2 Staphylococcus aureus Common bacteria that is the cause of most boils and soft-tissue infections.25 to 30% of our population are colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. Humans are its natural habitat.The staph bacteria is often found in the nose and on the skin of peopleThe bacteria are present on our bodies but do not cause illness in most cases.Susceptibility to infection depends on many factors such as your immunity level and general state of health.Reason to make sure you are getting enough sleep and eating properly.
3 Notorious Staph Aureus Prior to the early 20th century, infections caused by S. aureus were fatal more than 80% of the time.With the introduction of antibiotics (1940), the mortality rate was reduced by more than half and now ranges from 20% to 40%.
4 Birth of MRSA Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Methicillin was a derivative of penicillin used to treat S. Aureus in 1958Widespread resistance to antibiotics developed slowly over 30 years, and but in the 1990s those resistance rates accelerated. By 2002, over 57% of S. aureus infections were methicillin-resistant (up from 29% in 1991).
5 Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Antibiotic-resistant bacteria REASON FOR RESISTANCEWidespread use of antibioticsNot taking all of the prescribed antibioticsAntibiotics in food andwaterGerm mutation
6 PREVENT ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT INFECTION Never ask for or take an antibiotic for a viral infection such as cold, cough, or fluUse antibiotics only when your doctor prescribes themTake antibiotics as directed and take all of them, even though you may begin to feel better before you finish all the pillsNever take left over antibiotics or use a prescription that was prescribed for someone else
7 Birth of CA-MRSAOriginally, MRSA was confined to hospitals and long-term care facilitiesIn 1999, MRSA infections began showing up in otherwise healthy people who had never been near a hospital. It was named Community Acquired - MRSA
8 CA-MRSAThis new strain carries an aggressive toxin called Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) that increases the bacteria’s ability to infect skin in otherwise healthy young people.
9 The nation first became aware of CA-MRSA in 1999 when a Centers for Disease Control (CDC) publication described the deaths of four children that died of MRSA. All deaths were attributed to a new lethal strain of MRSA that had recently emerged in the community (CA-MRSA).Since the summer of 2002, outbreaks have been reported among athletes
10 How deadly is MRSA?The estimated number of people developing a serious MRSA infection in 2005 was about 94,360. Approximately 18,650 persons died during a hospital stay related to these serious MRSA infections. About 14% of all the infections were CA-MRSA.
11 HOW IS MRSA SPREAD? Person-to-person by direct contact Dirty linens Environmental surfaces (lives up to 53 days)Airborne spread is RARE
12 Watch Out!On January 20, 2006, Dallas County Department of Health and Human Services issued a warning about MRSA infections picked up in contaminated whirlpool footbaths at some area nail salons.
13 INCUBATION PERIODUsually an infection develops within 4 – 10 days after exposurePeriod of communicability or infectious period is present as long as draining lesions are present
14 It’s not a spider bite wound! Skin infections are frequently misdiagnosed as brown recluse spider bites since the infections seem to appear spontaneously, often without a known break in the skin.
22 COMPLICATIONSHospitalizationSurgeryAmputationLoss of life
23 PREVENTION & CONTROL Always wash your hands thoroughly after Hand washing is the single most important behavior in preventing the spread of communicable diseases.Always wash your hands thoroughly after- blowing your nose- using the toilet- before eating or preparing food
24 HAND WASHING PROCEDURE Use warm waterWet hands and wristsUse liquid soap providedWork soap into a lather and wash between fingers and under fingernails for at least 15 secondsDry, using a clean paper towelUse hand sanitizers when hand washing facilities are not available
25 SHOWERShower with soap and water as soon as possible after direct contact sportsUse liquid antibacterial soap provided. Do not share bars of soapDry using a clean, dry towelDo not share towels, even on the sidelines at a gameDo not leave wet towels lying around
26 OTHER PRECAUTIONS Keep your hands away from your nose or groin Use a moisturizing lotion to prevent dry, cracked skinWash hands frequently, especially before and after changing bandagesKeep fingernails short and clean
27 DIRTY UNIFORMS & LINENS Place dirty laundry and uniforms in container marked “DIRTY”Do not leave dirty laundry and equipment on the floorSanitize your gym bag if you take dirty laundry home in it.
29 LESIONSReport all open lesions to athletic trainer or school nurse ASAPKeep all lesions and wounds covered with a bandage at all times.Airing out of wounds only increases chances of infectionFormed scabs hinder the growth of new skin and are haven for bacteriaTake off bandage only to clean wound and apply fresh bandageDispose of soiled bandages in wastebasket
30 CONTAMINATIONAthlete comes off the field and is in the locker room or in the showerHe/she takes the bandage off and throws it on the groundSomeone in bare feet steps on the bandage.Contamination happens that easily
31 MAINTAINING A SAFE AND HEALTHLY ATHLETIC ENVIRONMENT IS EVERYONE’S RESPONSIBILITY CoachesAthletesAthletic TrainersNursesCustodiansParents
32 BE SAFE and BE HEALTHY Wash hands Do not share personal items Cover any open woundsReport any unusual woundsMaintain good health