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HONORS BIOLOGY SEMESTER I EXAM REVIEW B 2012. CHAPTER 4 CELLS.

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Presentation on theme: "HONORS BIOLOGY SEMESTER I EXAM REVIEW B 2012. CHAPTER 4 CELLS."— Presentation transcript:

1 HONORS BIOLOGY SEMESTER I EXAM REVIEW B 2012

2 CHAPTER 4 CELLS

3 #1 Who first devised the microscope? Pasteur Leeuwenhoek Hooke Virchow ANSWER: Leeuwenhoek

4 #2 Who first coined the word “cells?” Pasteur Leeuwenhoek Hooke Virchow ANSWER: Hooke

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7 How big is one cell’s length? A. 1 mm B. 0.5 mm C. 2 mm D mm ANSWER: 0.5 mm

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9 When you first find an object on a slide with the microscope, Where do you put the stage? All the way up to the objective Which objective do you use first? Lowest 4X

10 #5 What is the total magnification? If the eyepiece is 10X and the objective is 40X? A. 40X B. 50X C.400X ANSWER: C

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12 #7 What is the high field diameter if the low field diameter is 4000 µm, the low magnification is 40X, and the high magnification is 400X? A µm B. 400 µm C. 160 µm ANSWER: b

13 #8 How do you make a wet mount? Object on slide Drop of water Cover slip Tap out air bubbles

14 #9 What happens to the surface to area ratio… As the cell gets larger. A. it increase B. decreases C. stays the same ANSWER: B

15 #10 How do prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ in where their DNA is found? ANSWER: prokaryotes-found in nucleoid Eukaryotes-found in nucleus

16 #10 Which are usually bigger cells: prokaryotes or eukaryotes? ANSWER: eukaryotes

17 #10 What structures are common to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes? ANSWER: cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA, cell membrane

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19 #12 What is the difference between unicellular and multicellular organisms? ANSWER: unicellular are made of only one cell Multicellular are made of two or more cells

20 #13 How is chromatin related to DNA? ANSWER: chromatin is loose DNA + protein

21 #14 Where is the nucleolus and where is it found? ANSWER: Inside the nucleus, it makes ribosomes Does it have a membrane around it? ANSWER: No

22 #15 Ribosomes: Where found: Free in cytoplasm and bound to RER Relative size: Smallest organelle Job: Assemble proteins

23 #16 What are the 2 kinds of ER and their functions: ANSWER: SER: synthesise lipids, detoxify drugs and alcohol, store Ca ions RER: assemble proteins, make membrane proteins

24 #17 What does the Golgi receive from the RER? Proteins How does this material get to the Golgi? Vesicles What does the Golgi do to this material? Repackages and modifies it

25 #18 Lysosomes contain what material to do their job? Hydrolytic enzymes What is their job? Breakdown broken cell parts and digest food

26 #19 Water vacuole have what function? ANSWER: Store water, minerals (CELL SAP) Why are water vacuoles so large in plants? ANSWER: To maintain turgidity

27 #20 What structures can be found in animal cells but not in plant cells? A. centrioles and cilia B. chloroplasts and flagella C. capsule and cell wall D. cell wall and chloroplasts ANSWER: A

28 #20 What structures can be found in plant cells but not in animal cells? A. centrioles and cilia B. chloroplasts and flagella C. capsule and cell wall D. cell wall and chloroplasts ANSWER: D

29 #21 What do eukaryotic cells have that prokaryotic cells do not? A. plasma membrane B. nucleus C. cell wall D. flagellum ANSWER: B

30 #21 In which cells would you find these organelles? A. mitochondrion B. ribosomes Plant and animal All cells (plant, animal and prokaryote)

31 #22 How are microtubules and microfilaments different? Microtubules are thicker, used to make cilia, flagella, centrioles Microfilaments are thinner, used to make actin (in muscles)

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33 #22 What is the difference between a centrosome and a centriole? Centrosomes are the MTOC (microtubule organizing center) Centrioles are microtubules used in cell division

34 #22 What is the purpose of the intermediate filaments? ANSWER: To connect the microtubules and microfilaments. For cell support.

