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I. Introduction Protein Synthesis A. A. History. a. A. Fourcroy – recognized protein as a class of biological molecules b. J. Mulder – Identified proteins.

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Presentation on theme: "I. Introduction Protein Synthesis A. A. History. a. A. Fourcroy – recognized protein as a class of biological molecules b. J. Mulder – Identified proteins."— Presentation transcript:

1 I. Introduction Protein Synthesis A. A. History

2 a. A. Fourcroy – recognized protein as a class of biological molecules b. J. Mulder – Identified proteins as all having the same formula c. F. F. Sanger – sequenced insulin d. T. T. Svedberg – proposed that proteins had conformation e. Armour Hot Dog Co. – purified pure bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A 1. Protein Structure

3 a. J. von Liebig – started physiological chemistry b. E. Buchner – started Bio-chemistry c. W. W. Rontgen – discovered value of x-rays, led to X-ray crystallography d. L. L. Pauling – discovered H-bonding in protein e. G. G. Beadle & E. Tatum – relationship of gene to protein 2. From Gene to Protein

4 B. B. The Code

5 1. Central Dogma a. DNA  RNA  Protein (Product) Figure 17.3

6 2. Triplet Code Figure 17.4

7 3. Code Dictionary Figure 17.5 a. Special Codes

8 II. Transcription A. A. Definition B. B. Process

9 1. Overview Figure 17.7

10 1. Overview & Players Figure 17.7

11 2. Initiation == transcription factors, attach, unwind, & orient RNA polymerase Figure Figure 17.8

12 3. Elongation == RNA polymerase reads and lays down bases

13 4. Termination == factors recognize and release the RNA polymerase

14 5. Modification == pre-mRNA to mRNA Figure 17.10

15 5. Modification == pre-mRNA to mRNA Figure 17.11

16 5. Modification == pre-mRNA to mRNA Figure 17.12

17 III. Translation A. A. Definition B. B. Process

18 1. Overview & Players Figure 17.13

19 Figure tRNA

20 Figure 17.15

21 Figure rRNA & mRNA

22 2. Initiation Figure 17.17

23 3. Elongation Figure 17.18

24 Figure 17.5

25 4. Termination Figure Figure 17.20

26 5. Modification Figure 17.21

27 IV. Gene Expression A. A. Strategies B. B. Organelles

28 What/Which organelle(s) are involved in building proteins which are to be used by the cell? Ribosomes! What/Which organelle(s) are involved in building proteins which are to be put into vacuoles for shipping or retention? Ribosomes, rER, and Golgi! 1. Intracellular 2. Extracellular

29 VI. Mutations A. A. Definition B. B. Point

30 1. Base Pair Substitutions Figure 17.23

31 2. Frame Shift Figure 17.25

32 Meaning comes with effort.


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