Cells are made of parts, called organelles, that each do their own job for the cell.
The nucleus is the largest organelle that stores the chromatin (genetic material + protein) and controls all the cell’s activities.
The cell membrane is like a security guard. No one gets in or out of the cell without its permission and it is “selective” about what it lets in and out.
Selectively Permeable is picky…it selects the items that are allowed to go through the cell membrane and stops the items that are not allowed.
Osmosis is a water specific process. Osmosis is the movement of water across the membrane.
Diffusion is when a liquid moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. This helps move nutrients within the body.
The cell wall is found only in plant cells, is non-living, and supports and protects the cell.
The mitochondria are considered the powerhouse of the cell because they break down food (glucose) and release energy! This is known as cellular respiration.
The vacuole is a temporary storage area in the cell that holds water, food, and waste.
Vacuoles are small and numerous in animal cells but there is only one really big one in plant cells.
Cytoplasm is the “stuff” that supports all the organelles and allows them to get their jobs done so the cell can continue living. It is vital to the cell and is mostly made of water.
Chloroplasts are naturally GREEN and make all the food for plants only. This food is in the form of a sugar called glucose.
Think of the chloroplasts as the food makers or providers and the mitochondria as the energy releasers or food “breakerdowners”
The endoplasmic reticulum is like a super small and intricate highway system in the cell because it moves things around.
Often referred to as ER…it can be smooth (without ribosomes) or rough (with ribosomes).
The Golgi body or Golgi apparatus is often compared to a post office. This is because materials made by the cell (i.e. proteins, lipids, etc.) are packaged, labeled, and shipped off to other areas of the cell from here.
Lysosomes are like the custodians of the cell. They will seek out and destroy any and all waste inside the cell.
The nucleolus hides out inside the nucleus with the chromatin and manufacture all the ribosomes. It does NOT contain the DNA.
Without the ribosomes, no cell would be able to make any proteins. Ribosomes translate the genetic codes to make proteins. Of course, the nucleus tells the ribosomes which ones to make…but they are very important nonetheless.
Proteins are vital to every living thing and are actually responsible for how an organism looks, behaves, performs their life processes, etc. The code for making proteins is housed in the DNA of every cell and basically tells that cell what kind of cell to be.
How are plant and animal cells alike? How are they different?
LOTS OF SMALL VACUOLES IRREGULAR SHAPE CHLOROPLASTS IN GREEN CELLS ONE LARGE VACUOLE CELL WALL RECTANGULAR SHAPE NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM CELL MEMBRANE MITOCHONDRIA VACUOLES