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The Basic Unit of Life copyright cmassengale1 Introduction to Cells Cells are the basic units of organisms Cells can only be observed under microscope.

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Presentation on theme: "The Basic Unit of Life copyright cmassengale1 Introduction to Cells Cells are the basic units of organisms Cells can only be observed under microscope."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Basic Unit of Life copyright cmassengale1

3 Introduction to Cells Cells are the basic units of organisms Cells can only be observed under microscope Basic types of cells : 2 Animal Cell Plant Cell Bacterial Cell

4 Number of Cells copyright cmassengale 3 Organisms may be: Unicellular – composed of one cell Multicellular- composed of many cells that may organize

5 copyright cmassengale4 Cells May be Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic  Prokaryotes include bacteria which lack of nucleus or membrane-bound structures called organelles.  Eukaryotes include most other cells & have a nucleus and membrane- bound organelles (plants, fungi, protist & animals)

6 Prokaryotes copyright cmassengale5 Nucleoid region contains the DNA Cell membrane & cell wall Contain ribosomes (no membrane) to make proteins in their cytoplasm

7 Eukaryotic Cell Contain 3 basic cell structures: Nucleus Cell Membrane Cytoplasm with organelles copyright cmassengale6

8 Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells copyright cmassengale7 Plant Cell Animal Cell

9 Cell Organelles Very small size Can only be observed under a microscope Have specific functions Found throughout cytoplasm copyright cmassengale8

10 Organelles Found in Cells Examples of Organelles include: copyright cmassengale9 Endoplasmic reticulum (rough & smooth) – canals for movement Golgi Bodies – wrap & export proteins Nucleolus – makes ribosomes Lysosomes – digests & gets rid of wastes Ribosomes – makes proteins

11 copyright cmassengale10 Cell Organelles

12 Golgi Bodies Stacks of flattened sacs Stacks of flattened sacs Have a shipping side & a receiving side Have a shipping side & a receiving side Receive & modify proteins made by ER Receive & modify proteins made by ER Transport vesicles with modified proteins pinch off the ends Transport vesicles with modified proteins pinch off the ends copyright cmassengale11 Transport vesicle

13 copyright cmassengale12 Ribosome The ribosome is a large and complex molecular machine, found within all living cells. They serves as the primary site of biological protein synthesis. Ribosomes are the cell’s protein factories. Ribosome

14 Lysosome Contain digestive enzymes Contain digestive enzymes Break down food and worn out cell parts for cells Break down food and worn out cell parts for cells Programmed for cell death (lyse & release enzymes to break down & recycle cell parts) Programmed for cell death (lyse & release enzymes to break down & recycle cell parts) copyright cmassengale13

15 Nucleolus Cell may have 1 to 3 nucleoli Cell may have 1 to 3 nucleoli Inside nucleus Inside nucleus Disappears when cell divides Disappears when cell divides Makes ribosomes Makes ribosomes that make proteins that make proteins copyright cmassengale14

16 Endoplasmic Reticulum copyright cmassengale 15 SER Smooth SER lacks ribosomes process lipids and carbohydrates in the cell RER EXPORT Rough RER has ribosomes on its surface & makes proteins to EXPORT Transport materials through the cell Known as the highway of the cell.

17 Cell Powerhouse 16 Rod shape Site of Cellular respiration Mitochondrion ( mitochondria )

18 In Animal Cells 17 Active cells like muscles have more mitochondria Burn sugars to produce energy ATP Mitochondria

19 Surrounding the Cell copyright cmassengale18 Lies immediately against the cell wall in plant cells Made of protein and phospholipids Selectively permeable Cell membrane

20 Cell or Plasma Membrane copyright cmassengale19 Living layer Controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell Selectively permeable Cell membrane

21 Cytoplasm of a Cell copyright cmassengale20 Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane Provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place Cytoplasm

22 More on Cytoplasm copyright cmassengale21 Contains organelles to carry out specific jobs. Examples: chloroplast & mitochondrion. Cytoplasm