35 #23 Going out of the prokaryotic cell from the cytoplasm, what is the correct order of layers? ANSWER: Plasma membrane – cell wall - capsule

36 #24 What two organelles make up the endosymbiont theory? ANSWER: Mitochondrion and chloroplast

37 How about this one: What is the job of centrioles? A. protect the cell B. cell movement C. cell division D. DNA C. cell division

38 #25 Trace the path of protein from the template of DNA to mRNA through the nuclear envelope, ribosomes to the RER, vesicles carrying proteins to the Golgi, and secreted out of the cell. (Oh, I already did!)

39 #26 What is the ECM? ANSWER: Extracellular matrix What is it made of? ANSWER: Glycoproteins, mostly collagen

40 #26 What do the integrins connect? ANSWER: They are proteins in the plasma membrane that span the membrane connecting the ECM outside the cell and the microfilaments inside the cell.

41 #27 Match the cell junctions: A. gap 1. make a seal B. tight 2. act as rivets, sheets C. anchoring 3. communicating

42 #27 Match the cell junctions: A. gap 1. make a seal B. tight 2. act as rivets, sheets C. anchoring 3. communicating

43 MATCH A. cellulose B. lignin C. pectin D. plasmodesmata 1. channels between plant cells 2. rigid molecules in the secondary wall 3. sticky glue polysaccharide to hold cells together 4. polysaccharide of glucose in plant cell walls

44 MATCH A. cellulose B. lignin C. pectin D. plasmodesmata 4. polysaccharide of glucose in plant cell walls 2. rigid molecules in the secondary wall 3. sticky glue polysaccharide to hold cells together 1. channels between plant cells

45 What is the general term for… Microtubules and microfilaments? A. cytoskeleton B. plasma membrane C. flagella and cilia D. lysosomes ANSWER: A

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48 Name the Organelles

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50 Which is the plant cell?

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52 Which organelle? 1. Stores food or water 2. Modifies proteins 3. Called the “clean- up” crew 4. Is the site of the genetic material 5. Is the “powerhouse” 1. VACUOLE 2. GOLGI APPARATUS 3. LYSOSOME 4. NUCLEUS 5. MITOCHONDRION

53 Which organelle? 1. Is the site of photosynthesis? 2. Is the support framework? 3. Controls what goes in and out of the cell? 4. Carries materials from the ER to the Golgi. 1. chloroplast 2. cytoskeleton 3. plasma membrane 4. Vesicle

54 In which cells would you find these organelles? A. mitochondrion B. ribosomes Plant and animal All cells (plant, animal and prokaryote)

55 In what type of cells would you find cell walls? A. plant B. animal C. bacteria ANSWER: A and C

56 Which organelle is the chloroplast and which is the mitochondrion? (answer next slide)

57 Which organelle is the chloroplast and which is the mitochondrion?

58 Which organelle? 1. Stores food or water 2. Modifies proteins 3. Called the “clean- up” crew 4. Is the site of the genetic material 5. Is the “powerhouse” 1. VACUOLE 2. GOLGI APPARATUS 3. LYSOSOME 4. NUCLEUS 5. MITOCHONDRION

59 Which organelle? 1. Is the site of photosynthesis? 2. Is the support framework? 3. Controls what goes in and out of the cell? 4. Carries materials from the ER to the Golgi. 1. chloroplast 2. cytoskeleton 3. plasma membrane 4. Vesicle

60 CHAPTER 5 THE WORKING CELL

61 #1Fluid Mosaic Model Why would the cell membrane also be known as the “Fluid Mosaic Model?” ANSWER:Parts of the membrane shift back and forth There are parts (protein channels and carbohydrate chains) embedded in it.

