Presentation on theme: "Staphylococcus aureus Common bacteria that is the cause of most boils and soft- tissue infections. 25 to 30% of our population are colonized with Staphylococcus."— Presentation transcript:
Staphylococcus aureus Common bacteria that is the cause of most boils and soft- tissue infections. 25 to 30% of our population are colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. Humans are its natural habitat. –The staph bacteria is often found in the nose and on the skin of people The bacteria are present on our bodies but do not cause illness in most cases. Susceptibility to infection depends on many factors such as your immunity level and general state of health. –Reason to make sure you are getting enough sleep and eating properly.
Notorious Staph Aureus Prior to the early 20 th century, infections caused by S. aureus were fatal more than 80% of the time. With the introduction of antibiotics (1940), the mortality rate was reduced by more than half and now ranges from 20% to 40%.
Birth of MRSA Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) –Methicillin was a derivative of penicillin used to treat S. Aureus in 1958 Widespread resistance to antibiotics developed slowly over 30 years, and but in the 1990s those resistance rates accelerated. By 2002, over 57% of S. aureus infections were methicillin-resistant (up from 29% in 1991).
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Antibiotic-resistant bacteria REASON FOR RESISTANCE Widespread use of antibiotics Not taking all of the prescribed antibiotics Antibiotics in food and water Germ mutation
PREVENT ANTIBIOTIC- RESISTANT INFECTION Never ask for or take an antibiotic for a viral infection such as cold, cough, or flu Use antibiotics only when your doctor prescribes them Take antibiotics as directed and take all of them, even though you may begin to feel better before you finish all the pills Never take left over antibiotics or use a prescription that was prescribed for someone else
Birth of CA-MRSA Originally, MRSA was confined to hospitals and long-term care facilities In 1999, MRSA infections began showing up in otherwise healthy people who had never been near a hospital. It was named Community Acquired - MRSA
CA-MRSA This new strain carries an aggressive toxin called Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) that increases the bacteria’s ability to infect skin in otherwise healthy young people.
The nation first became aware of CA-MRSA in 1999 when a Centers for Disease Control (CDC) publication described the deaths of four children that died of MRSA. All deaths were attributed to a new lethal strain of MRSA that had recently emerged in the community (CA-MRSA). Since the summer of 2002, outbreaks have been reported among athletes
How deadly is MRSA? The estimated number of people developing a serious MRSA infection in 2005 was about 94,360. Approximately 18,650 persons died during a hospital stay related to these serious MRSA infections. About 14% of all the infections were CA- MRSA.
HOW IS MRSA SPREAD? Person-to-person by direct contact Dirty linens Environmental surfaces (lives up to 53 days) Airborne spread is RARE
Watch Out! On January 20, 2006, Dallas County Department of Health and Human Services issued a warning about MRSA infections picked up in contaminated whirlpool footbaths at some area nail salons.
INCUBATION PERIOD Usually an infection develops within 4 – 10 days after exposure Period of communicability or infectious period is present as long as draining lesions are present
It’s not a spider bite wound! Skin infections are frequently misdiagnosed as brown recluse spider bites since the infections seem to appear spontaneously, often without a known break in the skin.
COMPLICATIONS Hospitalization Surgery Amputation Loss of life
PREVENTION & CONTROL Hand washing is the single most important behavior in preventing the spread of communicable diseases. Always wash your hands thoroughly after - blowing your nose - using the toilet - before eating or preparing food
HAND WASHING PROCEDURE Use warm water Wet hands and wrists Use liquid soap provided Work soap into a lather and wash between fingers and under fingernails for at least 15 seconds Dry, using a clean paper towel Use hand sanitizers when hand washing facilities are not available
SHOWER Shower with soap and water as soon as possible after direct contact sports Use liquid antibacterial soap provided. Do not share bars of soap Dry using a clean, dry towel Do not share towels, even on the sidelines at a game Do not leave wet towels lying around
OTHER PRECAUTIONS Keep your hands away from your nose or groin Use a moisturizing lotion to prevent dry, cracked skin Wash hands frequently, especially before and after changing bandages Keep fingernails short and clean
DIRTY UNIFORMS & LINENS Place dirty laundry and uniforms in container marked “DIRTY” Do not leave dirty laundry and equipment on the floor Sanitize your gym bag if you take dirty laundry home in it.
LESIONS Report all open lesions to athletic trainer or school nurse ASAP Keep all lesions and wounds covered with a bandage at all times. –Airing out of wounds only increases chances of infection –Formed scabs hinder the growth of new skin and are haven for bacteria –Take off bandage only to clean wound and apply fresh bandage Dispose of soiled bandages in wastebasket
CONTAMINATION Athlete comes off the field and is in the locker room or in the shower He/she takes the bandage off and throws it on the ground Someone in bare feet steps on the bandage. Contamination happens that easily
MAINTAINING A SAFE AND HEALTHLY ATHLETIC ENVIRONMENT IS EVERYONE’S RESPONSIBILITY Coaches Athletes Athletic Trainers Nurses Custodians Parents
BE SAFE and BE HEALTHY Wash hands Do not share personal items Cover any open wounds Report any unusual wounds Maintain good health