Decision Making and Relevant Information

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Decision Making and Relevant Information
Chapter 11

Use the five-step decision process to make decisions.
Learning Objective 1 Use the five-step decision process to make decisions.

Information and the Decision Process
A decision model is a formal method for making a choice, often involving quantitative and qualitative analysis.

Five-Step Decision Process
Historical Costs Other Information Step 1. Gather Information Step 2. Make Predictions Specific Predictions Feedback Step 3. Choose an Alternative Step 4. Implement the Decision Step 5. Evaluate Performance

Differentiate relevant
Learning Objective 2 Differentiate relevant from irrelevant costs and revenues in decision situations.

The Meaning of Relevance
Relevant costs and relevant revenues are expected future costs and revenues that differ among alternative courses of action. Historical costs Sunk costs Differential income Differential costs

Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative factors in decisions.
Learning Objective 3 Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative factors in decisions.

Quantitative and Qualitative Relevant Information
Quantitative factors Financial Nonfinancial Qualitative factors

One-Time-Only Special Order Example
The Bismark Co. manufacturing plant has a production capacity of 44,000 towels each month. Current monthly production is 30,000 towels. Costs can be classified as either variable or fixed with respect to units of output.

One-Time-Only Special Order Example
Variable Fixed Costs Costs Per Unit Per Unit Direct materials \$6.50 \$ -0- Direct labor Manufacturing costs Total \$8.50 \$5.00

One-Time-Only Special Order Example
Total fixed direct manufacturing labor is \$45,000. Total fixed overhead is \$105,000. Marketing costs per unit are \$7 (\$5 of which is variable). What is the full cost per towel?

One-Time-Only Special Order Example
Variable (\$ \$5.00): \$13.50 Fixed: Total \$20.50 A hotel in San Juan has offered to buy 5,000 towels from Bismark Co. at \$11.50/towel for a total of \$57,500. No marketing costs will be incurred.

One-Time-Only Special Order Example
What are the relevant costs of making the towels ? \$8.50 × 5,000 = \$42,500 incremental costs What are the incremental revenues ? \$57,500 – \$42,500 = \$15,000

Beware of two potential relevant-cost analysis.
Learning Objective 4 Beware of two potential problems in relevant-cost analysis.

Two Potential Problems in Relevant-Cost Analysis
1 2 Incorrect general assumptions: Misleading unit-cost data: All variable costs are relevant. Include irrelevant costs. All fixed costs are irrelevant. Use same unit costs at different output levels.

Outsourcing versus Insourcing
Outsourcing is purchasing goods and services from outside vendors. Insourcing is producing goods or providing services within the organization.

Bismark Co. also manufactures bath accessories. Management is considering producing a part it needs (#2) or buying a part produced by Towson Co. for \$0.55.

Bismark Co. has the following costs for 150,000 units of Part #2: Direct materials \$ 28,000 Direct labor ,500 Mixed overhead ,000 Variable overhead ,000 Fixed overhead ,000 Total \$120,500

Mixed overhead consists of material handling and setup costs. Bismark Co. produces the 150,000 units in 100 batches of 1,500 units each. Total material handling and setup costs equal fixed costs of \$9,000 plus variable costs of \$200 per batch.

What is the cost per unit for Part #2? \$120,500 ÷ 150,000 units = \$0.8033/unit Should Bismark Co. manufacture the part or buy it from Towson Co.?

Bismark Co. anticipates that next year the 150,000 units of Part #2 expected to be sold will be manufactured in 150 batches of 1,000 units each.

Variable costs per batch are expected to decrease to \$100. Bismark Co. plans to continue to produce 150,000 next year at the same variable manufacturing costs per unit as this year. Fixed costs are expected to remain the same as this year.

What is the variable manufacturing cost per unit? Direct material \$28,000 Direct labor ,500 Variable overhead ,000 Total \$61,500 \$61,500 ÷ 150,000 = \$0.41 per unit

Expected relevant cost to make Part #2: Manufacturing \$61,500 Material handling and setups ,000* Total relevant cost to make \$76,500 *150 × \$100 = \$15,000 Cost to buy: (150,000 × \$0.55) \$82,500 Bismark Co. will save \$6,000 by making the part.

Now assume that the \$9,000 in fixed clerical salaries to support material handling and setup will not be incurred if Part #2 is purchased from Towson Co.. Should Bismark Co. buy the part or make the part?

Relevant cost to make: Variable \$76,500 Fixed ,000 Total \$85,500 Cost to buy: \$82,500 Bismark would save \$3,000 by buying the part.

Explain the opportunity-cost used in decision making.
Learning Objective 5 Explain the opportunity-cost concept and why it is used in decision making.

Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints
Assume that if Bismark buys the part from Towson, it can use the facilities previously used to manufacture Part #2 to produce Part #3 for Krysta Company. The expected additional future operating income is \$18,000. What should Bismark Co. do?

Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints
Bismark Co. has three options regarding Krysta: 1. Make Part #2 and do not make Part #3. 2. Buy Part #2 and do not make Part #3. 3. Buy the part and use the facilities to produce Part #3.

Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints
Expected cost of obtaining 150,000 parts: Buy Part #2 and do not make Part #3: \$82,500 Buy Part #2 and make Part #3: \$82,500 – \$18,000 = \$64,500 Make Part #2: \$76,500

Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints
Opportunity cost is the contribution to income that is forgone (rejected) by not using a limited resource in its next-best alternative use.

Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints
Assume that annual estimated Part #2 requirements for next year is 150,000. Cost per purchase order is \$40. Cost per unit when each purchase is 1,500 units = \$0.55. Cost per unit when each purchase is equal to or greater than 150,000 = \$0.54.

Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints
Average investment in inventory is either: (1,500 × .55) ÷ 2 = \$ or (150,000 × \$0.54) = \$40,500 Annual interest rate for investment in government bonds is 6%. \$ × .06 = \$24.75 \$40,500 × .06 = \$2,430

Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints
Option A: Make 100 purchases of 1,500 units: Purchase order costs: (100 × \$40) \$ 4,000.00 Purchase costs: (150,000 × \$0.55) \$82,500.00 Annual interest income: \$ Relevant costs: \$86,524.75

Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints
Option B: Make 1 purchase of 150,000 units: Purchase order costs: (1 × \$40) \$ Purchase costs: (150,000 × \$0.54) \$81,000 Annual interest income: \$ 2,430 Relevant costs: \$83,470

Know how to choose which products to produce when there
Learning Objective 6 Know how to choose which products to produce when there are capacity constraints.

Product-Mix Decisions Under Capacity Constraints
Per unit Product #2 Product #3 Sales price \$ \$14.50 Variable expenses Contribution margin \$ \$ 0.60 Contribution margin ratio % % Bismark Co. has 3,000 machine-hours available.

Product-Mix Decisions Under Capacity Constraints
One unit of Prod. #2 requires 7 machine-hours. One unit of Prod. #3 requires 2 machine-hours. What is the contribution of each product per machine-hour? Product #2: \$1.70 ÷ 7 = \$0.24 Product #3: \$0.60 ÷ 2 = \$0.30

adding or discontinuing customers and segments.
Learning Objective 7 Discuss what managers must consider when adding or discontinuing customers and segments.

Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs
Mountain View Furniture supplies furniture to two local retailers – Stevens and Cohen. The company has a monthly capacity of 3,000 machine-hours. Fixed costs are allocated on the basis of revenues.

Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs
Stevens Cohen Revenues \$200,000 \$100,000 Variable costs , ,000 Fixed costs , ,000 Total operating costs \$170,000 \$110,000 Operating income \$ 30,000 \$(10,000) Machine-hours required , ,000

Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs
Total Revenues \$300,000 Variable costs ,000 Fixed costs ,000 Total operating costs \$280,000 Operating income \$ 20,000 Machine-hours required ,000

Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs
Should Mountain View Furniture drop the Cohen business, assuming that dropping Cohen would decrease its total fixed costs by 10%? New fixed costs would be: \$150,000 – \$15,000 = \$135,000

Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs
Stevens Alone Revenues \$200,000 Variable costs ,000 Fixed costs ,000 Total operating costs \$205,000 Operating income \$ (5,000) Machine-hours required ,000

Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs
Cohen’s business is providing a contribution margin of \$40,000. \$40,000 decrease in contribution margin – \$15,000 decrease in fixed costs = \$25,000 decrease in operating income.

Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs
Assume that if Mountain View Furniture drops Cohen’s business it can lease the excess capacity to the Perez Corporation for \$70,000. Fixed costs would not decrease. Should Mountain View Furniture lease to Perez?

Explain why the book value of equipment is irrelevant in
Learning Objective 8 Explain why the book value of equipment is irrelevant in equipment-replacement decisions.

Equipment-Replacement Decisions Example
Existing Replacement Machine Machine Original cost \$80,000 \$105,000 Useful life years years Accumulated depreciation \$50,000 Book value \$30,000 Disposal price \$14,000 Annual costs \$46,000 \$ 10,000

Equipment-Replacement Decisions Example
Ignoring the time value of money and income taxes, should the company replace the existing machine? The cost savings over a 4-year period will be \$36,000 × 4 = \$144,000. Investment = \$105,000 – \$14,000 = \$91,000 \$144,000 – \$91,000 = \$53,000 advantage of the replacement machine.

Explain how conflicts can arise between the decision model
Learning Objective 9 Explain how conflicts can arise between the decision model used by a manager and the performance evaluation model used to evaluate the manager.

Decisions and Performance Evaluation
What is the journal entry to sell the existing machine? Cash ,000 Accumulated Depreciation 50,000 Loss on Disposal 16,000 Machine ,000

Decisions and Performance Evaluation
In the real world would the manager replace the machine? An important factor in replacement decisions is the manager’s perceptions of whether the decision model is consistent with how the manager’s performance is judged.

Decisions and Performance Evaluation
Top management faces a challenge – that is, making sure that the performance-evaluation model of subordinate managers is consistent with the decision model.

End of Chapter 11