62 #2 Where are the peripheral and the integral proteins in the plasma membrane? ANSWER: Peripheral proteins are on the outside edge. The Intergral proteins span the whole membrane.

63 #2 How are pumps different than other transport proteins? Answer: pumps need ATP for active transport Needed to pump molecules “against the gradient”

64 #3 How would a glycoprotein and a glycolipid appear differently? ANSWER: The glycoprotein is a carbohydrate chain attached to a protein, the glycolipid is a carbohydrate chain attached to the fatty acids (lipids) in the cell membrane.

65 #4 What is selective permeability? ANSWER: The cell membrane can allow some materials to pass through and others not. What can pass through? ANSWER: Small nonpolar molecules (oxygen, carbon dioxide)

66 #4 What kind of materials have trouble passing through the plasma membrane? ANSWER: Hydrophobic molecules, large molecules, ions

67 #5 How is osmosis different than diffusion? Osmosis is the diffusion of WATER through a SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE membrane from high free water concentration to low free water concentration.

68 #6 What is an aquaporin? ANSWER: An aquaporin is a facilitated protein to allow water to move more quickly through the plasma membrane.

69 #7-8 Identify Isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic

70 hypotonic isotonic hypertonic

71 #9 Is facilitated diffusion active or passive? ANSWER: Passive How is it different from just diffusion? ANSWER: A helper protein is used.

72 O=osmosis D=diffusion N=neither B=both Hi to lo concentration Through a selectively permeable membrane Flow of water Flow of gases Down the gradient Against the gradient Both O O D B N

73 #10 How is active transport different from passive transport? ANSWER: Active transport uses ATP to move molecules against the gradient

74 #11 Matching: CHOICES 1. engulfing small pockets of liquid 2. material leaving the cell 3. engulfing large particles 4. general term form engulfing particles into the cell Endocytosis Pinocytosis Exocytosis Phagocytosis

75 #11 Matching: ANSWERS 1. engulfing small pockets of liquid 2. material leaving the cell 3. engulfing large particles 4. general term form engulfing particles into the cell Pinocytosis Exocytosis Phagocytosis Endocytosis

76 #12 What does ATP stand for? ANSWER: adenosine tri phosphate How is it used as cell batteries? A phosphate is added to store energy or a phosphate is removed to give off energy.

77 #13 Where is energy stored in molecules? ANSWER: In the bonds What part of ATP is usually lost of gained to release or store energy? ANSWER: The last phosphate

78 #14 Contrast kinetic and potential energy. ANSWER: kinetic energy is moving, doing work Potential energy is stored energy Large molecule –lots of bonds-lots of PE Break the bonds – release E - KE

79 #15 Contrast the Laws of Thermodynamics First: ANSWER: energy cannot be created nor destroyed, energy is conserved Second: ANSWER: energy conversions increase the entropy (disorder) of the universe

80 #16 What happens in endergonic and exergonic reactions? ANSWER: In endergonic reactions energy is absorbed from the environment In exergonic reactions energy is given off to the environment.

81 #16 What is energy coupling? ANSWER: The energy given off from exergonic reactions is taken in to endergonic reactions.

82 #17 How is metabolism different from cellular respiration? ANSWER: Metabolism =sum of all of an organism’s chemical reactions Cellular respiration=the mitochondrion uses oxygen to break down food to produce ATP

83 #18 How does the activation energy change if an enzyme is used? ANSWER: lowers it

84 #19 How do these affect enzymes? Temperature -optimum in the body is around 37 o C 9 (otherwise bonds get broken) pH or acids or bases -H+ and OH- ions attract functional groups

85 #20 What does a competitive inhibitor do to an enzyme? A noncompetitive inhibitor? ANSWER:

86 #20 How is feedback inhibition affecting an enzyme?

87 #21 Examples of coenzymes: Answer: Vitamins (Vit. E, folic acid, niacin) Examples of cofactors: ANSWER: Metallic ions (Zn, Fe, Cu)


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