flight on the class data chart…**

Plane’s Name Distance Flown (centimeters) (meters

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**Loop Plane Connecting Learning:**

Answer these questions in your science journal. What was your longest flight? How long was it? Who had the longest flight in the class? What made this plane go the furthest? Where is the center of gravity of your loop plane? How did you find out? What modifications did you make while you were testing your plane? Why? Make a class graph showing the maximum flight distance for each student’s plane. Using excel, find the mean , median and mode of the distances measured. Use the recorded measurements to work with scientific notation.

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