23 Control Organelle copyright cmassengale22 Controls the normal activities of the cell Contain the DNA Bounded by a nuclear membrane Contains chromosomes Nucleus

24 More on the Nucleus copyright cmassengale23 Each cell has fixed number of chromosomes that carry genes Genes control cell characteristics Nucleus

25 Plant Cell Organelles copyright cmassengale24 Contain the green pigment chlorophyll Traps sunlight to make to make sugars (food) Process called photosynthesis Chloroplast

26 Plant Cell copyright cmassengale25 Dead layer Large empty spaces present between cellulose fibers Freely permeable Cell wall

27 Plant Cell Made of cellulose which forms very thin fibers Strong and rigid Found in plant cells copyright cmassengale26 Cell wall

28 Plant Cell copyright cmassengale27 Protect and support the enclosed substances (protoplasm) Resist entry of excess water into the cell Give shape to the cell Cell wall

29 Vacuole copyright cmassengale28 Plants Have a large central vacuole Animals have a very small or none. Surrounded by tonoplast Contains cell sap Sugars, proteins, minerals, wastes, & pigments Vacuole

30 Cytoskeleton copyright cmassengale29 Maintains the shape of the animal cell. Maintains the 3 dimensional shape. Helps the cell moves Cytoskeleton is made out of 2 parts: Microtubules Microfilaments

31 copyright cmassengale30

32 Different kinds of plant cells copyright cmassengale31 Onion Epidermal Cells Root Hair Cell root hair Guard Cells

33 Animal Cell Organelles Near the nucleus Paired structures Help cell divide copyright cmassengale32

34 Animal Cell copyright cmassengale33 mitochondrion nucleus glycogen granule cell membrane cytoplasm No cell wall or chloroplast Stores glycogen in the cytoplasm for food energy vacuole

35 Different Kinds of Animal Cells copyright cmassengale34 white blood cell red blood cell cheek cells sperm nerve cell muscle cell Amoeba Paramecium

36 Similarities between plant cells and animal cells Both have a cell membrane surrounding the cytoplasm copyright cmassengale35 Both have a nucleus Both contain mitochondria

37 Differences between plant cells and animal cells copyright cmassengale36 Animal cellsPlant cells Relatively smaller in size Irregular shape No cell wall Relatively larger in size Regular shape Cell wall present

38 Differences between Plant Cells and Animal Cells 37 Animal cellsPlant cells Vacuole small or absent Glycogen as food storage Nucleus at the center Large central vacuole Starch as food storage Nucleus near cell wall

39 Any Questions copyright cmassengale38

40 Compound Microscope Instrument for observing small objects Magnify images up to 2000X their size copyright cmassengale39

41 Different parts of a microscope copyright cmassengale40

42 41 Eyepiece Fine adjustment Arm Stage Condenser control knob Base Body tube Coarse adjustment Iris diaphragm Revolving nosepiece Objective Clip Condenser Mirror

43 Basic Unit of Life Cell is the smallest unit of living organisms Unicellular organisms are made of one cell only The cells of multicellular organisms are specialized to perform different functions – e.g. mesophyll cells for photosynthesis and root hair cells for water absorption copyright cmassengale42

44 Levels of organization Cells are grouped together and work as a whole to perform special functions copyright cmassengale43

45 Tissue A group of similar cells to perform a particular function – Animals : epithelial tissue, muscular tissue – Plants : vascular tissue, mesophyll copyright cmassengale44

46 Organ Different tissues group together to carry out specialized functions – Heart : consists of muscles, nervous tissue and blood vessels – Leaf : consists of epidermis, mesophyll and vascular tissue copyright cmassengale45

47 The Structures of a Leaf (Plant Organ) copyright cmassengale46 Stoma Air Space Spongy Mesophyll Cell Chloroplast Palisade Mesophyll Cell

48 The Structures of a Heart (Animal Organ) 47

49 System Several organs and tissues work together to carry out a particular set of functions in a co-ordinated way – Human : digestive, respiratory, excretory, circulatory and reproductive systems – Plant : root and shoot systems copyright cmassengale48

50 Any Questions copyright cmassengale49

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